Выдаю-щийся американский ученый и администра-тор науки д-р Ванневар Буш (Vannevar Bush) в своей книге Science — The Endless Frontier («Предел науки — бесконечность»


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Pushᬜinoᬜ
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Ἦ„⸠ḝᰛᨬ’⸠u⸠Ἐ᜝egᰚᠬ—⸠n⸠Ἔᔝ᠓ᬚᠬ’⸠n⸠ሑᔓဝᰚ
༎ഘDcጋᔌ᨜ ᜘ጋᔝᰉᰠᘈᄚᬗᔑDᬌo
ܝ᠌ᬗᄈؖᜉ, 2014
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DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0000
ꤠThomson Reuters, 2014
ISBN 978-5-7996-1352-5
ISBN 978-5-7996-1352-5
OB2 001.1
莃2 72
 85
OB2 001.1
莃2 72
f 85
Нпуыэы
PoLᴠu࠘DhabciR̠ushci
noacTDR࠘„acsgoTKLhi࠘‟oLseghio
rጋto’ogRጋciTo‟hgᴘacio
naoKᄄᄗ’aoKᄄᄗhiRC‒Rgavshi
Ртенчуыэ
PoLᴠu࠘DhabciR̠ushci
Схинцо ыошызчх
9cLtcN₅chLtᄛiRC₄a4goLci
PRvMฏKDbฏ
 ᰠ࠘eshwcDLRR㨠RTKRsoDhL造LokiRDRဠ࠘esᄠᄠDcSThahtR : [whThtLo(Rv] /
P⺆u⸠ushciⰠn⺆u⸠PoLseghioⰠr⺆n⸠PhgsoacioⰠn⺆n⸠dRgavsh ; [VhK⺆LcK⺆P⺆u⺆ushcio]⺆阠lsoDc
LRTEeL\t : kK-iᰠOLoa⸠eT-Do, 2014. – 25〠g.
ᤕDᘁRDcabTᰛ―ahih
3KGR࠘₅oL(RaKᠠ
Preface to the Russian Readers,
by Dr. Eugene Gar8eld
rఠoiDhLhᨠ
Preface
rؠoiDhLo脠
About Authors
n.
⸠PoLseghio⸠nicKcTRc.
芆50-acDR耠Science Citation Index:
gDhLRဠᄠLokiRDRᬠ࠘eshwcDLRᄠ
V. Markusova. Introduction.
anniversary of the Science Citation Index:
History and Evolution of Scientometrics
1. P.
⸠ushci⸠yoeso, \fcSThahtRဠᄠhEUcgDih
1. M. Akoev. Science, Technology and Society
1.1⸠dLhmcgᔠhmcTRioTRဠ
1.1. Research Evaluation Process
1.2⸠1cacVhጘtoTRᬠ
ᨠ࠘eCThРVLhmcggᬠ
56
1.2. Goal-setting in Research and
Development Management
56
1.3.’zKcavcwzc‗cgeLgz
1.3. Allocation of Resources
1.4⸠rghEcTThgDᄠo࠘aRkᠠ
sh጑CcgDicࠈzS \roࠈzS
1.4. Quantitative
Data Analysis
1.5⸠5oKcLGsᄠᄠoLDc(osD造࠘eCThtᰠ
R \fcSThaᰉRCcgsᰉh L᲍cggᰚ
1.5. Research and Development
Outputs and Data Lags
2⸠n.
⸠dRgavshi⸠.REaRhwcDLRCcgsRᬠ
RTKRsoDhL造ᨠLcgeLgo脠Thomson Reuters
2. V.
islyakov. Bibliometric Indicators in the
Thomson Reuters Information Resources
2.1.₃REaᄜwcDᜑиgᴑc
RTgDLewcTDz⸠.okᠠKoTTz脠Web
of Science Core Collection
ᄠo࠘aRDRCcgsRᬠ࠘KgDLhNsᄠ
2.1. Bibliometric Instruments.
Web of Science Core
Collection and Analytical Tools
2.2.‏TKᄝoDhLz‚጑vDcጋThgDR
gDoDcN (ᄄVosD-ᄈKᄝoDhLz)
2.2. Article
Impact Indicators
2.3.‏TKᄝoDhLz“DThgRDcጋThN
i጑vDcጋThgDR―DoDcN (hDThgRDcጋ࢐c,
ThLwo጑khioࠈzc‑ЁosD-ᄈKᄝoDhLz)
2.3. Relative Article
Impact Indicators
2.4⸠MTKRsoDhL造«/sgDLcИabThN묠
mRDR᜖cwhgDR
2.4.ₓExtreme”
Citation Indicators
2.5.₫nkicIcࠈzc»‑TKᄝoDhLz.
9hEgDicࠈ适₭osDhL (Eigenfactor)
ᆆRTKcsᔠiaRvTRဠgDoDbᄠ(Article InAuence)
100
2.5⸠“Weighted” Indicators.
Eigenfactor and Article
InAuence Scores
100
2.6⸠MTKcsᔠХRL缘
h-index)
R)«SᄗI-VhജE࢐c» hᴘkoDc጑
102
2.6. Hirsch index (h-index) and
Hirsch-type indicators
102
2.7.‒ᰝokoDcaR₁LᰈhጜtRCcgsᰉh
᜘gVLcKcጛTRv―gzahs
106
2.7. Chronological Distribution
of References
106
萔BlfЖuyMl
CONTENTS
3⸠r.
�⸠Phgsoacio⸠yoeCTzᬠVeEaRsomRᄠ
ᴘs―LcകDih”hЄeࠑᴘmᄑ,‘To጑ko
ᆆhmcTsᄠ࠘eCThȠKcvDcabThgDᄠ
110
3. O. Moskaleva. Research Publications
as a Means of Communication, Analysis
and Assessment of Research Activity
110
3.1⸠MgDhLRဠghkKoTRဠᆆSoLosDcLRgDRsᄠ
࠘eCTz脠GeL࠘ahᨠ
3.1. History and Characteristics
of Scholarly Journals
3.2.₃okz \roࠈzS eE጑ᴘmᄂ”os
RTgDLewcTD造VhRgsᠠᄠo࠘aRkᠠ
3.2. Publication Databases as Search
and Analysis Instruments
3.3.‒LRLhKo₍RDRLhi᠈Rv
118
3.3. Nature of Citations
118
3.4⸠u࠘aRภmRDRLhioTRဠ
121
3.4. Citation Analysis
121
3.5⸠dhsokoDcaᄠ࠘eCTz脠GeL࠘ahᨠ
122
3.5. Journal Indicators
122
3.6⸠dhsokoDcaᄠKaဠ
eCcTz脠ᄠhLtoTRkomRȠ
124
3.6. Scientometric Indicators
fo犆
esearchers and Organizations
124
3.7⸠2ጘggR(RsoDhLz,
RgVhabkecwzᬠᨠ࠘esᬠ
129
3.7. Scholarly
Publications Classi8cation
129
3.8⸠noGThgDଠRgDhCTRsᠠ
RT(hLИmRᄠᰠVeEaRsomRv脠Kaဠ
hmcTsᄠ࠘eCThȠKcvDcabThgDᄠ
141
3.8. Importance
of Publication Data Source
fo犆Research Evaluation
141
3.9.—ghEcࠈhgDR eE጑ᴘmᄂ
ᆆmRDRLhioTRဠᨠLokTz脠࠘eCTz脠hEጘgDvS
144
3.9. Publications and Citations Patterns
in Different Scienti8c Disciplines
144
3.10.₄VhghEz“mcࠝR eE጑ᴘmᄂ,
hDaRCTzᬠhఠo࠘aRkᠠmRDRLhioTRဠ
149
3.10. Publication Activity Evaluation
Methods Beyond Citation Analysis
149
3.11⸠nhkwhGTzᬠVhKShK造
ᶆgLoiTRDcabThwᘠo࠘aRkᘠmRDRLhioTRဠ
VeEaRsomRȠᨠLokTz脠hEጘgDv脠k࠘TRȠ
151
3.11. Comparative Citation
Analysis in Different
Scienti8c Disciplines
151
3.12.‏gVhabkhioTRc REaᄜwcDᜑиgᴑS
KoࠈzS LR hgDLhcࠑR‗cNDᄈthi
iekhᨠᄠ࠘eCTz脠hLtoTRkomRȠ
156
3.12. Use of Bibliometric Data
in University and Research
Organizations Ratings
156
4⸠P.
⸠ushci⸠2oLDRLhioTRᬠ࠘esᄠ
R \fc脈hጜtRR, Lhtࠜk‗oบRDRv
164
4. M. Akoev. Mapping Science and Technology,
Forecasting Research and Development
164
4.1⸠2oLDRLhioTRᬠ࠘esᄠᄠDcSThahtRᄠ
164
4.1. Mapping Science and Technology
164
4.2⸠dLhtThkRLhioTRᬠ
ᄠLokiRDRᬠ
178
4.2. Forecasting Research
and Development
178
9DoDbᄠ3KGR࠘₅oL(RaKᠠ(VcLcihK)
201
Articles by Eugene Gar8eld
201
1⸠3⸠%oL(RaK⸠M脠hIREsR,
࠘Iᆆ
IREsᄠᄠioIᄠhIREsᄠ
201
1. E. Gar8eld. Errors Theirs,
Ours and Yours
201
2⸠3⸠%oL(RaK⸠feggsRᬠRKeD!
ЧogDଠ1⸠9Dᰠgowz脠iaRvDcabTz脠
ghicDgsR脠eCcTz脠1973–1988.
ЧogDଠ2⸠dvDbKcgvఠgowz脠mRDRLecwz脠
ghicDgsR脠gDoDcȠkᠠ1973–198㢆tt.
ᨠScience Citation Inde砠ᄠiktavഠ࠘
RggacKhioDcabgsRᬠ(LhTD造1988 \t.
204
2. E. Gar8eld. The Russians are Coming.
Part 1. The Red-Hot 100
Soviet Scientists, 1973–1988.
Part 2. The Top 50 Soviet Papers
Most Cited in the 1973–1988
Science Citation Index and
a Look at 1988 Research Fronts
204
3⸠3⸠%oL(RaK⸠Эiha4mRဠ
Science Citation Index
227
3. E. Gar8eld. The Evolution
of the Science Citation Index
227
9Vᄕhs―hs᜘UcTRN
239
Abbreviations
239
dLcKwcD࢐N‖ᴘkoDcጋ
241
Index
241
MwcࠈhN‖ᴘkoDcጋ
246
Persons
246
fc(c᜘D
248
Abstract
248
his monograph is a comprehen
sive review of various methods
and techniques used now in
monitoring and assessing progress
in scholarly research and technolo
gy. For me, it is fascinating to watch
the development of this kind of re
search, from scientometrics to we
bometrics and altmetrics. These new
metrics were started at the Institute
for Scienti8c information (ISI). ISI was
launched in 1954 in Philadelphia. In
my many visits to the Soviet Union,
and then to Russia, I was pleasantly
surprised by the interest shown by
Soviet and Russian scientists in ISI
products including Current Contents,
Science Citation Index, Journal Cita
tion Reports and others. This inter
est contrasted with the poor avail
ability of these product玆阠except for
Current Contents. In those days the
Soviet Union had only ten subscrip
tions to the Science Citation Index.
In 1992 ISI was acquired by Thomson
Reuters. Now the Thomson Reuters
Web of Scienc斆阠the successor of
the Science Citation Inde碆阠is widely
available and easily accessible on the
Web to thousands scientists in Rus
sia and the neigbouring countries.
Wider use of modern information
resources and tools can help to un
lock further the great potential of the
Russian science. Thus, this volume,
partly focusing on the possibilities
provided by Web of Science, is quite
timely and welcome.
Scientometric indexes are widely
used in evaluation and promotions
of scholars, grant awarding, and re
search personnel recruiting. How
ever, I would like to stress that these
quantitative data should never be
used as a single criterion of the qual-
ity of institutional research and/or in
dividual researchers. These indexes
can help in developing background
for wise and expert judgment. Un
informed and uncritical use of the
quantitative data can be quite det
rimental to the progress of research
and individual careers.
I hope that this book will facili
tate the difficult task of reasonable
and thoughtful evaluation of the
impact and productivity of scien
tists and scholars.
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DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0001
�EFACE
TO
THE
SSIAN
ADERS
BY
GENE
G
RFIELD
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Citation Index  Journal Citation Reports.
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DcabᔝhtᰠVcLghToao⸠rKTosᰠwTᬠShDcahᔋ
E造VhKCcLsTeDbⰠCDᰠ/DᄠshaRCcgDicTTzᬠ
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sokoDcaR hteD―VhghEgDihioDb₭hᜄRLh
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DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0002
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System Dynamic Society  EuroCRIS.
[email protected]
Mark Akoev
Deputy Director of
onitoring
Centre of Science and Education,
Ural Federal University.
Member of the ACM, IEEE
omputer Society, System Dynamic
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[email protected]
Olga Moskaleva, Ph.D.
Advisor to the Director of Scienti8c
Library, Saint Petersburg State University.
Member of the Board of the Scienti8c
Electronic Library of the Russian
Foundation for Fundamental
Research, Editorial board member,
Scienti8c Communications.
Problems and Solutions.
[email protected]
clOKЁЉ‛lOKЁЉMkwC‗wDl缐Mk
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womRhTTh-eVLoiav4URᬠᔑgDcwz묠ᄠKL.
[email protected]
Vladimir Pislyakov, Ph.D.
Assistant Library Director,
National Research University
Higher School of Economics.
Author of more than 30 publications,
including articles in the Journal of the
Association for Information Science and
Technology, Scientometrics,
Nauchno-technicheskaya Informatsia
(Scienti8c and Technical Information,
i溆Russian) and other journals. Reviewer
of the Journal of the Association for
Information Science and Technology,
Science and Public Policy, Voprosy
Obrazovania (Problems of Education,
in Russian) and other journals.
[email protected]
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DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0003
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Foundatio溆š NSF (yomRhToabThtᰠToeCThtᰠ
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yoeCThᬠghhE鴛gDiᰠTeGKoahᔋ‚)VLRTmR
VRoabTᰠThihРVhKShഛ‍aဠLcIcTRဠ/DRS
koKo̠ᖆRᔁhabkhioTRcРkoLhGKo4鴛Ngv
izCRg጑DcጋThN \fcSࠑsR.
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EosoaoiLᠠ3⸠%oL(RaഠVhgDeVRጠTᠠLoEhDᘠ
᪆SRwRCcᔝe耠(RLwe⸠ᦆaoEhLoDhLRᄠLog
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DoጋThN₁ᄄᄑ (Eza‗vK \bceKoC࢐S₌sgVcLR
wcTDhi), ᢆ᪆ᔑTDckᬠToeCThȠRT(hLwomRR.
ᦆ(RLwᬠhࠠekToጠᰠge鴛gDihioTRᄠgDo
Lᬂ缛th Lc(ᬗoDRiThth GeLToao Chemical
ubstracts‑)ghkKoa“E缑L࢐N‖ᴘkoDcጋ
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EaRhDcsᬠOTRicLᔑDcDᠠBG⸠%hVsRTgᠠ(John
Hopkins University)⸠dLhcsఠiᰎTRᴠsoᴠhKR\b
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sLRkRghw묠᪆wcKRmRTᬠᆆTchEShKRwhgDb耠
LoทoEhDᴑ hihth―VhghEo‛c“ELoEhDᴑ
g)VhМUb4 oIRTTzS cDhKhi [PRSoNጜi
ᆆKL., 1965].
ᤠ195㎆t⸠VᰠLckeabDoDoРVLhcsDᠠWels栠Ezጠ
VLhicഛ\b VcLizȠᔑwVᰎReРVᰠwoIRTThwᘠ
RTഛsᔑLhioTR耠The First Symposium on
Machine Methods in Scienti8c Documentation,
shDhL适 Lᄚacs htLhЈhc iࠑwoࠑc ogg
wcKRᠠEaothKoLဠ(LokᬠctᰠhLtoTRkoDhLᠠ
VLh(cgghLᠠЛ⸠fRKᠠ(L. Ree搠騠iR贛-VLckR
ഛT\f \nTRicLᔑDcDᠠBG⸠%hVsRTgo⤠«Ccahicᴠ
DhTcఠ᪆VhDhsᬠRT(hLwomRR묠[Hyslop, 1953].
ngacകDiRᬠ/DhtᰠiTRwoTRဠVLcgᖐ ᪆oKLcᔠ
VLhcsDᠠVLRIaᰠwThtᰠVRgcЬ―LcKᄠsh
DhLz脠EzaᰠVRᔋwᰠh\f \n⺆u\reNLᠠ(W⺆Adair),
e缛K缛th‚蘜DgDoise‚Rmc-VLckRKᬈDo₀LR
KRCcᔝhȠshwVoTRᄠ«ШcVoLK»⸠ЭDᠠshwVo
TRဠRkKoioaᠠᖆ187㎆t. Shepard’s Citations
(«OsokoDcaଠgᖐahᴠШcVoLKo»). \n⺆uഛNᜠ
VLcKahGRጠLogᔄhDLcDଠiᰎwhGThgDଠRg
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TviIcthgဠ᪆esokoDcaᬠShepard’s Citations,
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Dhabsᰠh؎hLTz脠gDoDcȠVᰠwcKRmRTc, gh
ഛL輘UR脠wThtᰠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠gᖐ
ahs, \bᰠᆆigcȠwcKRmRTᔝhȠaRDcLoDeLz⸠r\b
gDoጠVcLcVRᖐioDbgဠᖆO⺆uഛNLhРᆆLoEh
DoDଠToഠgDoDbcȠhؠesokoDcav脠mRDRLhioTRဠ
KaဠToeCThȠaRDcLoDeLz.
ychESᰍRwh“ఄc఑ఋ, Dh,‖Cogచev‚)hge
鴛gDiacTRᄠVLhcsDᠠWelshⰠ3⺆%oL(Ra\r
LoทoEhఘa h᪐c cDhKz hKthDh᨝R
VLcKwcDTz脠esokoDcacȬ‘)DosGᬠRT(hL
womᄜTࠜth hRgso \bo―CcDࠜ-VcL(hLomR
hTT邁 oIRToS, LRЛࠛTᄛ”hDhL邁‚)Dh
iLᬄv zah“KTRw‑k \taoiT邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN
wc脘ࠑkomᄑ‑T(hLwomRhࠈzS Lhmcgghi
[%RavLciᔝRȠᆆKL., 1995]⸠2htKᠠkoicLIR
aRᔋ‗oEhD造VᰠVLhcsDᘠWelshⰠ3⸠%oL(Ra\r
VhgDeVRጠ᪆oᔁRLoTDeLᘠColumbia University
(y஀-ЙhLs) h―VcmRoጋThgDR₫.RE጑hDc
shicഛTRc»⸠ᦆ/DᰠiLcwဠhࠠVhKഛLGRioጠ
VcLcVRᔝᘠᖆO⺆uഛNLhРᆆToCoጠLoEhDoDଠ
ToഠVhKLhEThȠgDoDbcȠhؠesokoDcav脠mRDR
LhioTRv \rav \boeCࠜN–RDcLoDeថ.ₗఘ―ఘ
DbဠEzaᠠToVRgoTᠠRР᪆195㒆t⸠྆VhsᠠhTᠠ
hGRKoaᠠhVeEaRshioTRဠ᪆GeLToaᬠScience,
3⺆%oL(RaKⰠshDhLzȠᶆDhwᘠiLcwcTᄠgDoጠ
VhМUTRshw‗cKosDhLo₏eᜈoao American
DocumentationⰠVLcKahGRጠO⺆uഛNLᘠTo
VRgoDଠKaဠ/DhtᰠGeLToaᠠgDoDb4Ⱐ᪆shDhLhȠ
EzጠE造sLoDsᰠhVRgo\b wcSoTRkР(eTsmR
hࠑLhioࠑv‖ᴘkoDcav Shepard’s Citations.
ТosoဠgDoDbဠO⺆uഛNLᠠVhviRaoᔋ‚)GeLTo
aᬠAmerican Documentatio渠᪆R4Tᬠ195㖆t.
[Adair, 1955]ⰠᢆgDoDbဠ3⸠%oL(RaKᠠCitation
Indexing for Science zao“VeEaRshi᠈o
᪆GeLToaᬠScienc攠᪆R4aᬠ195㖆t. [Gar8eld,
1955]⸠MഛRⰠRkahGcTTzᬠ᪆/DhȠgDoDbc,
᪆CogDThgDᄠghhELoGcTRဠᰠiᰎwhGThgDᄠ
ghkKoࠑv eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToLThth‖ᴘkoDc
av₍RDᄗhioࠑာ―oҐw \bcVhgLcKgDicࠈ逄
hE᜘khw”᠕oaᄕb‗᭿ᬈRv LhEጛwz hᄕ
sᠠToeCThȠaRDcLoDeLz⸠ТᲆcgDଠVhviavaoᔋ
LᬘabToဠiᰎwhGThgDଠLᬘaRkhioDଠwcC
Dᘠᰠ«wRLhihРwᰎtc»ⰠshDhLoဠgᰠiLcwc\b
%⺆O/aagᠠkoTRwoaᠠwThtR脠izKo4URSgဠ
eиT邁 [Wouters, 1999].
foEhDoဠToഠVLhcsDhРWelshⰠ3⸠%aL(Ra\r
kToshwRDgဠᖆKoNKGcgDhРCurrent
st of
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teratur攠ᆆLcIocఠgᰎKoDଠghE
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ᦆ195㚆t⸠hࠠhLtoTRkhioጠ(RLwᘠEugene
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RT(hᜄomRR \rav RLhihth \boeCࠜth―h
hE鴛gDiᠠ[PoLseghio, ЧcLTzȬ 1985]⸠Mk
KoTRᬠhsokoahᔋ LckizCoNTᰠeᔁcITzЬ
ᆆ᪆196ゆt⸠3⸠%aL(RaഠVcLcRwcThioጠᔚh耠
shwVoTR耠᪆Institute for Scienti8c Information.
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᪆197㢆t.㨠«ycghwTcTThⰠw造EzaᄠihhKeIci
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ࠜth‑TgDRDeఘ \boeCࠜN‑)Dc脈RCcgshN‑T
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vР᪆hEaogDᄠRT(hLwomRR⸠dh-iRKRwhwe,
wThtRᬠRภTR脠igᬠc鴛 LRഛLGRio4Dgဠ
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dhVeavLThgDb‑kKoTRv Current Contents
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CRDcabThȬ Dᰠctᰠ4ERac耠Ezaᠠ
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mRDRLhioTࠜN–RDcLoDeថ), shDhថN VᜑTcg
cwᘠᆆIS䤠wRLhie耠RkicgDThgDb.
ychEShKRwᰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠeᔁc脠gcLRN
Current Content猠Ezጠᔚvko\b \fosGᬠᖆDUo
Dcጋ࢐w“DEhLhw \boREhacc LcgDRG࢐S
GeLToahᨬ―hhDicDgDie4UR脠DcwoDRsᬠTo
VLoiacࠑN“DKcጋ࢐S―cLᄂ₌Dhth‑kKo
TRv⸠ЭDhఠVLRTmRĠhDEhLᠠhᔈhio\b \bᠠRg
VhጋkhioࠑR₫koshTo‗oggcvࠑv» \boeC࢐S
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ‚)БLhihN cLRhKᄝc,―(hL
weaRLhioTࠜth‚)30-S \tt. LhIጜth‚cso
oTtaRнᴑw EREaᄜtLo(hw R)gఘDRgDRshw
9⺆.L/K(hLജР(S⺆Bradford) [PRSoNahi
ᆆKL., 1965]⸠舘ᴠVRgoጠ.L/K(hLKⰠ«…gDo
Dbv,‑TDᬗcge4U᠐―ěmRoaᄕDo, hGcD
VhviRDbgဠTᬠDhabsᰠ᪆VcLRhKRscⰠᔁcmR
oaRkRLe4鴛NgဠTᠠctᰠVLcKwcDᬠRggacജ
ioTRv, \bᰠDosGcⰠiLcwဠhఠiLcwcTᄬ‚)KLetRS
VcᜑhKRCcgᴑS‑kKoTRႁ, Rgጜ”hDhថS
LogDcఠhDThᔑDcabTᰠ/DR脠hEaogDcȠDosRw
hELokhЬ DᰠewcTbIocDgဠwoDcLRoጠVᰠcth
VLcKwcDᘠRggacKhioTRvⰠᆆshaRCcgDiᰠVe
EaRsomRȠ᪆soGജРRภ/DR脠VcLRhKRCcᔝRS
RkKoTRȠᔈR輘cDgv묠[Gar8eld, 1971]⸠9htaog
ࠜ₭hᜄeaRLh᨝c₃L/K(hLKo,―hihseVࠜgDb
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ h”oshN-጑Eh“DLog጑ hGTh
LokKcaRDଠTᠠDLᄠshT贛TDLRCcᔝR脠sLeto,
ěLizN‑k”hDhL邁―hKᬗ輑D cEhabIhc
CRgጜ‐KcᜈzS (sa考c᪐S)₏eᜈoጜi h
/DhȠhEaogDᄬ iDhLoဠtLeVVᠠghഛLGRఠkTo
CRDcጋTh hጋIcc”h጑CcgDih₏eLToahi,
ᔄcGTz脠ᖆKoTThȠhDLogab4Ⱐᄬ)ToshTcm,
DLcDbဠtLeVVᠠghഛLGRఠhtLhwThᬠshaRCc
gDiᰠGeLToahᨬ‚)shDhLz脠VhviacTRᬠVe
EaRsomRȠVᰠ/DhȠhEaogDᄠDLeKTᰠVLcKVh
aoघDb.₄hhDࠜIcTRc”haRCcgDio₏eᜈoጜi
᪆/DR脠DLc脠tLeVVo脠iztavKRఠsoᴠㆆ㪆

, \tഛ
)騠VhgDhvTTov, koiRgvUoဠh\f DcwoDRsᄠhE
aogDᄠ[PRSoNahᨠᆆKL., 1965]⸠MwcTTᰠ/Dᠠko
shࠜwcᜈhgDb‐iavcDgv“KTRw‑k“gࠜᨈzS
VᜑTmRVhi \rav”hwVacsDhioTRv₭hTKhi
EREaRhDcᴠᆆഛvDcabThgDᄠigc脠RT(hLwo
mRhTT邁‗c(ᬗoDRiT邁―aeGE,‚)Dhw ᄕጛ
gᰎKoTRဠSC䤠ᆆKLetR脠RT(hLwomRhTTzS
VLhKesDhᨠISI⸠5oshࠠ.L/K(hLKᠠhEъvᔈvcD,
VhCcwe eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐N‖ᴘkoDcጋ
SC䤠᪆贛ahРkToCRDcabTᰠEhacᬠ/((cs
DRicࠬ cРa4EzᬠKLetRᬠKRᖍRVaRToLTh
hLRcTDRLhioTTzᬠgae輆z. 9oР3⺆%oL(RaK
ToຐiocD‎oshT₃L/K(hLKo‎oshࠜw₫shT
mcTDLomRR»‑T(hLwomRR [Gar8eld, 1971].
9ᰎKoTRᬠSC䤠EzaᰠCLckizCoNTᰠko
DLoDTzЬ‑)TᠠVLhDvGcTRᄠTcᔝhabsR脠ac\f
3⺆%oL(RaഠEckeᔁcITᰠVzDoagဠVhaeCRDଠ
tLoTఠh\f NSF š \thgeKoLgDicTThȠhLtoTR
komRᄠ9Шu⸠rKThȠRภVLhEacРviavagဠDh\f
(osDⰠCD NSF \bᬠEzጠᔝahTcࠠVhKഛLGR
ioDb oጜRบcgDTe4”hwwcLCcgse4”hwVo
TR4ⰠshDhLhȠviavaoᔋ₭RLwᠠ3⸠%oL(RaKo.
n)soshN-Dh ᬗc ᬗi᠐₭RToࠕhi᠐ VhK
ഛLGsᠠhge鴛gDiacTR耠RkKoTRဠSC䤠Ezaᠠ
ᔚvkoTᠠᆆᔠizKo4URwRgဠeᔁcSowᄠ999ꀠ
᪆RggacജioTRᄠshᔄhgo⸠MkicgDTh, CDᰠko
Veᔝ ghicDᔝhtᰠᔁeDTRsᠠ4 hsDvELဠ195㞆t.
RwcጠhtLhwTzȠLckhToTᔠ᪆wRLᬠᆆkogDoጠ
i᜘gVahS LckRKᬈDo .ₗNkᬈSoe/᜘‑)V᜘
iRDcabgDiᰠ9Шu⸠ЭDhఠ(osఠEzጠᔑtToahР
KaဠhE鴛gDiᠠᰠkToCRwhgDᄠToeCTh-DcSTR
CcgshN‑T(hLwomᄑ.„KБࠑgDLomRv₃cah
tᰠജwᠠᆆToeCThᬠghhE鴛gDiᰠTcജewcioaᄬ
VhCcwᘠhTᄠTᬠkToaᄠRภToeCThȠaRDcLoDeL造
ᲆToeCThРᆆDcSTRCcᔝhРVhDcTmRoaᬠ999f.
9cToDhᜠХ⸠Хow(Lᄠ(Hubert Humphrey)ⰠiVh
gacകDiRᄠiR贛-VLckRഛTఠ9ШuⰠhEъviRጬ
CDᰠ«TogDeVRጠThizȠicᴠToesᄠ騠icᴠRT
(hLwoDRsR»ⰠᆆVhDLcEhioጠhEъvᔈcTRȬ
«CDh‑gVhገRDcጋTov‚aogDb―hEᄗocDgv
gഛaoDଠKaဠeVLoiacTRဠVhDhsowᄠRT(hL
womRᄬ cTcLRLecwhȠkᠠgCcఠwRaaRoLജᨠ
ജaaoLhᨬ‚zഛavcwz脠VLoiRDcabgDihРTᠠ
ToeCT逛‑ggጛKhioTRv»
⸠dLckRഛTఠB⺆ЭN
kcTSoe/ᜠTokToCRጠᔁcmRoabTe耠shwRgᔑ耠
Kav“mᬈsR―hgDhvTRv“EcgěиTRv‖иT邁
ToeCTh-DcSTRCcᔝhȠRT(hLwomRcN⸠ᦆജ
saoഛ”hwRgᔑᄠeഛavahᔋ“ghEhᬠiTRwoTRᬠ
hᜉoTRkomRR cLcihKhi―hicDgshN \boeCࠜN
aRDcLoDeL造ᆆLogᔄoDLRioaoᔋ‚ᰎwhG
ThgDଠgᰎKoTRဠthgeKoLgDicTThtᰠ贛TDLᠠ
Vh“E᜘EhDsc‑)᜘gVLhgD᜘ࠛTR4‑T(hLwo
mRᆆ騠oToahtᠠnMyMТ༠(!!!)⸠uToahठnMyMТ༠
LcIRaᄠTᬠgᰎKoioDb, \bᰠKaဠhge鴛gDiac
TRဠToeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠ᪆ജsewcTDoaR
gDᄝc,”os \fhtKo \bok通o጑‑T(hLwoDᄝe, h
LcshwcTKomRᄠshwRgᔑᄠ᪆NS䘠EzጠgᰎKo\b
hDഛጠyТ༠[Wouters, 1999]⸠ЭDhఠhDഛጠᖐ
tLoጠioGTe耠LhaଠᨠgeKbEᬠSCI.
ᤠRgDhLRᄠgᰎKoTRဠSC䤠EhabIe耠Lhaଠ
ᖐtLoaᠠVhKKcLGsᠠKie脠izKo4URSgဠ
PoDcLRoጠikvఠᔠgoNDᠠNFAIS (URL: http://www.
nfais.org/).
ЛLRsoࠕsᆁ‖иT邁.’)vTioLc 1957)t.
3⺆%oL(RaഠVhaeCRጠicᔋwᠠhEhKLv4鴛ᬠ
VRᔋwᰠh\f RkicgDThtᰠtcTcDRsᠠVLh(cgghLᠠ
%hLKhTo uaacTo (Gordon Allen), k᠈Rw᠚Ic
tᰠhDicDgDicTTzȠVhgఠ᪆National Institutes
of Healt梆騠NIH
(yomᄜToabࠜw RTgDRDeDc
kK᜘ihhS᜘ࠛTRv).₅.)uaጛT ᄕoa, Dh h
gaᬠᰎToshwacTRဠgᰠgDoDbcȠ3⸠%oL(RaKᠠ
᪆Science h\b ᖆTcDcLVcTRcРGKoጠThihgDcȠ
VᰠgᰎKoTR耠SCI⸠dᰠᔚhcȠRTRmRoDRiᬠh\b
hELoUoagဠ᪆American Society on Human
Genetics š ASHG (uwcLRsoTᔝhᬠhE鴛gDiᰠ
VᰠtcTcDRsᬠCcahicso⤠ᆆVLRkzioጠᶆikvDR耠
RTRmRoDRi造VᰠeCogDR耠᪆DoshРVLhcsDc.
rഈ᠝h‎᠑TDcLcghi᠈ThgDR \bc zah Lh
viacThⰠVhᔝhabsᘠhDഛጠRT(hLwomRᄠASHG
koࠑwoagv―hkKoࠑcw”aoggR(ᄝomRhࠈhN
gᄕDᬄz h \tᬈcDRsc cahiᬝo.₅.)uaጛT h
aotoጬ DᰠtLeVVᠠkoRTDcLcghioTTz脠ᔁc
mRoaRgDhᨠᔄhtaᠠE造VLRicgDᄠᶆVLhtLcggᘠ
᪆/DhРihVLhgc⸠yoCoaoᔋ osDRiToဠVcLcVR
ᔝᠠᖆuaacThЬ”hDhLhwᘠ3⸠%oL(RaഠLog
ᔝokoጠᰠᔚhR脠TceKoCTz脠VhVzDso脠VhaeCc
TRဠtLoTDᠠ[Wouters, 1999].
ᤠ1957 \t⸠᪆2hwRDcDᬠshTtLcggᠠ9ШḠgh
gDhvaRᔋ―VcmRoabTzᬠgaeIoTRဠVLcകDo
iRDcac NS䘠ᰠwcLo脠EhLbE造ᖆRT(hLwo
mᄜTTzw”ᜑฑghw. n)LckeabఘDc /Dhth NSF
hVeE጑shioa koviacࠑc h GcaoࠑR VLhic
gDᄠRggacജioTRcⰠhᔈhioTThᬠTᠠRᔁhab
khioࠑR cDhKo₍RDᄗhioࠑv h‘Toahtᄑ
ᖆShepard’s Citations⸠舘ᴠhDwcCoahᔋ‚)kovi
ጛTRR,₫…/DhD cDhK,‎᠕ae輑iIRN LRkTo
TRᬠ᪆hEaogDᄠ4LRᔁLeഛTmRᄬ‗oTcᬠTR
shtKᠠTᬠEzጠRᔁhabkhioࠠ᪆cgDcgDicTTzS
ToesoS묠[Wouters, 1999]. 3⺆%oL(Ra\r ekToa
National Institutes of Health š \thgeKoLgDicTToဠTo
eCToဠhLtoTRkomRဠ9ШḠᔠthKhizРE4KGcDhР᪆201㊆t.
33,㘠waL\r \rhaa.ⰠRwc4UoဠVhഠgihcȠ/tRKhȠ4ゆTo
eCTz脠RTgDRDeDhᨠᄠ(RToTgRLe4UoဠTᠠshTseLgThȠ
hgThiᬠigᬠRggacKhioTRဠVᰠERhwcKRmRTᬠᆆwcKRmR
TᬠᨠgDLoTc⸠BaဠgLoiTcTRv, \thKhihȠE4KGc\f National
Science Foundation š 7,㈠waL\r \rhaa.
hؠ/DhРVᰎKTcᬠᆆToVLoiRጠkovisᘠTᠠtLoTD
᪆NSF⸠ᦆ/DhఠLoภkovisᠠEzaᠠToVLoiacTo
ghiwcgDTᰠᖆ%⺆.cK(hLജР(G. Bedford)Ⱐko
ࠑwoi缑w \fhtKo \rhaGThgDb Lh(cgghLo-
oggRgDcTDo‚)OࠑicLgRDcDc‒cTgRጋioࠑR
(University of Pennsylvania)⸠dLhcsఠജaGcT
EzጠEzDଠKieSacDTRРRggacജioTRcРᆆko
icLIRDbgဠgᰎKoTRcРesokoDcav. ycᔄhDLv
TᠠVhKഛLGsᘠu⸠%hLജToⰠVLhcsఠEzጠhD
sahTc\b, \b NS䘠izLokRጠRTDcLcᔠᶆwcDhKe
RTഛsᔑLhioTRဠgᖐahs⸠%⺆uaacࠬ―aeGRi
IRȠ/sᔁcᜌhР᪆NSFⰠVLcKeVLcGKoጠVLc
kRഛTDᠠASHG o \bchEShKRwhgDᄠgᰎKoTRv
koRTDcLcghioTࠜN‑)shwVcDcTDࠜN \tLeV
V造KaဠLogᔄhDLcTRဠkovisᄠTᠠVLhcsD
[Wouters, 1999].
ЛcDhР195㢆t⸠3⸠%oL(RaഠVhaeCRጠ
VRᔋwᰠhఠVLh(cgghLᠠBG⸠ЛcഛLEcLtᠠ
(J⺆Lederberg)ⰠaoeLᬘDᠠyhEcaciᔝhȠVLc
wRR h cKRmRࠛ‚)1958)t.,‚z᜘kRi缛th
/TDekRokР᪆VhKഛLGsᬠVLhcsDᠠ3⺆%oL(Ra
Ko⸠rࠠEzጠIhsRLhioࠬ‖kToᨠᰠTceKoCTz脠
VhVzDso脠3KGRTᠠVhaeCRDଠtLoTఠᆆVhic
KcTRR 耗hᴗoDhi NSF.—KࠜᨗcwcTࠜ“T
VLcKeVLcKRጠ3⸠%oL(RaKᠠᰠTchEShKRwh
gDᄠVLhജa輘DଠKRᔝegᔑᄠᖆNSF. \nkToᨠh\f
3⺆%oL(RaKᠠᲆkoRTDcLcghioTThgDᄠVLh
(cgghLᠠ%⺆uaacTᠠ᪆gᰎKoTRᄠSCIⰠЛcഛL
EcL\t VLcKahGRጠhEъcKRTRDଠeᔑaRဠᆆTo
CoDଠghiwcgDTe耠EhLbEᘠkᠠVhKഛLGsᘠRg
gacജioTRဠᆆVLhVotoTKᘠ/DhȠRഛᄠᔗcKᄠ
tcTcDRshi‑)gVcmRoaRgDhi h hacseavᜈhN
ERhahtRR⸠ᦆwoᜌᬠ196ゆt⸠3⺆%oL(Ra\r \bo
V᜘iRa ᬗᬗ᠆hDoTTe4‎᠐ise‚)NSF‑)Vh
VLhᔑጠBG⸠ЛcഛLEcLtᠠVhKഛL輘DଠVLhcsD.
BG⸠ЛcഛLEcLठhELoDRagဠ᪆NS䘠gᰠgacKe
4URРVRᔋwhw㨠«…ဠeEcGഛࠬ DᰠwhᬠVRᔋ
wᰠwoaᰠCDᰠജEoiRఠᶆeDicLGഛTR4ⰠCDᰠTo
eCThᬠghhE鴛gDiᰠgDhasTeahᔋ―)htLhwTzwᄠ
VLhEacwowᄬ zDovᔋ“kToshwRDbgဠᖆDcse
鴛ȠToeCThȠaRDcLoDeLhN⸠ycఠeTRicLgoab
ThtᰠLcIcTRဠ/DhȠVLhEacwz㬠ShDဠhDഛab
࢐c‗c(cLoDᄚ࢐c―aeGEz‚送hገv而 h
ackTzᬠ(eTsmRR⸠蒆whcȠDhCsᄠkLcTRvⰠᆆ/Dᰠ
VhgaᬠLokwzIacTR, SC䤠RwcጠE造Tch贛TR
Ж4₍cTTᰕDb‚)e጖CIcTRR₌궭csDRiTᰕDR
ToeCThtᰠRggacജioTRvⰠVhᔝhabsᘠhTᰠko
iRᔑ\f h\f VhRᔝᠠaRDcLoDeLz. 领taeEhsᰠko
RTDcLcghioT‑)g“tLhwTzw₌TDeฑoคhw“D
ThIeᔋ ᶆeᔁcSᘠK-Lᠠ%oL(RaKᠠᆆgCogDaRᨠ
RwcDଠiᰎwhGThgDଠVhKഛL輘Dଠ/DᘠVhVzD
seⰠgae輘―hicDTRshР᪆ctᰠshTgeabDoDRiThР
shwRDcDc» [Lederberg, 2000].
dhᴘ‚)NSF LokҐIav጑“ i逈cgcࠑR
LcIcTRဠVᰠVLhcsDᘠ3⸠%oL(RaKoⰠh\b \bo
VLoiRጠkovisᘠ᪆NIH⸠yoCoaRᔋ‛tᰠgh
iwcgD࢐c shTgeጋDomᄑ―)hEcᄄR hLtoࠑ
komRvwᄠVᰠVhKഛLGsᬠVLhcsDo. NI䠠Ezጠ
koRTDcLcghioࠠ᪆gᰎKoTRᄠGenetic Citation
Inde碆騠GCI (MTഛsgᠠmRDRLecwhgDᄠVᰠtc
TcDRsc). ᦆNSF, hEcᔁhshcTTzᬠgShGcgDb耠
Kie脠kovihsⰠVLcKahGRaᄠghgDoiRDଠcKR
࢐N 4KGcD,“EъcKᄈᄚ缑N‎oKoCR h‚z
Vhገcࠑ4 VLhcsDo. n)ᴘTeT ᴘDh጑Ccgsh
tᰠfhGഛgDiᠠ3⺆%oL(RaഠVhaeCRጠhDicD.
ᦆVRᔋwᬠBG⺆ЛcഛLEcLtᘠhࠠVRgoa㨠«9oTDᠠ
2aoeᔠEzጠhCcTଠwRጠᶆTow⸠P造egazIoaᄬ
CDᰠNI䠠eDicLKRጠVhahiRTᘠE4KGcDoⰠshDh
Lz NS䘠VLhᔑጠwcTဠVLcകDoiRDଠ᪆gewwᬠ
100 Dzg⸠ജaa⸠᪆DcCcTRᬠDLc脠acD묠[Wouters,
1999崠⸠ᦆ196ㆆt⸠3⺆%aL(RaഠVhaeCRጠtLoT\f
᪆300 \fzg⸠ജaa. \raဠgᰎKoTR GCI⸠ᦆ/DhఠGᬠ
thഠ3⺆%oL(RaഠkoicLIRጠhELokhioTRᬠVᰠ
gDLesDeLThN–ᄈtiRgDᄝc, haeCᄚ―DcVcࠋ
ജsDhLᠠ(Rahgh(Rᄠ᪆dcTᔑabioTᔝhР
eTRicLᔑDcDc⸠ltᰠKRggcᜌomRဠTokzioaoᔋ
«uathLRDРKaဠVcLcihKᠠSRwRCcᔝR脠To
kioTRN‚)whacseavLࠖ4₭hLЖ጖» [%RavLci
ᔝRȠᆆKL., 1995].
dLcGഛ cРgᰎKoDଠGenetic Citation Index,
3⺆%oL(RaKᘠEzaᰠTchEShKRwᰠgᰎKoDଠOso
koDcab₍RDRLhioTࠜN–RDcLoDeថ,“脚oDz
io4URȠigᬠhEaogDᄠkToTRv⸠BaဠgᰎKoTRဠ
SC䤠3⺆%oL(RaഠRᔁhabkhioጠwogᔑᨠRภ613
icഖUᆁ \boeCT邁₏eLToahi,“E᜘EoDzio
cwz脠᪆ctᰠshwVoTRᄠKaဠVhKthDhisᄠLok
aRCTz脠gcLRȠRkKoTRဠCurrent Contents⸠ngᬠ
GeLToazⰠRᔁhabkecwzᬠKaဠVhKthDhisᄠ
SCI, \bok通o而gv GeLToaoБ-RgDhCࠑᴘБ
(source journals).₄DoD଑,“VeE጑shioࠈzc
᪆/DR脠GeLToaoS, \bokzio4ఠgDoDbvwR-RgDhC
TRsowᄠ(source article)⸠uiDhLhᨠ/DR脠gDoDcN-
RgDhCࠑshi \bok通o而₍RDᄗe4UᄄR‘iDh
Lowᄠ(citing authors). 9ᖐasR, ghഛL輘URcgဠ
i)/DRS―DoDbvS, \bok通o而₍RDᄗecҐБ―Do
Dbvwᄠ(cited articles)ⰠᢆR脠oiDhLhᨠ騠mRDRLe
cҐБ‘iDhLoБ (cited authors).
Genetic Citation Inde砠EzጠgᰎKo\b \bᠠwog
ᔑiᬠgDoDcȠkᠠ196ㆆt.ⰠhVeEaRshioTTz脠᪆613
ToeC࢐S₏eLToaoS-RgDhCࠑᴘS,‑)1,4 ገ
ghഛL輘URSgဠ᪆TR脠gDoDcȠ(mRDRLecwz脠
gDoDcN)⸠dcLihᬠVcCoDThᬠRkKoTRᬠSC䤠Vh
viRahᔋ‚)196㎆t.Ⱐᆆᔠ196㒆t⸠hTᰠgDoaᰠiz
ShKRDଠcGcsioᜌoabThⰠᢆVhgacKTRȠDhР
EzጠseweavDRiTzN. SCI ghgDhvጠRภCcDzLc脠
CogDcNⰠVhgDLhcTTz脠Vᰠoa(oiRDThwᘠVLR
kTosᘺ Source Index (eᴘkoDcጋ‑gDhCࠑshi),
Citation Index (esokoDcaଠgᖐahs), Permuterm
Subject Index (VcLweDomRhࠈ适‖ᴘkoDcጋ
sa4иi邁―ahi‑k‎otaoiRN―DoDᬂ-ᄕ
DhCTRshi⤠ᆆCorporated Index (esokoDcaଠ
hLtoTRkomRȬ‚)shDhLz脠LoEhDoaᄠoiDhL造
gDoఛN-RgDḧRshi).
Mഛ耠RᔁhabkhioTRဠgᖐahᴠsoᴠVhRg
shihth‑TgDLewcTఘ Lhicᜑa‑)VLh(cg
ghᜠ%⺆uaacࠠ᪆196ㆆt⸠rࠠVhgDLhRጠgScwe
RgVhጋkhioࠑv‑)ikoᄄhi጑vࠑv hae
DhLᠠഛgvDshᨠLoEhఠVᰠihVLhgᘠizviac
ࠑv TesacᄈhizS sRgahD, hVeE጑shioࠈzS
᪆1941–196ゆtt⸠.zaᰠegDoThiacThⰠCDᰠKav
VhaeCcTRဠᔚcഛTRȠhEᰠigc脠/DR脠LoEhDoS
TeGTᰠEzaᰠhELoDRDbgဠᶆEREaRhtLo(RᄠVh
ЛTb缛N ᬗcⁿcgDR―DoDᬂ,“VeEaRshioT
Tz脠᪆VcLRhഠᖆ195㘠Vᰠ196ゆt⸠rDKcabTzc
gDoDbᄬ”hDhLzᬠVhCDᄠTᬠmRDRLhioaRᔋⰠih
hE鴛‌LeKTᰠizviRDଠDosRРVeDcw.
KTosh
ᔚcഛTRဠVhCDᄠhEᰠigc脠LoEhDo脠whGTh
actsᰠVhaeCRDbⰠcgaᄠekToDb, \tഛ―hഛL輘D
gဠgᖐasᄠTᠠDLᄠLoTTRᬠLoEhDz⸠ЭDᰠEzah
io輈hc VhKDiᬗGKᬈᄛ RKᬑ ᜘EhDhgVh
ghEThgDR wcDhKo mRDᄗhioࠑာ i送hገcT
Thc‑kicgDTzw―ěmRoaᄕDhw-tᬈcDRshw
[PRSoNahᨠᆆKL., 1965].
ᤠhᔈhiᘠgᰎKoTRဠCurrent Content猠Ezጠ
VhahGc\b VhgDeao\f ᰠDhЬ CDᰠToeCToဠaRDc
LoDeLᠠviavcDgဠ(hLwhȠge鴛gDihioTRဠTo
esᄬ‘)ToeCToဠgDoDbဠviavcDgဠhE鴛VLRTv
DhȠThLwhȠKaဠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTRဠᆆh贛Tsᄠ
LckeabDoDhᨠRggacജioTRv, ᢆDosGᬠLcIo4
URР(sLRDRCcᔝRw⤠(osDhLhРKaဠVLhKiR
Gcࠑv h―aeGcEThN–cgDࠑmc‚)Ehጋ缑T
gDic \boeC࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑T.
yow‚gcw₁hLh缜‎Toshwo‘wcᜑsoT
gsov hthih᜝o₫VeEaRseнv‑aR ᰉRETR»
(“publish or perish”)⸠ЭDᄠgahiᠠᰎToCo4D
VhgDhvTThc \roiጛTᄛ \bo‑ggጛKhioDc
acȠKaဠhVeEaRshioTRဠᔚhR脠LckeabDoDhi
ᆆgᰎKoTRဠRwcTᄠ᪆Toesc⸠yᰠ/DᰠTᬠThizN
(cࠜwcT.ₗఘ ᴗzaoఘv (Loko,―sokoTTov
᪆195ゆt⸠owcLRsoTᔝRРtcTcDRshР2⺆uDie
ജР(K⺆C⺆Atwood⤠RภColumbia University
(yb4-ЙhLs⤠ᆆTᬠhVeEaRshioTToဠ᪆DᰠiLc
wvⰠVLhTRsaᠠ᪆gcLK贛”oGജtᰠRggacജ
ioDcav⸠9htaoᔈᰠactcTഛⰠwcgv贠ᔁegDv
hTᠠicLTeaoᔋ okoഠᶆ2⺆uDieKeⰠshtKᠠcth
VhgcDRጠVLh(cgghᜠRภKLethtᰠeTRicLᔑ
DcDo⸠ycᔄhDLဠTᠠKoiT4耠RgDhLR4Ⱐ/Do
(LokᠠEeഛఠkieCoDଠ᪆Shaao脠eTRicLᔑDc
Dhᨠᆆ᪆oeKRDhLRv脠gDhabshⰠᔝhabsᰠEeഛD
geUcgDihioDb―hLᬚThioTᄛ cGഖ‑ggጛ
KhioDcavwR‎o haeиTᄛ₭RToࠕhi邁‘g
ᔑtThioTRN⸠BcgvDsᄠDzgv̠gDoDcȬ‎owc
DhsⰠVRgcР᪆LcKosmR耠ᆆh؎hLhᨬ”hDhLzc
VeE጑se而gv‛GcKTciTh‚)ToeC࢐S₏eLTo
aoSⰠᆆwRaaRhT造gᖐahᴠwcGKᘠ/DRwᄠgDo
DbvБ“EcgVcCᄚo而 eDb LhࠑsThicࠑv
i)shЄeࠑᴘmᆀ‎Toࠑာ―VhghEgDie而
VLh贛ggoРctᰠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTRဠ᪆Toesc
R)VhaeCcࠑ4₌ЁᄗRCcgsRS \roࠈzS“)kTo
CRwhgDᄠRggacജioTRဠᆆToeCThȠosDRi
ThgDᄠ«cKRTRmz묠VLhRkihKgDiᠠkToTRv⸠dh
hE᜘kThwe‚z᜘GᬈR4 .‒᜘Ngo, \boeCT᠐
gDoDbဠgDoaᠠ᪆
X
‚⸠«oDhwhРToeCThȠᔚv
kR» [Price, 1961].
ᤠToIᄠKTᄬ”oᴠᆆ10〠ac\f \bokoKⰠgDoDbv
hEzCTᰠghഛLGRఠgᖐasᄠTᠠLoEhD造VLcK
IcgDicࠈᄝhi [Price, 1963].—DgeDgDiRc
gᖐahᴠ᪆gDoDbᬠToCRTo4鴛tᰠoiDhLᠠLog
ᔄoDLRiocDgဠsoᴠhKRࠠRภVLRkToshᨠTRk
shN sio጑(ᄝomᄑ R)koDLeKTvcD VeE጑ᴘ
mR4⸠MTഛsᔑLhioTRᬠKhsewcTDᠠVhᔗcK
gDihРRᔁhabkhioTRဠghഛL輘URSgဠ᪆Tcw
EREaᄜtLo(RCcgᴑS―gzጜs“gࠜioࠜ \bo
VLhgDhȠwzgaᄬ DᰠesokoTTzᬠ᪆/DR脠gᖐa
ᴘS \rLetRc,‗oTcc“VeE጑shioࠈzc,‍hse
wcTD造EaRksᄠVᰠDcwoDRsᬠKoTThwᘠKhse
wcTDe⸠yᰠ/DᘠRഛ耠EzaᰠhCcTଠTcVLhgDh
ihVahDRDb‚)RࠕDLeЛTD ᜘sDRиgshth‑g
VhabkhioTRv⸠ЧDᰠGᬠDoshᬠ«gᖐasR묠ᆆCDh
VᰍLokewciocDgv,”htKo“KRT‘iDhL₍RDR
᜖cD \r᜖tᰉh?
ТchLcDRCcᔝhȠhᔈhihȠesokoDcacȠmR
DRLhioTRဠviavcDgဠDhఠ(osDⰠCDᰠgᖐa
sᄠVLcകDoiav4ఠghEhȠᔑwiha造ToeCTz脠
shTmcVmRN.ₘiavvgb₭hᜄhN \boeCࠜN”hw
weࠑᴘmᄑ,―gzጝR hwhto而 LhgacKRDb
LokiRDRᬠisaoKᠠoiDhLᠠVeEaRsomRᄬ LR
Ko4\f ജgDhicLThgDଠLoEhDᬠRggacജioDcav.
9hmRhahtᄠthihLvD, CDᰠgᖐasᄠ阠/Dᰠᔚhc
hE᜘kT᠐‚oa4Do,”hDhLhN‖иT逛₫hVao
Cᄚo而»‚saoK LcKIcgDicࠈᄝhi. \nCc࢐c
hEzCTᰠhDKo4\f \rhaGThᬠRggacജioTRvw,
shDhLzc“ᴘko጑‚጑vࠑc \bo RS,₍RDᄗev
LcacioTD࢐c‑gDhCࠑsR (gDoD଑,”ࠑtR,‎o
wcDsᄬ“؎hL造ᆆD⺆K.⤠᪆ᔁRᔝᬠRᔁhabkhioT
ThȠaRDcLoDeL造Raᄠᔈhᔝo脠᪆/DR脠VeEaR
somRvS⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ eEaRsomRႆ騠/Dᰠ
ᔚhchELokToဠജLhto, \bᠠshDhLhȠhgDoiac
T造gacK造ഛvDcabThgDᄠgowhtᰠRggacജio
DcavⰠctᰠToeCTz脠ᔚvkcȠᆆRᔁhabkhioTRဠ
iTc缈RS \boeC࢐S‑gDhCࠑshi.₊RDᄗhioDb
shth-Dᰠ騠/DᰠVLRkToDଠiᰎഛNgDiRᬠVLcK
IcgDicࠈᄝo To ioIe LoEhDe, gihchELok࢐N
gVhghE‚cLTeDb‑TDcaacsDeoጋ࢐N \rhጉ c
ahicse,”ᰌhLhज‚z₍RDRLecDᬮ
dLRCᄈz₍RDᄗhioࠑv eE጑ᴘmᄂ:
VLRk࠘TRc‚sጘKo;
hVLcKcጛTᄛ/hVᄕoTᄛ cDhKhi,“EhLe-
KhioTRျ
shLLᬝDRLhioTᄛ ghEgDiᬈThN ᜘EhDz
RaR‗᠆hDz \rLetᆁ;
sLRDRso LcKzഖUᆁ‗᠆hD;
eᴘkoࠑc \rhVhገRDcጋThN–RDcLoDeLz
Vh \roTࠜN \fcwc;
hDLRmoTᄛ LcKzഖUᆁ‗᠆hD;
VhKDiᬗGKᬈᄛ \roTT邁;
hᴘkoࠑc‖ioGcࠑv.
%hihLဠᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄬ eGTᰠLokaRCoDଠ
KiᠠVhTvDRv㨠«citation묠ᆆ«references»⸠ЭDᄠ
Kio‘ࠉ጑NgsRS―ahio‐iav而gv―ᄈhࠑwo
wᄬ ᰠw造RᔁhabkecРgahiᰠ«citation»Ⱐsht
KᠠthihLRРᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDbᄬ‘)gahiᰠ
«references묠騠shtKᠠthihLRРᰠᔁRᔝᬠaRDc
LoDeL逬 LRicഛTThР᪆gDoDbc.
dᜑ \fLoKRmᄜTࠜw hRgsc‖CcTzN, Lh
ᔄoDLRioဠaRDcLoDeLe, \boShKRఠgᖐasᄠTᠠ
᜘EhDz LcK缛gDiᬈTRshi‑)RkeC᠛D‑脮
dLhDRihVhahGTzȠVeDଠVLcKaotoc\f wcDh\r
mRDRLhioTRv⸠MggacജioDca耠TeGTᰠkToDଠ
(oБ጑4‛th LcKIcgDicࠈᄝo‑,“ELoDᄚ
IRᔋ”)esokoDca耠EREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠gᖐ
ahs,“T hGcD \boNDR‚gc―hiLᬄᬈT逛‗᠆h
D逬₍RDRLe4URᬠLoEhD造/DhtᰠVLcKIcgDicT
TRso⸠dhᔝhabsᘠkᠠsoGജȠgᖐashȠᔝLzఠcᬠ
oiDhL, hTᠠhsokoaoᔋ kToshРTᬠDhabsᰠTo
eCࠜth‗ckeabఘఘ,‚)VhRgsoS”hDhLhth eCc
TzȠhELoUocDgဠᶆDcsgDe, \bᰠᆆshTsLcDThtᰠ
aRmoⰠᖆshDhLzРoiDhᜠDcsgDᠠVhGcaoጠgh
hDTcgDᄠᔚhȠLckeabDoD⸠ТoЬ KᬠcgDଠa4Kᄬ
ࠛRkEc輈h‚gDeVo4D‚)KᬂgDiᄛ gᆁhahtR
Ccgᴑc₭osDhថ.₉h᪐c‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzc
DcSThahtRᄬ‑khELcDcTTzᬠKaဠLcIcTRဠ
RT(hLwomRhTTz脠koKoCⰠshDhLzᬠVLcGഛ
LcIoaRᔋ REaRhtLo(RCcᔝRwᄠᔗcKgDio
wᄬ ᰎihaRaᄠThizwᄠtaokowᄠiktavTeDଠ
TᠠghmRoabTe耠GRkTଠToesᄬ‚DhLtTeDbgဠ
᪆taeERT造VᔑShahtRᄠcᬠa4ഛN⸠PhDRiomRဠ
mRDRLhioTRဠgDoaᠠVLcKwcDhРRkeCcTRဠ
VgRShጜthi‑)ghmᄜጜthi \boeᴑ.—gࠜᨈzc
VhahGcࠑv‑)VLᄈmᄁz \fchLᄑ‖CcDo,‘To
጑ko‑)RgVhጋkhioࠑv₍RDᄗhioࠑv z጑
VᰎKTcᬠRkahGcT造3⸠%oL(RaജР᪆ctᰠwh
ThtLo(RR [Gar8eld, 1979].
dhgaᬠizVeᔝᠠDcgDhihtᰠioLRoTDᠠGenetic
Index NS䘠hDsokoagဠVhKഛL輘DଠRഛ耠gᰎ
Koࠑv eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToLThth SCI.‒hkK
Tcᬠ3⺆%oL(RaഠVRgoa㨠«ᤠ196㒆t. ႆVLRTvጠ
ToREhጛc‚o輈hc₭RToࠕhihc‗᭿ᬈᄛ
᪆RgDhLRᄠISI š \boCoDଠizVeᔝ‑Tഛsgo⸠dh
ToജERahᔋ vDଠacDⰠCDhE造VLciLoDRDଠ/Dᰠ
RkKoTRᬠ᪆RkKoTRcⰠVLRThgv鴛ᬠVLREzab.
rKTosᰠ᪆196㒆t⸠w造TᬠEzaᄠthDhi造LRᔝh
i᠌b‑)VLhV᠉᠈഑Lhi᠌b SCI”᠝‑TgDLe
wcTD \rav“mcTᴑ \boeCࠜN LhRบhKRDcab
ThgDR⸠yᰠgcNCoᔠw造thDhi造hDsLzDଠvURᴠ
doTജL逬‑)VegDଠToeCThᬠghhE鴛gDiᰠLc
IocD, \boᔝhabsᰠToഛGc\b SC䤠soᴠghmRhwc
DLRCcᔝRȠRTgDLewcTD묠[Gar8eld, 1969].
.habIe耠Lhaଠ᪆VLhVotoTഛ⁓C䤠RtLoaᄠ
gDoDbᄠ3⺆%oL(RaKᠠ᪆Current Contents, Ve
EaRshioiIRcgဠᖆ19㘲)t⸠9ToCoaᠠhTᄠVh
viavaRᔋ₌VRkhKRCcᔝᄬ“KTosᰠᖆ197㈠Vᰠ
1992)t.‚sᎀCRDcጋTh―Do጑‛GcTcKcጋ
࢐Б.ₗDR―DoD଑ Lᄚacᴘ጑ \bcRkwcࠈhc
iTRwoTᄛ IRLhsᆁ sLethi eиT邁‑)gěmR
oaRgDhᨬ zaᄠVhᔚv鴛T造DhȠRaᄠRThȠos
DeoabࠜN LhEacwc \boeᴑ, \boeCࠜN”hwwe
ࠑᴘmᄑ‑጑‑T(hLwoDᄝR.—ࠑ―hgDoiR጑
15 \fhwhᨠgEhLTRshᨠEssays of an Information
Scientist (1977–1994 \tt.)ⰠhELoke4UR脠ᔚhctᰠ
LhKo₌ࢍᄝahVcKᆀ‑T(hLwoDᄝR,‚)shDh
LhȠwhGTᰠToNDᄠᔚcഛTRဠVᰠigcРioGTzР
ihVLhgoРToeshwcDLRᄬ oeshicഛTRဠᆆgh
mᄜጜtRR \boeᴑ.
ᤠToCoabTzȠVcLRhഠᔚhctᰠLokiRDRဠTo
eshwcDLRဠLogᔄoDLRioaoᔋ”oᴠCogDଠToesh
icഛTRv⸠MwVeabghРᶆLokiRDR耠Toeshicഛ
TRဠviRaRᔋ‗oEhD造oTtaRNᔝhtᰠ(Rahgh(o
BG⺆.cLToaᠠ(J⺆D⺆Bernal)ⰠVLcGKᬠigctᲆhVe
E጑shioࠈov‑w‚)1939)t.”ࠑto₫9hmRoጋ
Toဠ(eTsmRဠToesR묠(The Social Function of
Science)ⰠgDoiIoဠsaogᔑshȠ[Gar8eld, 1983].
n)/DhN hࠜtLo(RR‑kaoघagv―hicL
IcTTᰠThizȠVhKShഠᶆLhaᄠToesᄠ᪆GRkTR
hE鴛gDiᠠᆆctᰠVLhmicDoTRR. 舘ᴠhDwcCoa
ERhtLo괠BG⺆.cLToaᠠЭTKL耠.Loe\b (Andrew
Brown)Ⱐ«9hmRoabToဠ(eTsmRဠToesR묠Ez
ጘ hVzDshN₃cL࠘ጘ“ELoDRDb‚TRИTRc
hE鴛gDiᠠTᠠDhఠ(osDⰠCDᰠ«…ToesᠠജaGTo
EzDb ࠛ“S᜘TရwhN \fᬗLRDhLᄛN RTDcaጛs
Deoahᨬ‘)viavDbgဠTcVLcwcTThȠghgDoiav4
Uᬂ‖aeC缛TRv₏RkTR cahiᬃcgDio» [The
social function…, 1953]⸠ЭDᰠEzጠThioDhLᔝRN
DLosDoఠsoᴠ᪆RkeCcTRᄠiᰎwhGThgDcȠToesR
ᆆDcSTRsᄬ Doᴠᆆ᪆gᰎKoTRᄠthgeKoLgDicTThN
VhaRDRsᄬ“DicCo4鴛ȠkᠠRᔁhabkhioTRc
ജgDRGcTRȠToesᄠᆆDcSTRsR⸠nVhgacകDiRR
3⺆%oL(RaഠiᔁhwRToጬ”oshᬠhtLhwThc
iěCoDጛTᄛ LhRkicao \bo ᬉh₌Do”TRto.
ᦆ195㒆t⸠izIaᠠCcDzLcSDhwToဠwhThtLo(Rv
BG⸠.cLToaᠠScience in HistoryⰠoToaRkRLe
4UoဠikoRwhhDThIcTRဠToesᄠᆆhE鴛gDio.
3⺆%oL(RaഠhELoDRagဠᶆVLh(cgghLᘠ.cL
Toaᘠ᪆19㘲)t.ⰠᆆDhఠᖆihhKeIciacTRcРhD
TcggဠᶆctᰠRഛᬠgᰎKoTRဠSCI⸠dLoiKoⰠsos
iᔁhwRToጠ3⺆%oL(RaKⰠ«.cLToጠTᬠicLRጬ
CDᰠRഛ耠gᰎKoTRဠSC䤠EeKcఠactsᰠhge鴛
gDiRDb묠[Gar8eld, 1983]⸠.cLToጠVRgoa㨠«领Ke
wo4, CDᰠSCI iTcgc\f CDh-DᰠThihᬠᆆ贛TThc
᪆thKRCTe耠VLcwR耠kᠠh؎hL逬 LRgeGKoc
we耠ToeshȠVᰠജsewcTDoaRgDRsc묠[Gar8eld,
1983]. 蒆196㒆t. VLh(cgghᜠ.cLToጠihIca
᪆LcKosmRhTTzȠghic\f IS䤠VᰠgᰎKoTR耠SCI.
dᰠwTcTR耠3⸠%oL(RaKoⰠVLh(cgghLᠠ.cL
ToaᠠwhGTᰠgCRDoDଠ“grandfather鐠of science
of science («ഛKeIshN묠ToeshicഛTRv).
yᬚhkwh輈h ᬗchmᬈRDb‚saoK,‚ࠛ
gcTTzȠ᪆LokiRDRᬠToeshicഛTRဠᆆToesh
ЛDLRR‚zKo4URЕv‘ЛLRsoࠕsRw‑gDh
ᜑshw Toeᴑ,₭Rฑshw h“ELokhioTR4,
VLh(cgghLhРYale University (IDoఠ2hTTcs
DRseD⤠BcLcshРഛ₄haaᠠdLoNghР(Dcrek
de Solla Price)⸠B⸠dLoNᔠEzጠghicDTRshw
VᰠToesᬠVLckRഛTDhᨠ9ШḠBG⺆2cTTcKR
ᆆЛ⺆BGhTghTo⸠ltᰠsTRtᄠ«yoesᠠVhgac
n᠚RahTo» (Science after Babilone) [Price,
1961] ᆆ«PoaoဠToeso, EhabIoဠToeso»
(Little Science, Big Science) [Price, 1963崠gDo
጑ ᄗhi逄R cgDgcaacLoБ, z጑ cLc
icഛT造ᆆRkKoT造᪆999f⸠ᦆsTRtᬠ«Poaov
ToesoⰠEhabIoဠToeso묠B⺆dLoNᔠRkahGRa
ᔚhȠVhKShഠᶆRggacജioTR耠LokiRDRv
ToesR”h጑CcgDicࠈ逄R cDhKoБ‑)hEh
gࠜioa‑Kc4₌sgVhTcTmRoabࠜth‗hgఘ \bo
eCThȠaRDcLoDeLz. B⺆dLoNᔠEzጠthLvCRw
gDhLhࠈᄝhw‗h጑ \thgeKoLgDicࠈzS‑ࠚc
gDRmRȠ᪆ToeseⰠVhᔝhabsᘠhࠠVhaotoaⰠCDh
«ToREhጛc₁o᜘sDᬗThN ᬗDhN‗okiRDRv
hE鴛gDiᠠviavcDgဠTogDhvDcabToဠVhDLcE
ThgDଠ᪆Toesc묠[Price, 1963]⸠.acgDvURN
ᔁcmRoaRgఠᆆhLoDhLⰠhࠠosDRiTᰠisa4CRa
gဠ᪆RggacജioTRဠVᰠoToaRkᘠwogᔑihi
SCI‑)eᴘkoa \bo“tLhЈzc hDcࢍRoጋ࢐c
ihคhGࠜgDR ࠜihth‑TgDLewcTఘ \rav Rk
eCcTRv―hmᄜጜtRR‑)RgDhᜑR \boeᴑ.—T
hKTRw‑k ᬗi邁‚zVhaTRa‑ggጛKhioTᄛ
TᠠwogᔑiᬠgcDcȠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠gᖐ
ahs. ᦆ196㖆t. B. dLoNᔠ᪆gDoDbᬠNetwork of
Scienti8c PapersⰠhVeEaRshioTThȠ᪆GeLTo
aᬠScienceⰠhDwcCoጬ DᰠRkeCcTRᬠᔚvkcN
wcGKᘠജsewcTDowᄠVᰠR脠mRDRLhioTR4
whGcఠVᰎihaRDଠhVRᖐioDଠ᪆tchtLo(RCc
ᔝR脠DcLwRTo脠gDLesDeLᘠToesᄬ₫ᨠshDhLhN
LokKc᎐ \boesR‚hgVLᄈᄄo而gv”os”oLDz
DcLLRDhLᄑ―)TomRhToጋ࢐Б \tLoࠑmoБ,
thLowᄠᆆVogDERUowᄬ―ihEhKTzwᄠജLh
toБ‑)TcVLhShKᄄ逄R \rGeࠉavБ» [Price,
1965]⸠dᰠwTcTR耠hKThtᰠRภToREhacᬠoi
DhᜑDcDTzS―VcmRoaRgDhi h \boeshwcDᜑR
VLh(cgghLᠠ.⸠%LR((RDᠠ(Belver C. Grif8th,
Drexel University)Ⱐ«/DᰠEacgDv鴛ᬠRggac
ജioTRᬠB⺆dLoNgᠠ[Price, 1965崠VᰎihaRah
iěLi逛 hgDLhRDb―cDR₍RDRLhioTRv,”h
DhLzᬠVhgaeGRaᄠVLhhELokhРsoᜌ Toe
sR묠[Small, Grif8th, 1974]. B⺆dLoNᔠVcLizw
Tc \fhጋsh hgDLhRa―cDR₍RDᄗhioࠑာ
TᰠᆆLokLoEhDoጠwoDcwoDRCcᔝe耠DchLR4
LhgDᠠ/DR脠gcDcȬ―(hLweaRLhioጠkoshT
dLoнo“)gఘLcTRR \boeCࠜN–RDcLoDeថ.
ᦆVowvDଠᲆizKo4鴛wgဠisaoഛ Lh(cggh
Lo B.)dLoнo i)ToeshwcDᜑ4‑)ghmᄜጜtR4
Toesᄠ3⺆%oL(RaഠeCLcKRጠ᪆198㒆t⸠khah
De4 cKoab‑ЛTR .‒᜘Ngo, LᄕeGK᠛
we耠Loภ᪆KiᠠthKᠠPcGKeToLhKThȠhLto
TRkomRcN h ToeshwcDᜑR‑)RT(hᜄcDᜑR
(International Society on Scientometrics and
Informetric玆騠ISSI)⸠usDRiToဠVcLcVRᔝo
ᆆVhKഛLGsᠠB⸠dLoNgoⰠ(Rahgh(ᠠᆆVhaR
DRsᠠVLh(cgghLᠠBG⸠.cLToaᠠᆆizKo4鴛
thgv ghmᄜጜघ f. PcLDhTo eᴗcVRaR icLe
3⺆%oL(RaKᠠ᪆DhⰠCDᰠThizȠRT(hLwomR
hࠈ适 ᄈgDLewcTD whGcD EzDb RgVhጋkh
io\b \raဠ/wVRLRCcᔝhtᰠRkeCcTRဠRgDhLRR
R)ghmᄜጜtRR \boeᴑ.
fcteavLTzȠizVeᔝ⁓C䤠ᖆ196㒆t⸠izkioa
EhabIhȠRTDcLcᔠ᪆ToeCThРghhE鴛gDic,
R)LvK izKo4Uᆁgv ᄕgጛKhioDcጛN gDoaR
ᄈᆍRoDhLoБ‑)LokLoEhDCᄝoБ cDhKhi
ToeshwcDLRᄠTᠠhᔈhiᬠoToaRkᠠwogᔑihi
SCI. OCcTzᬠhgᰎToaᄬ CDᰠ/Dᄠwogᔑiz
viav而gv₍cࠈ逄‑gDhCࠑshw RkeCcࠑv
hDഛabTz脠ToVLoiacTRȠToesᄬ―cDcȠTo
eC࢐S”hЄeࠑᴘmᄂ‑)gLcKgDihw“mcࠝR
LckeጋDoDᄚThgDR ToeC࢐S RggacKhioࠑN.
dcLihᬠseweavDRiThᬠRkKoTRᬠSC䤠Vh
viRahᔋ‚)
MyMТ༠u褠999ꀠeGᬠ᪆196㖆t.,
ᆆᖆDc脠VhᜠToCoahᔋ VLRhELcDcTRᬠ/Dhth
RkKoࠑv‚cKeUᄄR RE጑hDcᴘБ‑)uy
999f. Bcఘabࠜc hVRᔘTRc SCI R)VᜑTmR
V逬‎oahGcTTzᬠVLᄠctᰠgᰎKoTRᄬ zaR
hᔚc鴛T造᪆sTRtᬠ«rᔈhi造RT(hLwoDRsR»,
hVeEaRshioTThȠ᪆196㖆t. [PRSoNahᨠᆆKL.,
1965].ₗఘ hࠜtLo(Rv‑)VhgacKe肝ov”TR
to₫yoeC࢐c”hЄeࠑᴘmᄑ‑)ᄈ(hLwoDR
so묠[PRSoNahᨠᆆKL., 1976崠EzaᄠVcLcicഛ
࢐ \bo‘ࠉ጑Ngsᄂ, \bcwcmsᄂ,₭Loࢍekgsᄂ
ᆆKLetRᬠvkzsᄠwRLᠠᆆRkKoT造᪆9ШuⰠli
LhVc‑)ЯVhTRR.‟hGࠜ”hTgఘDRLhioDb, Dh
hEc hࠜtLo(RR“sokoaR”hጜgᔘabࠜc
iaRvTRc \bo“tLhwࠜc hshacTRc REaᄜ
DᬃT邁‑)RT(hLwomRhTT邁―ěmRoaᄕDhi
᪆999fⰠgDLoTo脠nhgDhCThȠliLhV逬‏TKRᄬ
.LokRaRᄠᆆKLetR脠gDLoTo脠wRLo.
9ጛഖcD hKиLsTeDb, Dh‑TDᬈgRiThc
ghDLeKTRCcgDiᰠ3⸠%oL(RaKᠠᆆBG⸠ЛcഛL
Ecᜉo―ఘጜ ogDb4 \boeCࠜN haRDRᴑ‑)Kc
EoDhᨠ᪆owcLRsoTᔝhРToeCThРghhE鴛gDic
i)EhᜋEc―)RT(hᜄomᄜTTzw”ᜑฑghw‑)gh
VcLTRCcgDihР9ШḠᖆ999ꀠ᪆shᔄRCcᔝhN
thTsc⸠dLckRഛTఠ2cTTcKᄠVLRKoioጠhtLhw
ThᬠkToCcTRᬠToesᬠᆆcᬠLhaᄠ᪆GRkTᄠhE鴛
gDioⰠᆆctᰠᔑabTᰠEcᔁhshRaᄠeᔁcSᄠ999f
᪆shᔄhgc⸠ᦆ196㎆t⸠VᰠLcIcTR耠BG⸠2cTTcKR
EzaᠠeCLcGഛTᠠᔁcmRoabToဠshwRgᔑဠVhK
VLcകcKoDcabgDihРK-Lᠠu⺆noNTEcLtᠠ(Alvin
Weinberg) Kaဠh贛TsᄠghgDhvTRဠToeCTh-DcS
TRCcᔝhȠRT(hLwomRR⸠B-ឆA⺆noNTEcLআ—
ᖐࠠLhgᔑNᔝR脠/wRtLoTDhᨬ‖CogDTRᴠPoT
S/DDᬈgshth VLhᬝDo R)KRLᬝDhL i)Dᬃᬈᄛ
18–cD—ᴗRKGgshN \bomᄜToabࠜN–oEhLo
DhLRᄠ(Oak Ridge National Laboratory⦆騠Eza
RkicgDcT Tc Dhጋsh acgDvUᄄR \boeC࢐Б
ജgDRGcTRvwᄬ ᰠᆆeKRiRDcabThȠᔁhghE
ThgDb耠eEcGഛTRဠ᪆hE鴛gDicTThȠkTo
CRwhgDᄠToesᄠKaဠVLhmicDoTRဠgDLoTz.
ᦆLckeabDoDᬠLoEhD造shwRgᔑᄠVhviRagv
kTowcࠑD适 \rhsaoK₫yoeᴘ, LoiRDcጋ
gDih, ᄈ(hLwomRv» (Science, Government,
and Information)ⰠRkicgDTzȠ᪆wRLᬠsoᴠജ
saoഠu⺆noNTEcLto⸠ᦆജsaoഛ“DwcCoahᔋ,
CDh‖иT逛₫VhShLhࠛTz hK ᠕gRiowR
ᄈ(hLwomᄑ» [Weinberg, 1963],―)shDhL逄R
hTᄠTᬠeᔁcio4ఠᰎToshwRDbgvⰠᆆRT(hLwo
mᄜTTzN ᴗRฑg LoggwoDᜑioagv sos etLh
kᠠge鴛gDihioTR耠gowhȠToesᄬ‚)DᰠiLcwv
ᴘs haeCcࠑc‑T(hLwomᄑ‐iavcDgv‑TDc
tLoabࠜN‑)TchDKcaRМN ogDb4 \boeCࠜth
VLh贛ggo⸠ᦆജsaoഛ”hwRgᔑᄬ acThРsh
DhLhȠEzጠBG⸠ЛcഛLEcLtⰠhDwcCoahᔋ㨠«2h
wᄕgRv \boShKRDgv hK‚ěCoDጛTᄛw‚hk
whGThgDcȠScience Citation Index⸠P造ShDcaR
Ez LᄚacCb‚ࠑwoࠑc \boeCTh-DcSࠑCcgsh
th ghhEUcgDio s)/Dhwe ࠜihwe, hUࠜwe,
ShDv hso oጜ‑gVhabkecМwe, hRgshihwe
RTgDLewcTDe⸠2hwRgᔑဠVhaotocDⰠCDᰠRTഛs
ᔑLhioTRᬠgᖐahsⰠ᪆CogDThgDᄠ᪆ghCcDoTRR
g)VcLweDomRhࠈ逄‑TKcsgᄗhioࠑcw‎oth
ahishᨬ eഛఠIRLhsᰠRᔁhabkhioDbgဠᆆcth
VLRЛࠛTᄛ‑kЛTRD―VhghE \bo缛th“gw逕
acTRဠDcSTRCcᔝhȠaRDcLoDeL造ᆆᔁhghE
eVLoiacTRဠc4묠[Weinberg, 1963]⸠ЭDᠠLcsh
wcTKomRဠviRaoᔋ‚oGTzРIothР᪆RgDhLRR
LokiRDRဠSCI, wogᔑi造shDhLhtᰠVhgaeGRaR
hgࠜihN \rav‗oบRDRv \boeshwcDᜑR.
ycshDhLzᬠizihK造KhsaoKᠠnoNTEcLto
EzaᄠeCDcT造ᆆ᪆999f⸠ᦆ196㚆t⸠EzaᰠVLR
TvDh‒hgDoThiጛTᄛ d᜘iRDcabgDio 999f
h―hkKoTRR’gcgh4จhth \boeCࠜ-Dc脈RCc
gshth‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜth₍cTDLoₚ‘Toጜघ
owcLRsoTgshज Clearing House (1cTDLo“D
CcDhᨬ‚zVhaTcTTz脠VᰠshTDLosDoРᖆthge
KoLgDihР9Шu⤠ᆆhؠhLtoTRkomRᄠᔑgDcwz
KcVhࠑLhioࠑv.
ycabkဠᔝokoDbⰠCDᰠgᰎKoTRᬠSC䤠ᆆRg
VhabkhioTRc cDhKo―gzጜs \bc‚zຐioጜ
sLRDRsR⸠Л4EhVzDThⰠCDᰠ᪆60-脠tt⸠᪆so
иgDic‘LteЛTDo LhDRiTRsR cDhKo‑g
VhabkhioaR hиTb i逕hse4 mRDRLeᬄhgDb
LoEhఠТ⺆B⺆ЛzgcTsh⸠rDicCoဠTᠠ/DhఠeVLcs,
RkicgDTzN‘ЛLRsoࠕshN \rhseЛTDoaᄕD
y⺆舘Vao\b (N⺆Kaplan⤠hDwcCoጬ DᰠgᖐasR
egDoToi጑io而‘gghmRoDᄚTe4―ivkb cG
KᘠKiewဠജsewcTDowᄬ‘)R脠shaRCcgDiᰠVh
ᴘk通ocD‚጑vࠑc‖CcThth.‒hahGRDcጋThc
谌h‚aRvTRc‑aR“DLRmoDcabThc, \bo₌జD
ihVLhᔠhDicDvఠ/sᔁcᜌ逬 hⰠEcภghwTcTRv,
LokLe缑DcጋThc‚጑vࠑcₜzgcࠝh \bo‗ok
ᨑDRc―hicDgshN \tcTcDRᴑ zጜ“tLhwTzw
[Kaplan, 1965].₉ctoDᄚThc₍RDᄗhioࠑc
TckToCRDcabTᰠᆆviavcDgဠgDoDRgDRCcᔝhN
gaeCoNࠜgDb4, hghEcTࠜ‚)ఘᴑS“tLhwTzS
wogᔑioSⰠsoᴠWeb of Science⸠nzVhaTcT
Tzᬠ᪆IS䤠RggacജioTRဠVhsokoaᄬ DᰠTc
घDRᨈhc₍RDRLhioTRc‚)hVLcKcacTࠜN
hEaogDᄠkToTRဠhEzCTᰠTᬠVLcizIoc\f 5
(ᠠCo鴛 cTbIc)⸠MgDhLRvⰠVhജEToဠCold
fusion (ShahKTzȠᔑTDck⤠᪆1970-脠tt.ⰠgaeCo
cDgဠsLoNTᬠLcKsᰠᆆVhKDicLGKocఠᔝhLcc
ᄕsa4иTᄛ Rk V᜘iRa. PThthCᄕጛTT逛
RggacജioTRဠVhsokoaᄬ CDᰠCogDhDᠠmR
Dᄗhioࠑv hahGRDcጋTh”hLLc጑LecDgv
ᖆVLRkToTRcРRggacജioDcaဠToeCTzРgh
hE鴛gDihw⸠yctoDRiThᬠmRDRLhioTRᮆ騠/Dh
igctᰠaRIଠ«Iew»ⰠshDhLzȠ᪆ഛNgDiRDcab
ThgDᄠTᬠiaRvc\f \bᠠLckeabDoD造oToaRko.
dLhDᄚࠑsR‑gVhጋkhioࠑv cDhKo₍RDR
Lhioࠑv \fosGc‖ᴘk通o而 \bo₫RkEzDhCThc»
mRDRLhioTRᬠwcDhKRCcᔝR脠ᆆh؎hLTzS
gఘDcN R)ᔘМmRDRLhioTRc RaR mRDRLhio
TRc”Lethw‖CcTzS \rLet \rLeघ.₄oМmRDR
LhioTRᮆ騠/DᰠThLwoabToဠVLosDRsᠠ᪆Ve
EaRsomRvSⰠᆆctᰠജaဠ᪆ERhwcKRmRTᔝhN
aRDcLoDeLᬠwhGcఠജgDRtoDଠ25
⸠uiDhL,
Vhบhav肝RN―cEc Lcคcᜈhc―oМmRDR
LhioTRcⰠwhGcఠizkioDଠiᰎLoGcTRဠᚆLc
贛TkcTDhᨠgDoDbᄠᆆᘠLcKosDhLᠠToeCThth
Geᜈoao,‛gaR―oМmRDRLhioTRc \boTcgጜ
e鴛LؠgᖐasoРTᠠKLetRᬠLoEhDz⸠2hTcCTh,
DoshȠoiDhᜠwhGc\f hVeEaRshioDଠᔚh耠Lo
EhDᘠ᪆GeLToaᬠᖆTRksRРRwVosD-(osDhLhw
ᆆᔠTcizghsRwᄠgDoTKoᜌowᄠLc贛TkRLh
ioTRv⸠ᦆDoshРgaeCoᬠh\b \boiLcKRఠgowhwe
gcEcⰠVhᔝhabsᘠVLosDRCcᔝᄠDcLvcఠiᰎ
whGThgఋ zDb LhmR఑LhioTTzw‍Leऑ
wᄠRggacജioDcavwR⸠訑DRLhioTRᬠsLe
thw‖Cc࢐S \fhጋsh \rLet \rLeto \boVhБTocD
RgDhLR耠ᲆwR(RCcᔝhРcKRThLhtᬺ soGKzN
whGcఠctᰠihhELokRDb, \bᰠTRsDᰠTᬠwhGcD
ctᰠihᔁLhRkicgDR⸠foᔁLcഛacTRᬠgᖐahs
igctKo LcบzCoNࠜ \bcgEoaoTgRLhioࠜ.
ycEhabIoဠtLeVVᠠgDoDcȠwhGcఠVhaeCRDb
EhabIhᬠshaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahsⰠᆆkToCRDcab
Thc hጋ缑TgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ hGcD zDb
VLhmRDRLhioࠜ \bcจoCRDcabࠜ‑aR―higcw
TᬠEzDଠVLhmRDRLhioTh⸠ЭDᰠviacTRᬠhD
ThᔑDgဠKoGᬠᶆThEcaciᔝRРaoeLᬘDow.
ТoshᬠLoᔁLcഛacTRᬠgᖐahᴠhVRᖐiocDgv
sLRihȠThLwoabThtᰠLoᔁLcKcacTRဠᆆജ
gDoDhCTᰠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTᰠ᪆Dc脠gaeCovS, \tഛ
иahiᬃcgsRN₭osDhL‑t᜘cD‗hab.₠okT逛
hEa᠕DR‑ggጛKhioTRv‑Л4D―hiᬗ缛TTh
LokTzᬠwhഛaᄠmRDRLecwhgDRⰠᆆLokLzi
wcGKᘠhEaogDvwᄠkToTRȠwhGcఠജgDR
toDଠghhDThIcTRဠ10:1⸠ТosⰠᔗcKTvဠgDoDbv
Vh hacseavᜈhN ᄜጜtRR‑)tcTcDRsc‎o
ഛgvDRacDTRȠVcLRhഠVhaeCR\f 4ゆgᖐahs,
ᢆᔗcKTvဠgDoDbဠ᪆GeLToaᬠVᰠwoDcwoDRsc
R጑‚zCRg጑DcጋThN \fcSࠑsc―hEcLcD \bc
EhacᬠCcDzLc脠gᖐahs. ТᰠGᬠgowhᬠhDTh
ᔑDgဠᆆᴠhE鴛gDicTTzРToesoЬ‚)shDhLzS
᪆VcLie耠hCcLcKଠmRDRLe4DgဠsTRtᄠ[PoL
seghioⰠЯLhIciᔝRN, 1987].
ᤠ196㖆t⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠhLtoTRkhiziocD
shЁ஀DcLRkᄗhioࠈe4―aeGEe Selective
Dissemination of Informatio溆騠SDI (RkERLo
DcጋThth‗ogVLcKcacࠑv‑T(hLwomᄑ))—
Automatic Subject Citation Alert (ASCA).
dhKVᄕCRsR‛GᬈcKcabTh haeCoaR‗᠕ě
CoDᴑ REaᄜtLo(RCcgᴑS“VRᔘTRN―ఘ
DcȠVᰠRTDcLcge4鴛ȠR脠DcwoDRsᬠRภ2000
ToeCTz脠GeLToahi⸠舘GKzȠVhKVRgCRs
RwcጠᔚhȠVLh(RaଠRTDcLcghi⸠yoVLRwcL,
LcKosDhថ \boeCTzS₏eᜈoጜi htaR hae
CoDଠᔁRᔝᄠgDoDcȬ‚)shDhLz脠EzaᄠVLh
mRDᄗhio࢐ eE጑ᴘmᄑ‑k‑S₏eLToahi.
dhKVRgCRᴠ/DhȠgae輆造RwcጠDosGᬠiᰎ
МGࠜgDb haeCoDb REaᄜtLo(RCcgᴑc
hVRᔘTRv―ఘDcN“VLcKcacTTzS‘iDhLhi
R጑ eE጑ᴘmᄂ,‚)shDhLzS z጑ LhmRDR
LhioT造LoEhD造VhabkhioDcav⸠ТosRРhELo
khЬ SCI ᆆASCA
ᴗhwc RT(hᜄomᄜTࠜN
ghgఘiav肝cN―VhghEgDihioaR‖gఘࠜi
ጛTR4 Lvw邁”hTDosDhi cGKe‖иTzwR
LokTz脠gDLoࠠwRLo⸠9oР3⺆%oL(Ra\r iTR
woDcabTᰠgacKRD, \tഛ‑)soᴠmRDRLe4Dgဠcth
LoEhD造ᆆToᔝhabsᰠLogDcఠVhVeavLThgDb
SCI⸠ᦆ197ゆt⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠVhaeCocఠVRᔋ
М“D‑บcgDࠜth‖ᴗoRTgshth \boeshicKo
s⺆D⺆T⺆u⺆u⺆2hLcTThth
‑)VRIcఠhؠ/Dhw
᪆oVLcaᬠ197ゆt⸠᪆Current Contents㨠«…Tc
KoiTh v ToCoa hиTb RTDᬗcgTe4 ěLᬁR
ᔝᘠᖆghicDᔝRРeCcTzЬ”hDhLzȠosDRiTh
koTv\f RggacജioTRvwᄠVᰠToeshicഛTR4
R)RgVhabkecD SCI Kav ghmᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS
ᆆKLetR脠贛acN. ˜ \bRshtKᠠE造TᬠRwcጠgae
CoဠegDoThiRDଠDoshȠshTDosDⰠcgaᄠE造ဠTc
gᰎKoጠgae輆ᘠASCAⰠVᰎihav4Ue耠wTᬠVh
aeCoDb ᄈ(hLwomᆀ h VeE጑ᴘmRvS, i)sh
DhថS zaR LhmRDRLhioTz hR‗oEhDz»
[Gar8eld, 1970].
rě᜘DRiTh‗᠆hDo4U᠐―ᄕDᬄo“Vh
ic鴛TRဠTᠠhᔈhiᬠVLhmRDRLhioTTz脠Ve
E጑ᴘmᄂ₇.)%oL(RaKo hkih጑ao‛we
egDoThiRDଠᔚvkଠᆆᔠctᰠKoabTcihgDhCTzw
shaacthN, Cacࠜw-shLLcgVhTKcTDhw fẉ
n.)l.)nogଝhigsᄄ.’)ᄈDcLi஀ (Dcac(hࠈ适
Lokthihᜠ14.09.201㒆t.⤠oiDhLᘠ/DhȠtaoiz
hࠠiᔁhwRToa㨠«…ᨠ197㖆t⸠w造hVeEaRshio
aᄠgDoDb耠VᰠLᬘsDRioРTᠠ(hg(hᜠᆆ(hg
(haRVRK造[Vaskovskii et al., 1975]⸠dhDhw
ToIᠠgDoDbဠVhVoaᠠ᪆ᔁRghᴠ50 \boREhacc
mRDRLecwz脠LoEhఠRภ999f⸠rTᠠmRDRLecDgv
ᤠ1968 \t⸠dhgDoThiacTRcРdLckRKcTDᠠu褠999ꀠ
osoKcwRsᠠP⸠n⸠2caKzIᠠgaeGEoⰠoToahtRCToဠASCA,
Ezao“ᜉoTRkhioTo \rav \boeCࠜ-RT(hᜄomᄜTࠜth
hEgaeGᄚoࠑv‘ᴘKcБshi‚’MyMТM.
2hLcTThȠu⸠u⸠騠icKeURȠToeCTzȠghDLeKTRᴠ
gcsDhLᠠVᰠRgDhLRᄠToesᄠᨠMTgDRDeDᬠsREcLTcDRsᄠ
u褠O99fⰠghLoDTRᴠᄠKLeठ%⸠P⸠BhELhio⸠9w.㨠2hLcT
Thʆu⺆u. Science Citation Index㨠dLRwcTcTRᬠ᪆Toeshic
KcTRᄠᄠRT(hLwoDRsᬠ/⼠yТM. 1966⸠9cL. 2⸠ꒆ10⸠9. 3–6.
ജ―R脠VhL, \boELoaᠠEhacᬠ60〠mRDRLhio
TRN». yoCRToaoᔋ /DᠠgDoDbဠDos: «PcDhK
hVLcഛacTRဠ(hg(hLᠠviavcDgဠhKTRРRk
ᔘwzS hVeavᜈzS‚)脑wRCcgᴑS‑)Eᄜ脑
wRCcᔝR脠aoEhLoDhLRvS»ⰠᆆEzaᠠgᖐaso
TᠠCurrent Contents⸠nᔝhLᬠnoᔋshiᔝRN
VhaeCRጠVRᔋwᰠhఠ3⺆%oL(RaKoⰠ᪆shDhLhw
hࠠᔁLoIRioጬ”oᴠ᪆KoacshȠ9RERLᄠekTo
aᄠᰠCurrent Contents⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠVRgoa:
«…ဠEzጠ᪆ToCoaᬠ60-脠᪆PhᔝiᬠᆆKoiTh
wcCDoጠVLhcSoDଠTᠠVhckഛ cLcภ9RERLb».
«頠VhEc輘ጠᶆuTKLc耠dcDLhiRCᘠ(CacT-
shLLcᔁhTഛTఠu⺆d⺆舘VRmᠠEzጠVLcകc
KoDcጛw oabࠛihgDhCThth \boeCThth₍ᬈ
DLo⤠ᖆ/DRРVRᔋwhЬ“\b \roጠesokoTRᬠ.hLc
9aoᨑࠕshwe
)騠iRkRఠ3⺆%oL(RaKᠠEza
isa4Ccࠠ᪆Vao\b \bᠠ197㞆t.»⸠yoCRToဠᖆ/Dhth
iLᬄᬈR₇.)%oL(RaK chKThs᜘DTh Lᄛk
輘ጠ᪆999ꀠᆆfhgᔑ耠soᴠthgDଠusoഛwRR
Toes⸠dhgacKTRȠctᰠiRkRఠiᰠnaoKRihgDhs
ghgDhvagဠ᪆200㞆t.
dLosDRCcᔝᄠiᰠiLcwဠigc脠VLRckജi
3⺆%oL(RaഠizgDeVoጠTᠠgcwRToLoSⰠVh
givUcࠈzS‑T(hLwomRhࠈ逄 LhKesDow
IS䤠ᆆR脠RᔁhabkhioTR4⸠ЭDᄠgcwRToLz
hEzCTᰠhLtoTRkhizioaRᔋ ᪆MTgDRDeDᬠhL
toTRCcᔝhȠSRwRᄠu褠999ꀠRaᄠ᪆.REaR
hDcsᬠVᰠcgDcgDicTTzРToesoРu褠999f.
頠ShLhIᰠVhwT4ⰠsoᴠTᠠgcwRToLᬠ᪆19㠱)t.
3⺆%oL(RaഠLogᔝokzioጠᰠജgDeVᬠ᪆LcGR
wᬠhTaoNࠠᶆEoTsᘠKoTTz脠IS䤠ᆆᔁcmRoabTh
ghkKoTT邁 \rav₌DhN‗᠆hDz \bhi邁‖KoጛT
Tz脠LcgeLgoS: ISI BIOME䐠ᆆISI COMPUMAS.
ᦆDᰠiLcwဠTRsDᰠRภToᔠKoGᬠTᬠiRഛጠVcL
ghToጋThth”hЁ஀DcLo.₄cБToLz₇.)%oL
(RaKᠠhᔚcUoaRᔋ‚)«ncgDTRsᬠu褠999f»
ᆆGeLToaᬠ«yoeCTh-DcSTRCcᔝoဠRT(hL
womRv묠(9cL. 1)ⰠizVeᔝocwhРnMyMТ༠uy
999f⸠ᦆTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠ/DᘠDLoKRmR4
gᬄRToLhi LhKhᎏ᠛D‚逕hshsioaR(R
9aoiRTgsRȠ.⸠n⸠EzጠToCoabTRshРhDKcaᠠwcGKe
ToLhKTz脠givkcȠdLckRKRewᠠBny1.
mᄗhioࠈ适 cLghToa”hЁoࠑR Thomson
ReutersⰠshDhLoဠseVRaᠠIS䤠᪆199㊆t.
萠1972 \t⸠᪆ISI \boCoagဠizVeᔝ⁓ocial
Science Citation Inde碆š SSCI (OsokoDcav
mRDRLecwhȠaRDcLoDeL造VᰠhE鴛gDicT
TzРToesow)Ⱐᢆ᪆197㢆t⸠VhviRagဠArts
⚆Humanities Citation Inde碆š A&HCI (Osoko
DcaଠmRDRLecwhȠaRDcLoDeL造VᰠRᔝeggDie
ᆆaRDcLoDeLc)⸠rKTRРRภioGTz脠/DoVhi
᪆LokiRDRᄠToeshwcDLRᄠgDoጠcGcthKTzȬ
ToCRToဠᖆ197㖆t.ⰠizVeᔝ⁊ournal Citation
Report玆騠JCR (OsokoDcaဠmRDRLecwhgDR
ToeCTz脠GeLToahi)⸠dcLihᬠRkKoTRᬠJCR
izIaᰠ᪆VcCoDThРiRKᬠᆆghഛL輘aᰠRT
(hLwomᆀ hE ᄄVosD-(osDhLoS hshah
3000 oeCTzS₏eL࠘ahi.’蘱978蘉. oCoጘgb
VeE጑ᴘmRv JCR-Social Sciences (OᴘkoDc
av₍RDRLecМgDR \boeCTzS₏eᜈoጜi h
hE鴛gDicTTzРToesow)⸠«9cNCogⲆ騠ᔝokoa
3⺆%oL(RaKⲆ騠wThtRᬠeCcTzᬠᆆLcKosDh
L造ഛao4ఠe輘ᔈe耠hIREseⰠshtKᠠKewo4D,
CDᰠSC䤠EzጠgᰎKo\b \fhabsᰠKaဠDhthⰠCDhEz
VLhRkihKRDଠctᰠVhEhCTzȠVLhKesಆ騠JCR.
rᔈhiToဠ贛aଠ/DR脠LcgeLgh᪆騠RT(hLwo
mRhTThc“EcgěиTᄛ‑ggጛKhioDcጛN,₁h
Dv ᠕gRiz REaRht᜘(Rиgsᆁ‎oVᄕᬂ
viav而gv \bchmcࠑҐw‑gDhCࠑshw \boesh
wcDLRCcᔝhȠRT(hLwomRR묠[Gar8eld, 2011].
něLi逛 hTvDᄛ₫RwVosD-(osDhL» z
ጜ VLcKጜGcࠜ 3.)%oL(RaKhw ghᨄcgDࠜ
ᖆജsDhLhРM⺆ШcLhР(Irving Sher⤠᪆196㎆t.
[Gar8eld, Sher, 1963].’icKcTRc₌జज \fcL
wRTo―VhghEgDihioጜ hacc”oCcgDicTࠜwe
hDEhLᘠToeCTz脠GeLToahᨬ“ge鴛gDiavc
whwe RE጑hDcᴘБ‑)ᄈ(hLwomRhࠈ逄R
gae輆owR⸠MwVosD-(osDhᜠEzgDLᰠgDoa
VhVeavLcࠠsoᴠᔑwihጠToeCThtᰠVLcgDR輘
GeLToaoⰠShDဠctᰠkToCcTRဠᔑabTᰠLokaR
Co4Dgဠ᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠhఠhEaogDᄠkToTRv
R)ᬉh‗cጛioTDThgDR LcKЛDThN“Ea᠕DR.
MᔁhabkhioTRᬠSC䤠viRahᔋⰠVᰠge鴛gDie,
ᄈThiomRhࠈ逄 hKShKhw”)RkeCcࠑ4₭hL
woጋ࢐S‑)Tc(hLwoጋ࢐S \boeC࢐S―ivkcN
oiDhLhᨠVeEaRsomRȠ騠hKThȠRภthLvCR脠
VLhEacРRggacജioTRȠ᪆9Шu⸠ᦆVcLRh\r
ᔚhcȠLoEhD造ToഠVLhcsDhРWels栠3⺆%oL
(RaK hKLe輑ጕv―)izKo4URЕv gᆁh
ahthРVLh(cgghLhРO⸠%oLiccР(W⺆Garvey),
LoEhDoiIRР᪆DhРGᬠeTRicLᔑDcDc⸠ᦆshT
贛‱950-膆tt. \n⺆%oLicȠᆆctᰠshaactᠠജs
Dhᜠ.⺆%LR((Rఠ᪆Lowso脠VLhcsDᠠAmerican
Psychology Association (uwcLRsoTᔝhȠog
ghmRomRR gRShጜthi)—―oМN LcKgఘᨑ
DcabࠜN h RgacTࠜgDR Lh(cggᄜToab
ࠜN \boeCࠜN“ᜉoTRkomRR₄鸞)‚zVhaTRaR
izKo4鴛cgဠRggacKhioTRᬠVᰠRkeCcTR耠
gRgDcҐ \boeC࢐S”hЄeࠑᴘmᄂ.₄acKecD
ᔝokoDbⰠCDᰠToaRCRᬠᆆioGThgDଠLhaᄠTo
eC࢐S”hЄeࠑᴘmᄂ‚gctKo LRkToioahgb
᪆ToescⰠhKTosᰠRwcTTᰠO⺆%oLicȠᆆ.⺆%LR(
(RఠiVcLizᬠgewcaᄠVhgDLhRDଠiᖀ₍cVhC
se haeиTRv‑)᜘gVLhgD᜘ࠛTRv \bhihth
kToTRv h ᬗc‚zVhaࠛTRv‑)koiᬗ缛TRv
RggacജioTRv⸠%LeVVᠠO⺆%oLicဠᆆ.⺆%LR(
(RDo‚zviRao‗hጋ \bc(hLwoጋ࢐S”oToahi
ToeC࢐S”hЄeࠑᴘmᄂ‑)«invisible colleges»
(«TckLᄄzS shaacsDᄚhi»), ihkࠑᴘ4URS
Kav“ě᜘DRiThth‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTRv‑T(hL
womRᄠᆆhEwcTᠠkToTRvwR⸠noGTzȠᆆTc
DLᄚRoጋ࢐N i通hK RS RggacKhioࠑv ko
sa4Coagဠ᪆DhЬ DᰠToeCTzᬠshwweTRsomRᄠ
viav4Dgဠ贛ahgDThȠᔑgDcwhȬ‚)shDhLhȠ
(hLwoጋ࢐c‑)Tc(hLwoጋ࢐c cDhKz‗og
VLhgDLoTcTRဠRT(hLwomRᄠDcᔈᰠᔚvkoT造
wcGKᘠghEhN⸠ЭDᄠRggacജioDcaᄠhDwcCoaᄬ
CDh―RgDcwo \boeC࢐S”hЄeࠑᴘmᄂ‐iavcD
gv“DᴗzDhN―hmRoabࠜN―RgDcМN,“gࠜioT
ThȠTᠠikoRwhഛNgDiRᄠa4ഛȬ ᆆ/acwcTD造
/DhȠᔑgDcw造ᔚvkoT造wcGKᘠghEhȠDosRР
hELokhwⰠCDᰠRkwcTcTRᬠhKThtᰠRภTR脠iaR
vcD \bo₭eࠝmRhࠑLhioࠑc \rLetRS [Garvey,
Grif8th, 1967]⸠5ogaetᄠVLh(cgghLᠠO⺆%oLicဠ
i)RggacKhioࠑvS ToeCThN shЄeࠑᴘmᄑ
ᆆVᔑShahtRᄠToeCThtᰠDihLCcgDiᠠEzaᄠhD
wcCcT造᪆199㊆t⸠khahDhȠwcKoab耠American
Psychology Association.
ᤠgcLcKRTᬠ1960-脠tt⸠VLh(⸠.⺆%LR((RD
iᰎtaoiRጠso(cKLᘠ᪆BLcsgcabᔝhРeTRicL
ᔑDcDᬠ(Drexel University)ⰠᆆctᰠRTDcLcᔠᔄc
gDRagဠᶆToeshwcDLRCcᔝRРRggacജioTRvw.
༎eC᠐ LhEጛwz―DoLᬈRv \boeCThN–RDc
LoDeL逬“ࠠeiRഛጠ᪆/DhРVLh贛ggⰠ᪆shDhLhw
RഛᄠRaᄠaRDcLoDeLoⰠsokoahᔋ 逬‑kToIR
io而gv‑጑―DoThivDgv wcTcc hack࢐Б,
hDLo輘ဠᔝhLhgDଠLhgDᠠᆆkToCRwhgDଠkTo
TRv⸠rࠠEzጠvLzРgDhLhTTRshРᆆVLhVotoT
KRgDhw‑gVhጋkhioࠑv cDhKo₍RDᄗhioࠑv
KaဠoToaRkᠠ(hLwoabThȠgDLesDeL造ToesR,
VoLoaacabࠜN \bc(hᜄoabࠜN―hmRoabࠜN
gDLesDeLcⰠshDhLe耠hࠠRkeCoጠiwcgDᬠᖆVLh
(cgghLhРO⺆%oLiccw⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠhDwcCoa
ioGThgDଠisaoKᠠ.⺆%LR((RDᠠ᪆70-膆tt.
᪆LokLoEhDsᘠRggacജioTRȠVᰠsoᜌRLhio
TR4 \boesR.‏ЛTTh“T ᬗizw LRЛTRa
DcSࠑse ThthicsDhLThthⁿᴘ጑Lhioࠑv
KaဠVhgDLhcTRဠgcDᄠshtTRDRiTz脠ᆆghmR
oabTz脠ᔚvkcȠᆆToeCRጠ/DhwᘠKLetRS⸠ᦆDh
iLcwဠ%⺆9whaጠ(Henry Smal沆騠KRLcsDhL
oToaRDRCcᔝhtᰠhDഛaᠠISI⤠koTRwoagဠLok
LoEhఝhN cDᰍo”h-mR఑LhioTRv.₃.)%Lᆭ
(Rఠᆆ%⺆9whaጠ᪆
0-膆tt⸠VLRwcTRaᄠ/DhD
RkzᔝoTTzȠwcDh\r \raဠgᰎKoTRဠsoᜌ造igcS
hgThiT邁, \boREhጛc‘sDRiTh‗okiRio4Uᆁ
gv―VcmRoጋThgDcN‚)cgDcgDicࠈzS \boeᴘS
[Gar8eld, 1969].ₑᰌv cజK”h-mRDRLhioTRv
EzጠVhgDLhc\b \raဠgᰎKoTRဠᔚvkcȠwcGKe
ജsewcTDowᄬ“ࠠLoᔁLhgDLoTRጠ/DᘠRഛ4
KaဠgᰎKoTRဠgcDcȠsh-mRDRLhioTRဠwcGKe
oiDhLowR⸠nzgDeVoဠTᠠ贛LcwhTRᄠVᰠVh
ihKᘠiLeCcTRဠVLh(cgghLᘠ.⺆%LR((RDe
᪆199㞆t⸠khahDhȠwcKoaᄠRwcTᄠB⺆dLoN
goⰠVLh(cgghᜠ%⺆9whaጠVhKCcLsTeaⰠCDh
«…
cᔄhDLဠTᠠ(oTDogDRCcᔝRᬠeᔁcSR
i)LokiRDᄑ \fcSThahtᄑ, Lᄈmᄁz,―Dᄄe
጑Le4URc \boeC࢐c”hЄeࠑᴘmᄑ,“gDo而
gဠTcRkwcTTzwᄬ‑)/DᰠRggacജioTRᬠEeഛD
gaeGRDଠwhഛab耠ᆆhᔈhihȠKaဠVhജETzS
ᄕgጛKhioTRN‚)/ጛsDLhTThw‚ᬝc» [Small,
1997]⸠MggacജioTRᬠᔑgDcw造ToeCTz脠shw
weࠑᴘmᄂ‗oggwoDLᄚoahgb”os“KTo‑k
VLhEacРToeshicഛTRvⰠᆆLoEhD造/DhȠtLeV
V造EzaᄠVcLcicഛT造ᆆRkKoT造MTgDRDeDhw
RgDhLRᄠcgDcgDiᰎToTRဠᄠDcSTRsᄠ(MMlТ)
᪆197㚆t. [2hwweTRsomRv…, 1976]⸠ᦆVLcKRgah
ᨑR”)Vc᜚hwe \fᰄe hࠜtLo(RCcgshN―cᜑR
Essays of an Information Scientist 3⺆%oL(RaKo
ThEcaciᔝRȠaoeLᬘఠBG⺆ЛcഛLEcLठVRgoa:
«…gᰎKoTRᬠSC䦆騠/DᰠaeCIRȠVLRwcᜠVhK
ShKᠠBGRTᠠ(Gene⤠ᶆshwweTRsomRvР᪆Toesᬺ
/DᰠTᬠTcshDhLzȠVhKKcLGRio4URȠ(iᔁh
whtoDcጋ࢐N)‑TgDLewcTD‑጑―wokhC࢐N
woDcLRoጬ₌DᰠioGToဠCogDଠgowhȠToesᄬ‌o
soဠGcⰠsoᴠLoEhDᠠkᠠgDhahР᪆aoEhLoDhLRR
R጑―)ᴘጋseavDhLhw» [Lederberg, 1977].
dLh(cgghL₅LR((RD‚z᜘gDRa ጛvഖ
DoaoTDaRiz脠eCcTRshᨬ‍ihᬠRภshDhLzS
EzaᄠeജgDhcT造wcKoaᄠB⺆dLoNgo. \nkToi
ᰠVLRgeGഛTRᄠ.⺆%LR((RDᘠkhahDhȠwc
KoaR‒Loнo,‚zKo肝Rнv―hmᄜጜt \boeᴑ
f⺆Pcᜌhࠠᔝokoa㨠«5ToဠhtLhwThᬠihgSR
Uᬈᄛ ᬗᬝo LcKoTThgDb4₃caiᬗo \bo
esᬠᆆctᰠisaoജР᪆Tcc,  \rewo4ⰠCDᰠhࠠEz
oVahKRLhioጠ/DhwᘠLcIcTR4. lgaᄠᆆcgDb
TogacKࠑs woTDᄑ cLcᴘ‚)ToeshwcDLᄑ,
Dᰠ/Dᰠ.caicL묠[Small, 1997]⸠ᦆVowvDଠᰠVLh
(cgghLᬠ.⸠%LR((RDᬠsoᴠeCcThРᆆVcKoth
tᬠctᰠiജiᠠ2⺆uKowᔠᆆജsDhᜠ3⺆%oL(RaK
eCLcKRaᄠKaဠoᔁRLoTDhᨠBLcsgcabᔝhth
eࠑicLgRDcDo―DᄁcTKᆀ‑wcࠑ’.)%LR(
(RDo. \nCc࢐N―)/ࢍᄝahVcKRCcgsᄄ“E
LokhioTRcЬ‍LeठᆆghLoDTRᴠVLh(cgghLhi
B⺆dLoNgo, \n⺆%oLicvⰠf⺆PcᜌhToⰠkovKazN
vSDᔄcࠬ‑keCo4URȠLhgᔑNᔝe耠RgDhLR4
ജ hgacKTR脠KTcȠGRkTᄬ hࠠRwcጠhDsLz
DzȠജР᪆ФRaoKcab(RᄠKaဠLhgᔑNᔝRS
R)ᬚLhěNgsᆁ”haጛt.
9LokᘠVhgaᬠizVeᔝᠠSC䤠3⺆%oL(RaഠVLh
ihKRఠhtLhwTe耠LoEhDᘠVᰠVLhVotoTഛ‑g
VhabkhioTRဠgDoDRgDRsᄠSCI \raဠRkeCcTRဠ
LokaRCTz脠oᔁcsDhᨠRgDhLRᄠToesᄬ oeC
T邁“DsLzDRN‑)DᬄVhi‗okiRDRv \boV᜘iጛ
TRȠToesR⸠ᦆ197ゆt⸠3⸠%oL(RaഠᔈhiᠠVRIc\f
hؠRᔁhabkhioTRᄠRTKcsgᠠKaဠRkeCcTRဠ
RgDhLRᄠToesᄠ«MTഛsᔑLhioTRᬠgᖐahᴠ
ᆆh贛TsᠠToeCTz脠gDoDcN»⸠rࠠhDwcCocD,
CDᰠDcⰠsDᰠiTcᔠhtLhwTzȠisaoഠ᪆LokiRDRᬠ
ToeCTz脠ToVLoiacTRȬ hteఠEzDଠRKcTDR
(ᆍᄗhio࢐ LR‘To጑kc₍RDᄗecwhgDR
R脠LoEhఠᔁcmRoaRgDowᄠ᪆KoTThȠhEaogDᄠ
[Gar8eld, 1969]⸠3⸠%oL(RaഠhELoUocఠiTR
woTRᬠToeCThtᰠghhE鴛gDiᠠTᠠLokaRCRᬠ
VhsokoDcacȠmRDRLecwhgDᄠ᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠ
hఠhEaogDcȠkToTRဠᆆVLRkziocఠᶆhgDhLhG
ࠜgDR‚‑gVhabkhioTRR ᜑwRDRᨈhth hK
gCcDᠠgᖐahᴠVLᄠh贛TsᬠRggacജioDcacN.
rࠠhDwcCoc\f \fhఠ(osDⰠCDᰠwhTRDhLRTठmR
DRLecwhgDᄠᆆctᰠiᔁacᔝ hteఠVLRiacCଠ
iTRwoTRᬠᶆgDoDbvЬ”hDhLzᬠiTckoVTᰠ
EzaᄠhDsLzD造RaᄠVcLchDsLzD造CcLcภTc
ᔝhabsᰠacD⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠVRgoጬ DᰠwhGTᰠ
VLᄚcgDR ЈhGcgDih LᄄcLhi ioG࢐S hD
sLzDRȬ”hDhLzᬠRwcaᄠwoahᬠiᰎഛNgDiRᬠ
To―hiLᬄᬈT逛‑ggጛKhioTRv.₞RLhsh
RkicgDTh, \boVLRЛL, Dh‎ToиTᄛ‗᠆hDz
PᬈKcav c zah‎oЛиTh―iz缛 30–cD.
yhEcaciᔝoဠVLcwRဠVᰠwcKRmRTᬠEzaᠠ
VLRgeGഛTᠠd⺆fhegᘠ(Peyton Rous⤠᪆196㚆t.
ko‑ggጛKhioTᄛ‚RLego‗oso, haeCRi缛th
TokioTRᬠgoLshw造fhego⸠rKTosᰠ/DhఠiRLeᔠ
hࠠhDsLzጠ᪆191ゆt.(!)ⰠᆆDhabsᰠVhgaᬠDhthⰠsoᴠ
iRLeᔠacNscwRᄠEzጠRkhaRLhio\b ᪆195ㆆt.,
LoEhDᠠfhegᠠEzaᠠVᰠജgDhRTgDiᘠh贛TcTo.
MบcgDTzN‘wcᜑsoTgshN―hmᄜጜt \boeᴑ
VLh(cgghᜠ%⺆1escLwo\b (Harriet Zuckerman,
Columbia University, NY⤠esokzioaoⰠCDᰠhD
ᔗhCcTThᬠVLRkToTRᬠgaeCocDgဠiᰠwThtR脠
hEaogDv脠kToTRvⰠisa4CoဠLoEhD逬‎ᠠshDh
LzᬠiVhgacകDiRᄠEzaᠠVLRgeGഛTᠠyh
EcaciᔝoဠVLcwRv⸠MgDhLRsᄠᆆghmRhahtᄠ
whteఠRkeCoDଠToeCThᬠghVLhDRiacTRᬠTᠠ
VLRwcLo脠hDᔗhCcTThtᰠVLRkToTRဠgDoDcN,
izviacࠈzS‘To጑khw―cDcN₍RDᄗhioࠑv
[Gar8eld, 1981]⸠ᦆ196㖆t⸠3⸠%oL(RaഠhVe
EaRshioጠRggacKhioTRc, ᪆shDhLhРVhsokoጬ
CDᰠge鴛gDiecఠshLLcavmRဠwcGKᘠizghshȠ
mRDRLeᬄhgDb4‖иThth‑)VLᄕeGKᬈᄛw
yhEcaciᔝhȠVLcwRR⸠ᦆᔁRᔝᬠhVeEaRsh
ioTT邁‑w‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁‗᠆hD zaR
soᴠThEcaciᔝRᬠaoeLᬘD逬‌oᴠᆆDcⰠsDᰠVh
aeCRጠ/DᘠVLcwR耠VᰎKTcc⸠2hLLcavmRႆ騠
/DᰠTᬠVLRCRTTh-gacകDicTToဠᔚvkb. dᰠ
gVLoicK጑ihwe‎owcCoࠑ4‘wcLᄝoTgshth
ജsewcTDoaRgDᠠ.⺆2LhTRTᠠ(B⺆Cronin)Ⱐ«mR
Dᄗhioࠑc — /Dh ᄈKᄚRKeoጋ࢐N VLhmcgg,
ᢆLckeabDo\f /DhtᰠVLh贛ggᠠRwcc\f htLhwThᬠ
kToCcTRᬠ᪆g(cLᬠToesR묠[Cronin, 1981]⸠.e
KeCR‑TKᄚRKeoጋ࢐w‗cIcࠑcw,‖ᴘkoࠑc
To \boeC࢐N‗ckeጋDoD (VeE጑ᴘmᆀ) \rLethth
eиThth‚z᜘G᠛D“ghEᬈThgDR hDRiomRR
DhthⰠsDᰠTᠠTctᰠgᖐaocDgv⸠dLcwRဠ騠/Dᰠ
LckeabDoఠizKo4鴛thgဠRggacജioTRv,
h贛TcTThtᰠ/sᔁcᜌowᄠyhEcaciᔝhtᰠsh
wRDcDo⸠dᰠKoTTzР3⺆%oL(RaKoⰠ᪆ᔗcKTcР
i)
0-S \tt.“KRT―hiLᬄᬈTzN‖иTzN₍RDR
LhioagဠhshaᰠihᔋwᄠLok⸠訑DRLecwhgDଠ
ThEcaciᔝR脠aoeLᬘDhᨠ᪆ᔗcKTcР᪆DᰠiLc
wဠghgDoiavaᠠhshaᰠ15〠Loภ᪆thK⸠ltᰠRg
gacജioTRဠVhsokoaᄬ CDᰠmRDRLecwhgDଠ
VhgaᬠVLRgeGഛTRဠyhEcaciᔝhȠVLcwRᄠ
LcksᰠiᰎLogDocD⸠dLᄠ/DhРhࠠhDwcCocDⰠCDᰠ
CogDhDᠠmRDRLhioTRဠ騠/DᰠKoacsᰠTᬠhKTh
kToC࢐N hᴘkoDcጋ LᄄcࠑDcጋTh”os
ᶆToeCThwᘠToVLoiacTR4, \foᴠᆆᴠhDഛabTh
wᘠeCcThwe.
MkeCcࠑc whDᄚhi mRDᄗhioࠑv Ezah
VLcKVLRTvDᰠLvജРkoVoKTz脠eCcTzSⰠhE
᜘DRiIᆁ iTRwoTᄛ To ᜘kaRCT逛 iRKz
/DR脠whDRihi⸠9ᖐasᠠ(RsᔑLecఠsLeठhE鴛
TRဠeCcThth⸠yᰠhࠠwhGcఠEzDଠᆆhVVhTcTD
TzРsLethЬ‌⺆c⸠isa4CoDଠRggacജioDcacȬ
g)shDhL逄R‘iDhL hacБkᄗecD, hKicL
tocఠsLRDRsᬠR脠Rഛᄠᆆ(osD逬 LhDRihVh
gDoiavv‑w―hEgDicࠈzc.ₛoᴘv hacБᴘ
DosGᬠwhGcఠhsokoDଠiaRvTRᬠTᠠwhഛab
mRDRLhioTRvⰠVLRDhРTᬠigctKᠠ᪆hDsLz
DhȠ(hLwc⸠rKTosᰠTcEhabIRᬠhDsahTc
TRဠ᪆hE鴛VLRTvDz脠ThLwo脠mRDRLhioTRv
cgaᄠgaeCo4Dgv, \fᰠLcKshⰠVhᔝhabsᘠ/Dhwe
VLᬁvDgDie4D‚逕hsᄛ₌DRиgsᄛ―DoTKoL
D造ToeCThtᰠghhE鴛gDiᠠ[PoLseghioⰠЯLh
IciᔝR, 1987]⸠9oР3⺆%oL(Ra\r \bcegDoTTh
VLRkziocఠᶆhgDhLhGThgDᄠ᪆Rᔁhabkhio
ࠑR \roࠈzS₍RDᄗhioࠑာ“DwcCoာ Dh SCI
«TᬠgCcDCRᴠgᖐahs묠ᆆVh/Dhwᘠsoᴠ«a4EhN
RTgDLewcTಆ騠hఠvഛLThȠ/TcLtRᄠജ h
ahDsᢆ騠ജaGcࠠEzDଠVLoiRabTᰠRᔁhab
khioT묠[Gar8eld, 1985]⸠dᰎKTcᬠhࠠVRgoa:
…Ґ \bc₁hDc጑ zDb―጑缝hw‘tLcggᄚ࢐
wᄠ᪆ctᰠ(SCI) \rLethРVLRwcTcTRᄬ“KTosh
c鴛‚)196㖆t⸠w造ᖆШcLhРVRgoaᄠᰠctᰠRg
VhጋkhioࠑR Kav hmcࠝR /((csDᄚThgDR
RggacജioTRȬ“ hiz脠(osDhLo脠h贛TsR
ToeCThȠaRDcLoDeL造TᠠhᔈhiᬠoToaRkᠠmR
DRLecwhgDR» [Gar8eld, 1969].
.cgᔁhLTh, CDᰠhD贜РToeshwcDLRᄠvi
avcDgဠജsDhᜠ3KGRࠠ%oL(RaKⰠhKTosh
goРDcLwRࠠEzጠVLcKahGc\b \boIRРgh
hDᬃcgDiᬈTRshw,‚zKo4URЕv‖иTzw,
gఘDRgDRshw‑)(Rጜgh(hw Lh(cgghLhw
P%\n n⺆n⺆yoaRwhizР᪆ctᰠgDoiIcȠEcgD
gcaacLhw”TRtc₫yoeshwcDᜑv»,“VeEaR
shioTThȠ᪆196㦆t. [yoaRwhᨬ‟eabCcTsh,
1969].’)ᄈDcLi஀
₇⺆%oL(RaഠiᔁhwR
Toa㨠«...VLh(cgghᜠn⸠n⸠yoaRwhᨠ騠Eac
gDvUᄂ―DoDRgDᄝ,‚送egDRa”ࠑteₓyo
eshЛDLRv”,”hDh᜘v zao ᬗᬚcKᬈo
ᴘsᄄ-Dh LoiRDcጋgDicࠈ逄‘tcTDgDihw
(whGcఠEzDbⰠ1fO⤠EcภesokoTRဠTokioTRv
hLtoTRkomRᄬ“ge鴛gDiRiIcȠ/DᰠRkKo
TRc. 2TRtᠠLoᔁLhgDLoTvaoᔋ EcᔁaoDTh,
soᴠDcSTRCcᔝRȠhDCcD⸠ТosRРhELokhРhTo
VhVoaᠠsᰠwTᬠ᪆LesR. ᦆncTtLRᄠᖆsTRthN
PoDcLRoጠLokwcUc\b TᠠgoNDᬠWeb of Stories (URL:
http://www.webofstories.com/play/eugene.gar8eld/57).
ᰎToshwRagဠVLh(cgghᜠТREhᜠ.LoeT
(T⺆BraunⰠncTtLRv)ⰠshDhLzȠizELoጠDcL
БT, LcKahGcࠈ适’.)n.)yo጑whi逄,
ᆆKoጠctᰠ᪆soCcgDiᬠTokioTRဠThihtᰠGeL
ToaᠠScientometrics»⸠dᰠwTcTR耠3⺆%oL
(RaKo, \fcLwRT₫Scientometrics»‎ieCoa
Vh-oࠉ጑NgsR‎ToCRDcጋTh–eCIc, cw₫To
eshicഛTRc뮆騠«Science of science»ⰠᆆhD
᜘Goa―eUThgDb LcKЛDo)—‑kЛLᬈᄛ
ToesR”h጑CcgDicࠈ逄R cDhKoБ.„sDe
oጋThgDb‎oKoр hgDoiacࠈzS’.)n.)yo጑
whizЬ oCRTocఠhgᰎToioDbgဠDhabsᰠgcN
Cog⸠ТhwᘠᔚRഛDcabgDihⰠCDᰠ᪆200ㆆt⸠Eza
hVeE጑shioT―VcmRoጋ࢐N‚送egs₏eL
࠘ጘ Scientometrics, hgivUcTTzN‚sጘKe
n⺆n⺆yoaRwhiᠠ᪆gDoThiacTRᬠᆆLokiRDRc
ToeshwcDLᄑ”os \boeCThN \rRgmᄁ጑࢐.—D
wcCoဠizKo4URNgဠisaoഠn⺆n⺆yoaRwhio,
gጛKecD‗᠕gsokoDb‑)hE‑gDhLRR‗okiRDRv
/DhtᰠToVLoiacTRဠ᪆fhgᔑR.
MgDhLRဠToeshwcDLRᄠ᪆wRLᬠᆆ᪆fhgᔑᄠ
ࠛ᜘kLzᨈh―ivkoTo―)ᄕDhLᄛN \boeshic
Kcࠑv.‒h Tcࠑ4‘wcLᄝoTgshth‑gDhLᄝo
ToesᄠVLh(cgghLᠠЛ⺆%L/Sowᠠ(L⺆R⺆Graham)
[Graham, 1998崠ᆆVLh(cgghLᠠd⺆nheDcLgᠠ
(P⺆WoutersⰠyRഛLaoTKz) [Wouters, 1999],
᪆ToCoaᬠ
XX
‚⸠LegᔝRᬠEzaᄠiVcLcKᄠ5oVoKᠠ
VᰠVLhEacwoРRgDhLRᄠToesR⸠nzKo4URNgဠ
tchSRwRᴠᆆ(Rahgh괠VLh(cgghᜠn⺆M⺆ncL
ToകsRȠToCoጠRggacജioTRဠVᰠ/DhȠDc
woDRsᬠc鴛‚)189㎆t.℠ᦆ190㊆t⸠᪆PhᔝhiᔝhР
thgeKoLgDicTThРeTRicLᔑDcDᬠhࠠVLhCRDoጠ
Vc᜚e4–cᶍR4₫ᤎtavK \bo‑gDhᜑ4―hᨗc
wcTThtᰠwRLᠠToesR». dhgaᬠ191㞆t. h\b icጠ
osDᄚTe4”oЁoࠑ4 h―hkKoࠑ4‑TgDRDe
ఘ h‑gDhᜑR \boeᴑ‑)Dc脈Rᴑ.₠ckeabఘDhw
viRahgb hviጛTᄛ ᬗihth‚)wRLc‑ࠕDRDe
DᠠVh\r \bokioTRcР«2hwRgᔑဠosoഛwRᄠToeᴠ
VᰠRgDhLRᄠkToTRN»⸠舘ᴠhDwcCocఠVLh(cg
ghᜠ%L/SoЬ₫iktavK造ncLToകshtᰠTᠠRgDh
LR耠ᆆghmRhahtR耠ToesᄠhVcLc輘aᄠctᰠ
iLᬄv,₁hDv―hiLᬄᬈT逛‑gDhLRsR hteD
ᔝokoDbⰠCDᰠhࠠVLRKoioጠgaRIshРEhabIhᬠ
kToCcTRᬠLhaᄠtcTRoabTz脠RഛȠᆆTcജ
hmcTRioa‚oGࠜgDb―hmRoabࠜth”hTDcsgఘ
ᆆDcSTRsR묠[Graham, 1998]. dhviRahᔋ‚)fhg
ᔑᄠVhTvDRᬠ«ToeshicKcTRc»ⰠiicഛTThᬠ
M⺆.hLRCciᔝRЬ‑)/DᰠToVLoiacTRᬠVLR
iጛsah‚TRwoTᄛ \taoiThth‖иThth―ᬝLc
DoLဠu褠999ꀠosoഛwRsᠠ9⺆Ф⺆rabഛTEeLto.
ᦆ192㦆t⸠osoഛwRᴠn⺆M⺆ncLToകsRȠEzጠhD
gDLoTcࠠhఠജaGThgDᄠtaoi造/DhȠshwRgᔑᄠ
R)kowcTcT₉.)M.).e脘Lᄈ逄 [%ᄈKR጑g, 2011].
ᤠ193ㆆt⸠/DᠠshwRgᔑဠEzaᠠVLchELokh
ioTᠠ᪆MTgDRDeఠRgDhLRᄠToesᄠᆆDcSTR
sᄬ‑)ctᰠKRLcsDhLhРgDoጠy⺆M⺆.eSoLRT.
nᰎtaoiavcwoဠRРEhabIoဠghicDᔝov
ഛactomRဠVLRTvaᠠeCogDRᬠiᰠnDhLhw
wcGKeToLhKࠜw”hTtLcggc h‑gDhᜑR \bo
esᄬ LhShKRiIcР᪆ЛhTജTᬠ᪆193ㆆt⸠5o
VoKT逛‑ggጛKhioDcaR“DЛCoaR [Wouters,
1999] \fh”hahggoabThc‚ěCoDጛTᄛ,”hDh
LhᬠVLhRkicጠTᠠeCogDTRshᨬ‚)DhРCRgac
TᠠBG⺆.cLToaᠠᆆf⺆PcᜌhToⰠജsaoഠgh
icDᔝhtᰠ(RkRsᠠ.⺆%cggcTᠠᲆghmRoabTzS
shLTv脠«yoCoጠyb4DhTo». rKTosᰠ᪆193㚆t.
.⺆%cggcࠠᆆIcgDଠKLetR脠CacThᨠghicDᔝhN
ഛactomRᄠEzaᄠoLcgDhioT造ᆆVhtREaR
[ЯLhIciᔝRȬ 1985]. n⺆n⺆yoaRwhᨠVLhica
1㠠acఠ᪆%OЛu%ᬠᆆEzጠhᔚhEhGഛࠠ᪆195㎆t.
rT―Doa‗᠆hDoDb‗c(ᬗᬈDhw‚)Lc(ᬗo
DRᨈhw₏eᜈoac’MyM鬏„y₄99f.
ᤠ19㘲)t. \rRLcsDhLhРMMl鬠u褠999ꀠgDoa
osoഛwRᴠ.⺆P⺆2cKLhi. 2TRtᄠBG⺆.cLTo
aᠠᆆB⺆dLoNgᠠVLRiacsaᄠEhabIhᬠiTR
woTRᬠghicDᔝhtᰠToeCThtᰠghhE鴛gDio,
R)ihkࠑs‎ToCRDcጋ࢐N‑TDcLcg”)VLh
Eacwow \boeshicKcࠑv.„sDᄚ࢐w LhVo
toTKRgDhРToeshicഛTRဠgDoጠVLh(cgghL
9.)f.)Pᄝe጑Tgsᄂ
10
ⰠEziIRȠ᪆DᰠiLcwv
koЛgDRDcጛw KRLᬝDh᜘ MllТ. n)R耈c
196㚆t⸠iᰠЛbihic-OGthLhഛ―hgDhvagဠgh
10
PRseaRTgsRȠ9⸠f. (1919–1991)ⰠCacT-shLLcgVhTKcT\f
u褠999f, \rRLcsDhᜠMMl鬠ᔠ197㐠Vᰠ1987 \t.
icDᔝh-VhabᔝRȠᔑwVᰎReРVᰠVLhEacwow
shwVacsᔈhtᰠRkeCcTRဠToesᄬ ᢆshDh
LhРEzaᠠᆆToeshwcDLRCcᔝoဠgcsmRv⸠yo
/DhРᔑwVᰎRewᬠiVcLizᬠn⺆n⺆yoaRwhi
RgVhabkhioa \fcᜄRT₫ToeshwcDᜑv»”os
DcLБT,₫脘LosDcLRke4Uᄂ \rRgmᄁ጑Te,
koࠑwo4Ue4gv‑gVhጋkhioࠑcw”h጑Cc
gDicTTz脠wcDhജᨠKaဠRkeCcTRဠVLh贛ggo
LokiRDRဠToesR»⸠yeGTᰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠc鴛
᪆1959 \t⸠᪆GeLToaᬠ«OᔁcSᄠ(RkRCcᔝR脠To
es묠izIaᠠgDoDbဠn⺆n⺆yoaRwhiᠠ«yoeCTov
ᆆDcSTRCcᔝoဠRT(hLwomRဠsoᴠhKTᠠRภko
Ko̠sREcLTcDRsR묠[na/Ke贠ᆆKL., 1959]ⰠVh
ᔚv鴛TToဠSRwRCcᔝhȠsREcLTcDRsᬠᆆTo
eshwcDLRR⸠ᦆDᰠiLcwဠn⺆n⺆yoaRwhᨠEza
iTcIDoD࢐w ghDLeKࠑshw ᤏyMТM. dhkK
TcᬠhࠠiᔁhwRToa㨠«頠VᰎToshwRagဠᖆTo
eshwcDᜑcN―hic᝿cTࠜ―aeCoNࠜ.’)shTmc
50-脠tt⸠ဠLoEhDoጠLcKosDhLhРLc(cLoDRi
ThtᰠGeLToaᠠVᰠ(RkRsᬠ᪆nMyMТM⸠頠Lo
EhDoጠ᪆nMyMТMⰠVhᔝhabsᘠဠwhठVcLcih
KRDଠᖆDLc脠ciLhVcNᔝR脠vkzshi⸠rKToGKz
ဠVhaeCRጠgDoDb耠B⺆dLoNgoⰠᆆwTᬠᔝokoaR,
CDh‐‛KᄈgDicࠈ适―VcmRo጑gD,”hDhL适
whGcఠcᬠVcLcicgDR⸠rTᠠEzaᠠTᠠRDoabvT
ᔝhРvkzsc. PTᬠVhTLoiRaoᔋ /DᠠgDoDbv.
rTᠠEzaᠠVhᔚv鴛Tᠠ/sᔁhTcTmRoabThwe
LhgDᘠToesR⸠nwcgDᬠᖆ%⺆na/Ke贛Рᆆ9DvG
sRTzРဠToVRgoጠgDoDb耠ᰠᔚvkᄠwcGKe
ᴑEcᜈcDRshN‑)RT(hᜄoDRshN.—To zao
hVeEaRshioTᠠ᪆GeLToaᬠ“OᔁcSᄠ(RkRCc
ᔝR脠Toes”⸠ԑLcsDhᜠRTgDRDeDᠠu⺆M⺆PR
SoNahᨠEzጠVcLizЬ”DᰠVLhLᬘtRLhioa
TᠠTcᬺ h\b VLRtaoᔑጠwhR脠ghoiDhLhᨠᆆhD
Letoa⸠rELo鴛TRᬠᶆsREcLTcDRsᬠ阠ihఠCDh
ᄈsLᄄᄈᄗhioahgb \riew hᄄ”haactow.
ᦆDᰠiLcwဠ/DᰠEzaᰠVLhDRᨠh(RmRoabThN
RഛhahtRR묠[Wouters, 1999].
9acKec\f hDwcDRDb, CDᰠ᪆999ꀠ᪆ToCoaᬠ
0-膆tt. hELokhioaRᔋ KiᬠIsha造VᰠTo
eshwcDLRR⸠rKToⰠwhᔝhiᔝoဠIshao, \bᬠ
Ezao hᜉoTRkomᄜTࠜ h(hᜄacTo R)viav
aogb₫TckLᄄ逄”haacsDᄚhw».‏ࠑmRo
DhLhРᆆKeIhȠ/DhȠIsha造EzጠVLh(cgghᜠ
n⺆n⺆yoaRwhi⸠蒆196㚆t⸠h\b \boCoጠVLhihKRDଠ
Tc(hLwoጋ࢐N―cБToL h‑gVhጋkhioࠑ4
wcDhKᠠmRDRLhioTRဠ᪆MMl鬠u褠999ꀠVLᄠ
osDRiThРeCogDRᄠᆆVhKഛLGsᬠVLh(cgghLᠠ
9.)f.)Pᄝe጑Tgshth.‒hgDhvࠈ逄R‖CogDࠑ
ᴘБ₌Dhth―cБToLo‑)osDᄚ࢐Б hwhU
TRsowᄠ᪆RggacജioTRv脠n⺆n⺆yoaRwhiᠠVᰠ
ToeshwcDLRᄠEzaᄠM⸠P⸠rLRcTఠ騠taoiTzȠ
LcKosDhᜠhKThtᰠRภaeCIR脠hDcCcgDicTTz脠
GeLToahᨠDhtᰠiLcwcTᄠ«5oihകsoဠaoEh
LoDhLRv»Ⱐജ贛Tఠ3⺆n⺆%LoThiᔝRȠ(P%O),
5⺆.oLRThiᠠᆆKL.
ᤠRTDcLib4, \roTThР᪆199㊆t.ⰠM⺆P⺆rLR
cTఠiᔁhwRToao㨠«…w造ToCoaᄠLoEhDoDb
᪆196㚆t⸠1cTDLhРVLRDvGcTRဠEzጠnoᔑ
aRȠnoᔑabciR̠yoaRwhi⸠ТhtKᠠhࠠVhae
CRጠhఠ3⺆%oL(RaKᠠizVeᔝ⁓C䤠kᠠ196㖆t.
ᆆVLRtaoᔑጠa4ഛȬ DhE造eCRDbgဠLoEh
DoDଠᖆSCI (oiDhLᠠ/DhȠtaoi造VᰎKTcᬠeCR
aᠠM⺆P⺆rLRcTD). 9ToCoaᠠw造TᬠhDTcgaRᔋ
ᶆ/DhwᘠgcLbckTh, \bᰠVᰎKTcᬠgDoaᄠVLh
ihKRDଠwThtᰠiLcwcTᄬ‗oEhDoဠᖆSCI⸠Pz
“LoᔁLhgDLoTvaR鐠SC䤠ᔗcKᄠKLe\t \rLeto.
领izELoaᠠoToaRDRCcᔝe耠SRwR4Ⱐnoᔑ
abcᨠRkeCoጠSRwRCcᔝe耠(RkRseⰠ3⺆n⺆%Lo
ThiᔝRʆ— TchLtoTRCcᔝe耠SRwR4⸠舘G
KzȠRภToᔠRwcጠᔚhᬠghEgDicTThᬠToVLoi
ጛTᄛ» [Wouters, 1999].
ᤠ196㚆t⸠n⺆n⺆yoaRwhᨠᖆtLeVVhȠghoiDh
Lhi“VeE጑shioa―DoD஀₫MkeCcࠑc \boeC
Tz脠GeLToahᨠsoᴠsoToahᨠᔚvkR⸠r贛Tsᠠ
isaoKo“DKcጋ࢐S―DLoT‚)БLhihN \boeC࢐N
RT(hᜄomᄜTTzN hDhs»‚)Geᜈoac₫yo
eCTh-DcSࠑCcgᴘv‑T(hLwomRv» [rmcࠝo...,
1968]⸠ᦆ196㦆t⸠n⺆n⺆yoaRwhᨠ᪆ghoiDhLgDiᬠ
ᖆ5⺆P⺆PeabCcTsᰠizVeᔝocఠsTRtᘠ«yo
eshЛDLRv.‏keиTᄛ‗okiRDRv \boesR”os
RT(hᜄomᄜTࠜth Lhmcgᔘ» [yoaRМi,
PeabCcTsh, 1969]⸠ᦆ/DhȠsTRtᬠToeshwcDLRဠ
LogᔄoDLRioaoᔋ”oᴠLokഛጠToeshicKcTRv.
ᦆsTRtᬠEzaᰠKoTᰠgacKe4鴛ᬠhVLcഛacTRᬠ
/DhȠKRᖍRVaRTᬺ₫.eഛРTokzioDଠToesh
ЛDLᄛN”haRиgDiᬈT逛 cDhKz‑keиTRv
LoบRDRv \boeᴑ”os‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜth Lh
贛ggo묠[yoaRwhᨬ‟eabCcTsh, 1969]⸠rEgeG
KoagဠgacKe4URȠsLeठihVLhghi㨠RT(hL
womRhTToဠwhഛaଠLokiRDRဠToesRⰠLhg\f
RT(hᜄomᄜTTzS hDhshi,₍RDRLecМgDb
aRDᬗoDeLz,‑keиTᄛ‚TeDLᬈTᆁ―ivkᬂ
᪆ToesᬠVᰠvkzsᘠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠gᖐ
ahs,₫ࠛkLRw逛”haጛsDRiz»,“mᬈso‚sao
Ko, iThgᄄhth“DKcጋ࢐Б―DLoToБ‚)Б
LhihN \boeCTzN‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzN hDhs,
VLh贛gᔠgDoDRgDRCcᔝhtᰠoToaRkᠠhKThtᰠRภ
ToeCTz脠ToVLoiacTRȠᆆahtRCcᔝRȠoToaRภ
VLhEacwz LhtࠜฑLhioTRv.
rVeEaRshioTToဠ4㔠ac\f \bokoKⰠ/DᠠsTRtᠠ
isᎀCoao‚gc‘sDeoጋ࢐c LhEacҐ‑g
gacKhioTRN―hᨗcwcTࠜth REaᄜwcDᜑCc
ᔝhtᰠghhE鴛gDio⸠ᦆ200ㆆt⸠wcGKeToLhKTzȠ
GeLToጠScientometric猠VhᔚvDRጠn⺆n⺆yoaR
Мie―VcmRoabTzN hwcL,“Dᴗziov”hDh
LzȠtaoiTzȠLcKosDhᜠGeLToaᠠVLh(cgghᜠ
ТREhᜠ.LoeࠠhDwcDRጬ Dᰠn⺆n⺆yoaRwhiᠠ
iwcgDᬠᖆBcLcshРഛ₄haaᠠdLoNghРwhG
ࠜ―CRఘDb“gࠜioDcavwR \boeshwcDᜑR.
ᦆ201ゆt⸠᪆P%ਠEzaᠠVLhicഛTᠠwcGKeTo
LhKToဠToeCToဠshT(cLcTmRv, Vhᔚv鴛T
Toဠ100-acDR耠gᰠKTဠctᰠLhGഛTRv⸠nzVe
鴛ࠠgEhLTRᴠDLeജᨠshT(cLcTmRRⰠRkKoTᠠ
sࠑto’.)n.)yo጑whio₫rE጑s ToesR»,”hDh
LoဠiVcLizᬠEzaᠠhVeEaRshioTᠠ᪆ISI Press
3⺆%oL(RaKᠠ᪆19㠱)t. [%LoThiᔝRȬ 2010].
ᦆTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠctᰠiKhiᠠᆆicLToဠVh
МUTRmo₭Rጜgh(ₒ.)ԗoघaRTo \thDhᨑD
s)VcLcRkKoࠑ4”ࠑte’.’.₉o጑whio₫ꀘk
E᜘gzio4 w逕aR», iěLi逛 hVeEaRshioT
Te耠VhgaᬠctᰠᔄcᜌR.
nDh᜘vⁿshao,”hDh᜘v‎oDᬄ Lᬚ᜘DR
aoᔋ‚)ᔁcmRoabTzȠRggacജioDcabᔝRȠ
贛TDᜠVhഠLeshihKgDihР%⺆P⺆BhELhioⰠഛN
gDihioaᠠ᪆2Rcic, \bᠠOsLoRTc⸠%⺆P⺆BhELhᨠ
Eza“CcTb₌TcᜉRCTzw cጜicshw,₁hLh缜
iVᄕoiIRЕv‚)ghicDgsRN‑gDcEaRIЛTD.
rT za ᬗizw―ᬝLcDoLᬄ‗oNshwo”hw
ghwhaᠠ᪆2Rciᬠ᪆shT贛‱950-膆tt⸠MTGcTcᜠ
VᰠhELokhioTR4ⰠhࠠhshTCRጠoᔁRLoTDe
Le‏TgDRDeఘ \fcVጜ谈cᜉcDRᴑ„y \n99f
(᪆TogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠMTgDRDe\f \fcSTRCcᔝhȠ
DcVጜ(Rฑᴑ₉ẉ \nᴗoRTz),‎oURDRi \rRg
gcLDomᆀ h‑gDhLᄑ‖thጋ࢐S”hwEoаhi.
dᰎKTcᬠ᪆ghoiDhLgDiᬠhࠠhVeEaRshioጠ
KieSDhwTe4 hࠜtLo(R4 h‑gDhᜑR‖thab
ࠜN LhwzIacTࠜgDR.
ᤠToCoaᬠ60-脠tt. ctᰠRTDcLcᖐ ᔄcgDR
aRᔋ ᶆVLhEacwoРsREcLTcDRsᄠᆆDchLRR
eVLoiacTRv⸠PhThtLo(Rဠ%⺆P⺆BhELhio
«yoesᠠᲆToesc»ⰠhVeEaRshioTToဠ᪆196㚆t.
[BhELhi, 1966],―ఘao‎ToCRDcabࠜN‚cShN
i)ᄕDhLRR“DᬃcgDiᬈThth \boeshicKᬈRv
ᆆToeshwcDLRR⸠ᦆ/DᘠsTRtᘠEzጠisa4CcT
VcLcihഠsTRtᄠB⺆dLoNgᠠ«PoaoဠToeso,
EhabIoဠToeso»⸠ЭDᠠsTRtᠠ%⺆P⺆BhELhio
Vhabkhioaogb“tLhwࠜN hVeavᜈhgDb4,
KioGK造EzaᠠVcLcRkKoTᠠ(197〠ᆆ198㦆tt.).
lc“VeEaRshioTRc“จowcࠜioጜ \boCoጜ
᜘kiRDRv \boeshicKиgsᆁ‑)ToeshЛDLRи
ᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠTᠠOsLoRTc⸠ᦆ/DᰠiLcwv
%⺆P⺆BhELhᨠeGᬠLeshihKRఠgcsDhLhР᪆MT
gDRDeDᬠsREcLTcDRsᄠu褠O99f. nᰎtaoiavc
ҐN‑w”haacsDᄚ LhihKRD‑ggacKhioࠑv
Vh“mcTsc \boeCࠜth hDcTmRoao, Lhtࠜ
kᄗhioࠑ4 \boesR.‒LhEacҐ‖VLoiacࠑv
ToeshN \rcఘabࠜ‗oggМDLcTz‚)Мࠜ
tLo(Rv脠«yoeshicഛTRᬠsoᴠToesᠠhؠ/(
(ᬝDRiThw‖V᜘iጛTRR \boeCThN \rcvDcab
ThgDb4:“VzD, LhEጛwz, ᬗgěsDRiz»,
«rᜉoTRkomRv‑)/((csDRᨈhgDb \boeᴑ»
ᆆ᪆ToVRgoTThȠ᪆ghoiDhLgDiᬠᖆn⺆P⺆%aeI
shizРᆆn⺆M⺆ТcLc鴛TsᰠwhThtLo(Rᄠ«.c
gcK造hؠeVLoiacTRR»⸠ᦆ196㦆t⸠%⺆P⺆BhELhi
ToCoጠizVeᔝ cLRhKRCcᔝhtᰠToeCThth
gEhLࠑᴘ₫yoeshicKcࠑc‑)ᄈ(hLwoDR
so»‑)Eza‛ज“DicకDicTTzw‗cKosజLhw.
蒆197㦆t⸠%⺆P⺆BhELhᨠEzጠCacThРLcKosmR
hTࠜN”haactRR cGKeToLhKࠜth₏eᜈoao
Scientometrics,‑kKoiocМth Lh(cgghLhw
Т⺆.LoeThР᪆.eKoVcIDc⸠dᰠVLRtaoIcTR4
%⺆P⺆BhELhiᠠTᠠOsLoRTᘠVLRck輘aᄠVLh
(cgghᜠB⺆dLoNgⰠ3⺆%oL(RaK⸠usDRiToဠTo
eCToဠഛvDcabThgDଠᆆTceDhwRwoဠ/TcLtRv
%⺆P⺆BhELhiᠠVLRicaᄠᶆgᰎKoTR耠᪆198㚆t.
1ᬈD᜘‑ggጛKhioTRN \boeCTh-DcSTRиgsh
tᰠVhDcTmRoaᠠᆆRgDhLRᄠToesᄬ”hDhLzȠhT
iᰎtaoiavጠജ”hTmᠠGRkTᄠ(198㦆t.)⸠ТcVcLb
/Dhఠ贛TDᜠThᔑఠctᰠRwv.
ԚᠠihVLhgoⰠᰠshDhLz脠ShDcahᔋ 造eVh
wvTeDb,‗᠕gsokzi᠐“E‑gDhLRR‗okiRDRv
ToeshwcDLRᄠ᪆999f⸠ᦆ999ꀠEzaᠠVLhഛ
aoTo kToCRDcabT᠐ ᜘EhDo Vh Vhiz缛TR4
sio጑(ᄝomᄑ RE጑hDcC࢐S‑)ᄈ(hL
womRhTTz脠ᔁcmRoaRgDhi⸠ТosⰠ᪆196㚆t.
i)
yMТM z጑“Ltoࠑkhio࢐―VcmRoጋ
TzᬠseLᖐ‍aဠᔁcmRoaRgDhᨠᖆhDLzihРhD
LoEhD逬 ᖆ
-wcgvCTzРᆆ
-wcgvCTzРhE
eиTᄛw g)缛gDRC᠕hizwR‎oTvDRvwR DLR
Lokᠠ᪆TcKca4⸠ᦆ197ㆆt⸠/DᄠseLᖐ zaR
VLchELokhioTz‒hgఘࠜiacTRcw₄hicఘ
PRTᄕDLhi₄99f‚)MࠕDRDeD hiz缛TRv
sio጑(ᄝomᄑ‑T(hLwomRhࠈzS‑)ERE጑
hDᬃT邁‗᠆hDTRshi (Md舏f)‟RTᄕDᬗ
gDiᠠVᰠToesᬠᆆDcSTRsᬠ999f⸠ycᔝhabsh
ghDc\b \fzgv̠EREaRhDcCTz脠ᆆRT(hLwomR
hࠈzS―VcmRo጑gDhi LhgaeIo጑‑)gKo጑
/skowcࠠVᰠmRsaᘠacsmRȠhؠRT(hLwomR
hTTz脠VLhKesDo脠ISI: Current Contents, SCI
ᆆJCR⸠uiDhᜠCRDoaᠠ/DhఠseLᔠacsmRȠᖆ1975
Vᰠ199㊆t⸠5oDcРMd2MꀠToCoጠLoEhDoDଠTo
shwwcLCcᔝhȠhᔈhic⸠ᦆVcLRhഠᖆ200㘠Vh
201ㆆt.Ⱐജ htah鴛TRဠ/DhtᰠRTgDRDeDᠠФR
ToࠕhihN‘soKᬄᄛN LR‒᜘iRDcabgDic
f餠(201㊆t.)ⰠoiDhᜠ/DhȠtaoi造CRDoaᠠseLg
Vh‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzw LhKesఘw Thomson
Reuters \raဠᔁcmRoabThȠtLeVV造eTRicL
ᔑDcDᔝR脠ᔁcmRoaRgDhi⸠蒆196㞆t. (VᰠTogDh
v鴛ᬠiLcwv⤠᪆VLhtLowwᘠKaဠgKoCᄠ/sko
ЛTo h―ěmRoabThgDR «ToeCTh-DcSTRи
gs᠐‑T(hLwomRv» \rav haeиTRv―DᬁᬈR
s⺆D⺆T⸠᪆nMyMТ༠isa4CcࠠLokഛጠᰠLoEhDoS
B⺆dLoNgoⰠn⺆n⺆yoaRwhiᠠᆆ3⺆%oL(RaKo.
yoeshwcDLᄑ‑጑ RE጑hwcDLᄑ”os―Vc
mRoabThgDᄠ᪆ThwcTsaoDeLᬠnu舘 ᬠge鴛
gDiecఠജ―R脠VhLⰠᆆkoURD造KRggcᜌomRR
Vᰠ/DhȠᔁcmRoabThgDᄠhDThgvDgဠᶆEREaR
hDᬃTzw \boesow―)VLᄕeGKᬈᄛw―DᬁᬈR
VᰠVcKothtRCcᔝRРToesow.
dᰠᔚRഛDcabgDiᘠ3⸠n⸠%LoThiᔝhtᰠ[%Lo
ThiᔝR, 2010]Ⱐn⸠n⸠yoaRwhᨠeഛavጠhghEhᬠ
iTRwoTRᬠVLh贛ggᘠhEeCcTRဠᔁcmRoaRgDhᨬ
gCRDov₌Dh \bchEShKᄄ逄 \rav‚送hገcࠑv
ToeshЛDLRиgsᆁ‑ggጛKhioTRN.
PhGࠜ”hTgఘDRLhioDb, Dh hgఘࠜiac
R攠h\f 1 \bhvELဠ201㎆t⸠dLcകcKoDcaဠ
dLoiRDcabgDiᠠf餠B⸠PcKicഛiᠠꒆ979
«r)iࠛgᬈRR‑kЛࠛTRN‚)VhgDoThiጛTᄛ
dLoiRDcabgDiᠠfhgᔑNᔝhȠФcഛLomRᄠh\f
㢆oVLcaဠ200㦆t⸠ꒆ312»
ⰠegDoToiaRio4鴛ᬠ
VLoiRaᠠh贛TsᄠLckeabDoDRiThgDᄠഛvDcab
ThgDᄠToeCTz脠hLtoTRkomRNⰠisa4Co4鴛ᬠ
LvK EREaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS VhsokoDcacN, Ee
ഛఠᔁhghEgDihioDଠLogDe鴛ȠVhDLcEThgDᄠ
i)VhKthDhisc”io጑(ᆍᄗhioࠈzS―VcmRo
aRgDhᨠVᰠ/DhȠDcwoDRsc⸠9acKecఠhDwcDRDb,
CDᰠVhsᠠLoEhDᘠVᰠᰎToshwacTR耠IRLhshȠ
ToeCThȠhE鴛gDicTThgDᄠgDLoT造VᰠLoEhDᬠ
R)ihคhGࠜgDvw REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS‑T
(hᜄomᄜTTzS‗cgeLghi‚zVhaTvcD \tLeVVo
izghshsio጑(ᆍᄗhioࠈzS―VcmRo጑gDhi
shwV᠈RR Thomson Reuters.
MഛဠgᰎKoTRဠOsokoDcaဠmRDRLecwhN
aRDcLoDeL造EzaᠠhCcTଠVhVeavLTᠠ᪆999f.
ᦆnMyMТ༠u褠999ꀠVLh(cgghᜠf⺆%Rav
LcigᴑN TchKࠜᴗoDࠜ VLcKVᜑTRwoa Vh
VzDᴑ―hkKoTRv₌sgVcᜑwcTఘabࠜth og
ᔑiᠠKaဠEeKe鴛tᰠMTKcsgᠠmRDRLhioTRv
PoDcLRoጠikvఠᔠgoNDᠠfhggRNgshȠosoKc
wRᄠToeᴠ(URL: http://www.ras.ru/news/shownews.
aspx?id=613a30f8-1475-4d9a-a6a3-75df1501be7a).
DcCcgDicTThȠaRDcLoDeL逬 ᰠVᰠTᬠko
iᄕvURw“D ᬉh LRCRTow₌Do‗᠆hDo c
VhaeCRጘ‗okiRDRv.ₕogDb₌Dhth oDcLᄘጘ
EzaᠠRᔁhabkhioTᠠn⺆u⺆PoLseghihȠKav
KRggcᜌomRhTThtᰠRggacജioTRv⸠ᦆ197㎆t.
VhഠLeshihകDihРKRLcsDhLᠠukcLEoNK
輘TᔝhtᰠRTgDRDeDᠠToeCTh-DcSTRCcᔝhN
RT(hᜄomRR‑)Dc脈Rsh-谝hࠜwRCcgᴑS‑g
gacജioTRȠ%hᔁaoTᠠukcLEoNK輘TᔝhN
99ꀠu⺆PcSDRciᠠEzaᄠizVe鴛T造esoko
DcaᄠmRDRLecwhȠaRDcLoDeL造(O1Л): \n1Л-
Tc(Db, \n1Л-/shThwRso⸠5oDcР᪆197㒆t⸠Eza
izVe鴛\b \n1Л-RT(hLwoDRsᠠTᠠhᔈhiᬠgᖐ
ahᴠgDoDcNⰠghഛL輘URSgဠ᪆hEcR脠gcLRvS
Geᜈoao₫yoeCࠜ-Dc脈RCcgsov‑T(hᜄo
mRv묠kᠠVcLRhഠᖆ196㐠Vᰠ197㎆t⸠ᦆwogᔑic
196〠hVeEaRshioTTz脠gDoDcȠghഛL輘ahᔋ
953㔠gᖐahᴠTᠠhDcCcgDicTTzᬠᆆkoLeEcG
TzᬠVeEaRsomRᄠ[PoLseghio, 1976]⸠芆gh輘
ጛTR4,₌DR‗᠆hDz c haeCRaR \roabࠛN
缛th‗okᨑDRv.
rKTosᰠeᔁcIToဠVhVzDsᠠgᰎKoTRဠeso
koDcaဠmRDRLhioTRဠ᪆fhgᔑᄠEzaᠠhge鴛gD
iacTo‚)2001–2009 \tt.‏ࠑmRoDᄚTov \tLeV
Vᠠ(s. \f. \b⸠u⸠y⸠ЛREsRTK, \r⺆(.-w⺆T⺆n⺆u⺆PR
TRࠠᆆR脠waoKIRȠshaactᠠM⺆u⺆ЛREsRTK)
᪆200ㆆt⸠VLcKahGRaᠠgᰎKoDଠDoshȠesoko
DcaଠTᠠhᔈhiᬠKoTTz脠ᰠVeEaRsomRv脠eCogD
TRshᨠVLhcsDhᨠfhgᔑNᔝhtᰠ(hTKᠠ(eT
KowcTDoጋ࢐S RggacKhioࠑN (fФФM). Тht
Ko缈ᄂ LcKgcKoDcጋ₠ФФM‘ᴘKcБs
P⺆n⺆ua(RwhᨠVhKഛL輘ጠ/DᘠRKc4⸠芆cᬠ
LᬘaRkomRᄠVhKsa4CRagဠc鴛‗vഠᔁcmR
oaRgDhi⸠dRahDToဠicLᔑဠOsokoDcaဠfФФ༠
EzaᠠgᰎKoTᠠᆆVLhKcwhTgDLRLhioTᠠ
3⺆%oL(RaKᘠiᰠiLcwဠctᰠVLRckKᠠ᪆Phᔝiᘠ
TᠠshT(cLcTmR4ⰠVhᔚv鴛TTe耠50-acDR耠
ᤏyMТM.₇.)%oL(RaK―)Ehጋ缑w‑TDcLcghw
ᰎToshwRagဠᖆOsokoDcacРfФФ༠ᆆhDwcDRጠ
i)Tcw‗vK“Lᄉᄈoጋ࢐S‗cIcࠑN‑)Vhack
Tz脠hVmRȬ”hDhLzᬠ᪆DᰠiLcwဠhDgeDgDih
ioaᄠ᪆SCI⸠rKTosᰠVᰠLvKᘠVLRCRࠠ(RToT
ᔑLhioTRᬠVLhcsDᠠVLcsLo鴛Th⸠yᰠRഛဠ
gᰎKoTRဠfhgᔑNᔝhtᰠesokoDcaဠhgDoioaoᔋ
VhVeavᜈhN.
PhGࠜ \fhabsh hLoGoDbgv“tLhwࠜN‑T
DeRmRᄠ3⸠%oL(RaKoⰠRഛᄠshDhLhtᰠVᰎKTcᬠ
EzaR‚hVጜUcTz‚)ࠜ᪐c‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzc
VLhKesDz. ᦆ197㎆t. 3⺆%oL(Ra\r VeEaRsec\f
VRᔋwᰠᶆLcKosDhLᘠGeLToaᠠNatureⰠ᪆shDh
LhРhELoUocఠiTRwoTRᬠTᠠRᔁhabkhioTRᬠ
RTഛsgᠠsoᴠRTgDLewcTDᠠKaဠVLcകsokoTRဠ
EeKeUR脠ThEcaciᔝR脠aoeLᬘDhi. «uToaRภ
ᔘwzS ᪐ghshmRDRLecwzS oiDhLhi Vhบh
aRጠ᪆196㞆t⸠izviRDଠKie脠ThEcaciᔝR脠ao
eLᬘDhᨠᔗcKᄠᔁRᔝᠠToREhacᬠmRDRLecwz脠
oiDhLhi.ₛᬁᬗb aothKoLv \boshVጛTTzw
wogᔑioРgDoDRgDRsᄠkᠠ1961–197ㆆtt. (sLh
wᬠwogᔑihᨠkᠠ19㘲‑)196㎆tt.⤠VhviRaoᔋ
ihคhGࠜgDb―hgఘᨑDb―VRghs‚zghshmR
DRLecwz脠oiDhLhi⸠MภEhacᬠCcР1,㠠wa\b
VLhmRDᄗhioࠈzS‘iDhLhi \fhጋsh 42 \fzg.
EzaᄠVLhmRDRLhioT造Ehacᬠ3〠Loภ᪆soG
ജРRภhEgacജioTTz脠acD. rKTosᰠDhabsᰠ
210〠oiDhLhᨠEzaᄠVLhmRDRLhioT造Ehacᬠ
DzgvCᄠLok⸠ᦆ/DhРᔁRᔝᬠhsokoaRᔋ‚gᬠTh
EcaciᔝRᬠaoeLᬘD造kᠠ1972 \t⸠྆DosGᬠDᬠ(kᠠ
TcEhጋ缑w‑gsᎀCcࠑcw),”Dh haeCRa₌De
VLcwR耠᪆VLcKIcgDie4URᬠthKz묠[Gar8eld,
1973]⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ‎osa4Cocఠ3⺆%oL
(RaK, \bhEcaciᔝRᬠaoeLᬘD造VLRToKac輘\f
ᶆ/aRDThȠtLeVVcⰠghgDhv鴛ȠRภ0,1
gc脠
mRDᄗecҐS‘iDhLhi.
㔠ഛsoELဠ197㞆t⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠhVeEaRshioጠ
gDoDb4ⰠVhᔚv鴛TTe耠250 \boREhacᬠizghsh
mRDRLecwzРoiDhLoРkᠠ1961–197㖆tt⸠uiDhL造
/Dᆁ‗᠆hD LRtaoIoaᄕb \roioDb”hwЛTDo
LRᄬ hCcweⰠVᰠR脠wTcTR4Ⱐ/DᄠLoEhD造VLR
iacsaᄠDoshᬠiTRwoTRc⸠ЭDhఠLokഛጠTokz
ioagဠ«Citation Classics묠(saogᔑsᠠmRDRLh
ioTRv). dcLizȠshwwcTDoLRȠEzጠToVRgo\b
oiDhLhw ᔘМN ᪐ghshmRDRLecМN i)wRLc
gDoDbᄠraRicLhРХ⸠ЛheLᄠ(Oliver H⺆Lowry),
hVeEaRshioTThȠ᪆195ㆆt⸠ЭDᠠgDoDbဠEzaᠠ
VLhmRDRLhioTᠠᶆ197㚆t⸠Ehacᬠ5㢆Dzg⸠Lok
ЭDhఠLokഛጠVeEaRshioagဠiVahDଠKᰠ199㊆t.
ngᬉh‎o₌DhD ᬗRhK‚LᬄᬈR zah“VeEaR
shioࠜ“shጜ 3000”hwwcTఘᜑci‘iDhLhi
/DR脠LoEhDⰠRภshDhLz脠1㠠VLRToKac輘aᄠ
ghicDᔝRРeCcTzw⸠ТhabsᰠVvDଠLoEhఠEzaᄠ
hVeEaRshioT造᪆ghicDᔝR脠ToeCTz脠GeLTo
aoS,“gDoጋ࢐c‗oEhDz–REh z጑“VeE጑
shioT造kᠠLeEcGhЬ aREᰠ/DᰠEzaᰠRkKoTRᬠ
To‘TtaRнshw‐ຐsc hࠜtLo(RN, c᜚hTo
CoጋTh“VeE጑shioࠈzS‚)999f.
rDwcDRЬ DᰠgDoDbဠwhahജtᰠghicDᔝhtᰠ
광kRso„.„.„ELRshghio
,“VeE጑shioࠈov
᪆195㞆t⸠᪆«ЖeLToaᬠDchLcDRCcᔝhȠᆆ/sg
VcᜑwcTఘabࠜN₭Rฑᴑ», hVoao‚)gVR
ghᴠgowz脠mRDRLecwz脠ghicDᔝR脠LoEhD,
hVeEaRshioTTz脠᪆ghicDᔝR脠GeLToaoSⰠkᠠ
VcLRhഠᖆ196ㄠVᰠ197㊆t⸠ᆆVhaeCRaᠠ73〠gᖐ
ahᴠ[Gar8eld, 1975]⸠5ᠠ/DᘠLoEhDᘠ᪆200㎆t.
u⺆u⺆uELRshghᨠgDoጠaoeLᬘDhРyhEcaci
ᔝhȠVLcwRᄠVᰠ(RkRsc. 9icഛTRဠᰠsTRto脠
VhVoKoaᄠ᪆SCI \fhabsᰠ᪆DhРgaeCocⰠcgaᄠ
ᴈRघ zao LhmRDRLhioTo‚)GeᜈoaoS-Rg
DhCࠑᴘS.₉oVLᄄcL,“VeE጑shioࠈov‘ᴘ
ഛwRshРЛ⺆P⺆.LcShiᔝR脠᪆196㚆t⸠sTRtᠠ
«ԑTowRsᠠGRKsR脠ᔗcK묠gDoaᠠEcgDgcaac
Lhw‑)CcwVᄜࠜw‚)᪐IceVhwvTeDhw‗ok
ഛaᬠCitation Classic猠EaothKoLဠcᬠizgh
ᴑw VhsokoDcavw mRDRLecМgDR i)gఘDbႁ,
hVeE጑shioࠈzS‚)GeLToaoS-RgDhCࠑᴘS.
dᰎKTccⰠ᪆199㎆t.ⰠEzጠizVe鴛\b \fhРCitation
ClassicsⰠghgDhvURȠRภ/DR脠shwwcTDoLRci.
萠ToshVacTRcРwogᔑihᨠRT(hLwomRᄠ
᪆EokᬠKoTTz脠(.B) SCI EzaᄠizvᔈcT造iLc
ЛTT逛₁o᜘sDᬗᄕDRsR‚)gᄕDᬄc \boeCT邁
ЭDᠠgDoDbဠЛheLᄠEzaᠠVLhmRDRLhioTᠠEhacᬠ
30ゆDzg⸠Lok.
usoKcwRᴠu⸠u⸠uELRshghiⰠaoeLcoఠyhEcacigshN
VLcwRR‎o“gࠜiᰁhaoघ肝Rc‗oEhDz h \fchᜑR
gicLSėhihKࠑshi‑―icLSఛsȇS₏RKshgఛN.₠ok
Kc጑a₌De LcБ4―‘ᴘKcБshw’.)Л.)%ᄈkEeLthw
R)oࠉah-owcLᄝoTgsᄄ‖Cc࢐w–hLKhw Anthony
James Legget琠᪆200㎆t.
shЄeࠑᴘmᄂ.’)shࢍc 60-S zah‖gDoThi
acThⰠCDᰠᔗcKTRȠiᰎLogఠmRDRLecwhȠgDo
DbᄠToShKRDgဠ᪆VLcഛao脠hఠVvDᄠജ vD
ToKmoDᄠacDⰠ᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠhఠhEaogDᄠkTo
TRv. ᦆDᰠGᬠiLcwဠ᪆hEaogDᄠwhacseavLThȠ
ERhahtRᄠᔗcKTRȠiᰎLogఠhshaᰠ25 % R
DᄗecҐS eE጑ᴘmᄂ―hgDoiava \rio \thKo,
KLetRᬠGᬠEzaᄠTowThtᰠgDoLIc⸠ЭDᄠKoT
࢐c hkih጑጑“ELoDRDb‚ࠑwoࠑc \bo“Ccࠋ
TcEhabIe耠tLeVVᘠgDoDcȬ”hDhLoဠmRDRLe
cDgဠeGᬠCcLcภTcᔝhabsᰠwcgv贛ᨠVhgaᬠ
hVeEaRshioTRv⸠ᦆ197㖆t⸠iVcLizᬠ᪆Tcᔝhab
sR脠izVeᔝo脠EREaRhtLo(RCcᔝhtᰠesokoDc
av Current Contents zaR \b᠁cC᠌᠈z―VR
ᔝᄠgDᠠToREhacᬠmRDRLecwz脠VeEaRsomRȬ
hVeEaRshioTTz脠᪆/DhРGᬠthKe⸠ԚᠠthKᠠ
ᔁegDဠIS䤠VLRgDeVRጠᶆVcLRhKRCcᔝhȠVe
E጑ᴘmᄑ gVRgᴘ ToREhacc mRDᄗecҐS gDo
DcN, \fos \bok通ocҐS₫thLvCRS eE጑ᴘmᄂ»
(hot papers)⸠yᠠhᔈhiᬠizviacTTz脠(osDhᨠ
Ezao‗coaRkhioTo hiov‑T(hᜄomᄜTTov
egaetᠠ騠VeEaRsomRဠᔁRᔝhᨠToREhacᬠmR
DRLecwz脠gDoDcȠDcse鴛tᰠthKo⸠ЭDᄠᔁRᔝᄠ
«hot papers묠hEThiav4DgဠsoGKzᬠKiᠠwc
gvmᠠᆆജgDeVT造VhabkhioDcavР᪆TogDhv
鴛ᬠiLcwဠ᪆MTDcLTcDc.
ԘabࠛN缛c‗okiRDᄛ \boeshЛDLRR―ivko
TᰠᖆLokLoEhDsowᄠ᪆oToaRDRCcᔝhРhDഛaᬠ
ISIⰠshDhLzȠᖆToCoaᠠ70-脠tt⸠᪆DcCcTRᬠVhC
Dᄠ3〠acఠiᰎtaoiavጠ%cTLᄠ9whaa⸠ᦆ197㎆t.
hࠠLokLoEhDoጠ᪆IS䤠ᆆhge鴛gDiRጠVLosDRCc
ᔝhᬠVLRwcTcTRᬠwcDhKᠠgᰎKoTRဠ(LhTDhᨠ
ToeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠRaᄠsaogDcLhᨠTᠠ
hᔈhiᬠsh-mRDRLhioTRဠ[Small, 1973]⸠9Raᠠ
sh-mRDRLhioTRဠwhGc\f hVLcഛavDbgဠshaR
CcgDihРghiwcgDTz脠gᖐahᴠTᠠKoTTe耠VoLᘠ
ജsewcTDhᨠ(VeEaRsomRN⤠᪆KLetR脠ജsewcT
ఘS. gaR LcKVhጜGRDb, Dh‚zghshmRDRLe
cwzᬠജsewcTD造hDLo輘4ఠioGTzᬠVhTvDRဠ
᪆soshN-aREᰠhDLogaᄠToesR, \fᰠogghmRomRᄠ
sh-mRDRLeᬄ邁 \rhseЛTDhi h輈h‗᠕gwo
DLRioDଠsoᴠsaogᖐ RaᄠsaogDcL造ᔚvkoTTz脠
VhTvDRN⸠ЭDᄠsaogDcL造hDLo輘4ఠhᔈhiTzᬠ
ToV᜘iጛTRv―hiLᬄᬈT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN,
᪆ghihseVThgDᄠghgDoiav4URᬠsoᜌ造To
esR.₉chESᰍRwh“Dwc఑ఋ, Dh“KThiLc
wcTTᰠᖆ%⺆9whaahРᆆTckoiRᔑwᰠh\f Tctᰠ
RgVhabkhioTRc”ᜑDcᜑv”h-mRDRLhioTRv
TᠠTcEhabIhРwogᔑiᬠgDoDcȠVᰠaokcLoР
EzaᰠVLcKahGcTᰠM⺆n⺆PoLIoshihȠ(197㎆t.)
᪆nMyMТ༠[PoLIoshio, 1973]⸠fokLoEhDsᠠ
wcDhജᨠ/sᔁaRsomRᄠgDLesDeL造ghiLcwcT
ThȠToesᄠVhᔗcകDihРVhgDLhcTRvⰠoTo
aRkᠠᆆh贛TsᄠgcDcȠmRDRLhioTRv, isa4Coဠ
RgVhabkhioTRc”ᜑDcᜑv”h-mRDRLhioTRv,
VᰎihaRaᠠISI \boCoDଠ᪆198㞆t⸠izVeᔝ hihȠ
gcLRᄠh؎hLTh-ᔁLoihCTz脠RkKoTRȬ”hDh
LzᬠEzaᄠTokioT造Atlas of Science (uDaogowᄠ
ToesR) [Gar8eld, 1989].ₗజD cజK‑gVhabke
cDgv \rav hgDLhᬈRv”a᠕Dᬗhi \boV᜘iጛ
TRȠToesᄬ‚ShKvUR脠᪆ghgDoᨠ.ԠEssential
Science Indicators š ESI (rᔈhiTzᬠVhsokoDc
aᄠToesᄠᆆDcSTRsR).
蒆shTmᠠ70-脠tt⸠gᰎKoTRᬠLokaRCTz脠soᜌ
DcwoDRCcᔝR脠ToVLoiacTRȠToesᄬ‘)DosGᬠ
saogDcLhi‘iDhLhi \boIጜⁿRLhshc ᜑwc
ࠛTᄛ‚)᜘kT邁―D᜘ToS R᜘.₄hkKoTᄛ \fo
sR脠soᜌ oesᄠVᰎihaRaᰠKoDଠhEъcsDRiTe耠
ᆆVLᰎLoCTe耠h贛TsᘠᔑabTzРᆆgaoEzР
gDhLhTow \boeCࠜN \rcvDcabࠜgDR, LhRบh
KRDb hࠑDhLᄈt‗okiRDRv \boeC࢐S \boVLoi
acTRȠᆆToesᄠ᪆贛ahw.
OࠑᴘጋTov h―ihᄄ ogIDoEow RE጑h
wcDLRCcᔝoဠgDoDRgDRsᠠSCI, SSCI, Arts&HCI,
ES䤠ᆆKLetRᬠRkKoTRဠ(RLw造IS䤠gDoaᄠEhto
Dcɿᄄ‑gDhCࠑshw \roࠈzS \rav \boeshwc
DLRCcᔝR脠RggacജioTRȬ DᰠVhgaeGRaᰠ
whUTzРDhaCshРKaဠR脠LoᕿRLcTRဠᆆLok
iRDRv⸠蒆197㦆t. \boCoጠizShKRDଠKieSwcgvC
TzN cGKe࠘LhKTzN₏eL࠘a Scientometrics,
shDhLzȠVhᔚv鴛ࠠLogᔄhDLcTR耠igc脠sh
aRCcgDicTTz脠oᔁcsDhᨠToesᄠᰠToesc, shw
weࠑᴘmᄑ‚)Toesc‑)ToeCThN h጑DᄝR.
ᦆ199㎆t⸠EzaᰠhLtoTRkhioTᰠwcGKeToLhKThᬠ
hE鴛gDiᰠVᰠToeshwcDLRᄠᄠRT(hLwcDLRᄠ
International Society on Scientometrics and
Informetrics,”hT(c᜛TmRR”hDh᜜th ᜜Sh
KvఠLoภ᪆KiᠠthKo⸠ᦆ200ゆt⸠EzaᠠgᰎKoTᠠ
wcGKeT᠗hഈov“Lt᠈RkᢍRv \boeCThth―h
DLeKTRCcgDiᠠ᪆ToeshwcDLRᄬ RT(hLwcDLRᄠ
ᆆicEhwcDLRᄠCOLLNETⰠshT(cLcTmRᄠsh
DhLhȠVLhShKvఠcGcthKTh⸠蒆200㞆t⸠hE鴛
gDiᰠCOLLNE吠izVeᔝocఠGeLToጠCollnet
Journal of Scientometrics and Information
ManagementⰠVeEaRsecwzȠKiᠠLokᠠ᪆thK.
rKTRw‑k‚oGTzS hwcTDhi‚)gఘࠜi
acTRᄠᆆLokiRDRᄠEREaRhwcDLRᄠviRahᔋ
VhTRwoTRc \fhth, Dh REaᄜwcDᜑCcgsov
gDoDRgDRsᠠwhGcఠEzDଠRᔁhabkhioTᠠsoᴠ
VhᴘkoDcጋ‗ckeጋDoDᄚThgDR \boeC࢐S‑g
gacജioTRȠᆆ/((csDRiThtᰠRᔁhabkhio
ࠑv \rcTct \boahthVaoDcጋUᄝhi.
něLi逛―DoDᄕDRиgsᄛ―icKᬈRv“”haR
CcgDic eE጑ᴘmᄂₚ \boeCThN LhKesDᄚTh
gDᄠᆆR脠mRDRLecwhgDᄠEzaᄠRᔁhabkhioT造
Kaဠh贛TsᄠLokiRDRဠToesᄠ᪆9ШḠᆆ᪆wRLᬠ
᪆hDCcD NS䘠9ШuⰠizVe鴛TThР᪆197㊆t⸠Vh\r
Toki᠈Rcw Science Indicators
(VhᴘkoDc጑
ToesR)ⰠshDhLzȠDcVcLଠTokziocDgဠScience
⚆Engineering Indicators⸠蒆Dc脠VhᜠTᠠVLh
DvGcTRᄠEhacᬠ4〠acఠVvDoဠtaoiᠠ/DR脠hD
CcDh NS䘠RᔁhabkecDgဠKaဠwhTRDhLRTtᠠ
DcTഛTmRȠLokiRDRဠwRLhihȠToesᄠᆆcᬠ
VLhtTᰎRLhioTRv⸠蒆2008 \t⸠᪆/DhРhDCcDᬠ
VeE጑se而gv \roࠈzc“”h጑CcgDic‚zghsh
mRDRLecwz脠LoEhఠᆆR脠ജaᬠ᪆ToeCThȠVLh
ഖsDRiThgDR”oGKhN‑k“Egጛഖᬄ邁―D᜘T
ᆆ᪆wRLhihРVhDhsc
BᰠToCoaᠠ80-脠tt⸠hᔈhiTzРᔁhghEhР
hmᬈsR‎ToCRwhgDR \boЛC᠛w邁 \boeCT邁
VLht᜘ww―ae輑ao―ᄕDᬄo‗ᮍᬈkRLhio
ࠑv‚cKeUᄄR―VcmRo጑gDoБₚ /DLoБ
Science Indicators – 1972. NSB-73-1 // Washington,
DC: U.S. Government Printing of8ce, 1973.
PoDcLRoጠikvఠᔠgoNDᠠNational Science Foundation
(www.nsf.gov).
ToesR⸠nzVhaTcTTzȠ᪆9ШḠVᰠkosok NSF
᪆shT贛‸0-脠tt⸠oToaRภVhsokoጬ DᰠVLᄠ
᜘gVLcKcጛTRR t᜘TDhi izEhL t᜘TDhVhae
CoDcacȠhVLcഛavcDgဠToVhahiRTᘠgDLhtᰠ
hEhgThioࠈ逄R‗cshwcTKomRvБ,‘)ToVh
ahiᄈeₚ‗cshwcTKomRvБ,‚zgᴘkoࠈ逄R
ToetoK⸠ᦆKLethРRggacജioTRᄬ‚zVhaTcT
ThРVᰠkosokᘠDhȠGᬠhLtoTRkomRᄬ―wcIoT
Te耠tLeVVᘠLc贛TkcTDhᨠVLhᔑaᄠhDicDRDଠ
TᠠihVLhᖐⰠsoshȠRภKie脠kovihᴠTᠠtLoT\f
hTᄠhDKoKeఠVLcKVhCDcTRᬺ‌hȬ”hDhLoဠVh
gDeVRaᠠRภRTgDRDeDo, Vhabke4鴛thgဠwRLh
ihȠRkicgDThgDb4ⰠᆆhᔈhioTᠠTᠠhE鴛VLR
TvDz脠VLcകDoiacTRvS, RaR, \boVLhDRᨬ kovi
sc‑k oጜRบcgDࠜth \boeCࠜth‖CLcGKcTRv
R)ghKcLGoUcN‗oKᄝoጋ࢐c‑KcR.₃hጋ缑T
gDih‗cgVhTKcTDhi LcKVhCጜ c᜚zN‚oᜑ
oT\f [PoLseghio, 1998].
ЭDhఠVLRwcᜠVhsokziocDⰠCDᰠiᰎTRsaᠠVh
DLcEThgDଠ᪆KoTTzSⰠshDhLzᬠTᬠwhteఠEzDଠ
VhaeCc࢐“D‚zghshsio጑(ᆍᄗhioࠈzS
/sᔁcᜌhi⸠MwcTTᰠ᪆/DR脠gaeCov脠VLRSh
KRDgဠhELoUoDbgဠᶆVhsokoDcavРLokiRDRဠ
ToesR. ТosRᬠVhsokoDcaᄠTᬠgae輘\f kowcThȠ
/sᔁcᜌRk逬“KTosᰠviav4DgဠwhUTzРRT
(hᜄomᄜTTzw‑TgDLewcTDhw hKKcLGᴑ.
ЭDhఠRTgDLewcT\f \bchEShKRРVLᄠhVLcഛ
acࠑR‑)whࠑDhLᄈtc \fcTKcࢍᄂ‗okiRDRv
shTᴗcDࠜN \boeCࠜN \rRgmRVaRTz \bo‖Lhi
TᬠgDLoT造RaᄠhLtoTRkomRᄠ᪆ᔗoiTcTRᄠ
ᖆLokiRDRcР/DhȠToeCThȠKRᖍRVaRT造
i)БLc (i)ghVhgDoiacࠑR―)KLetᄄR―DLoTo
wR)Ⱐh贛TsᄠhEъcwᠠᆆKLetR脠SoLosDcLRgDRᴠ
ЛGഖToLhKThth―hDLeKTRиgDio,‗haR‗ok
iRio4Uᆁgv―D᜘T,‚aRvTRv₭eTKoЛTDoab
Tz脠ᆆVLRsaoKTz脠RggacജioTRȠTᠠLok
ᨑDRc \boeshcwᴑS \fc脈hጜtRN,―DLesDeថ
ToeC࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑T‑)RS‚koᄄhhDThIcࠑN
g)KLetᄄR“EaogDvБ‎ToࠑN.
fᰕD”hTsᘗcTDᰕVᰕhETᰕDR \boeCTzS
shaacsDᄚhi R)EhLbEo ko KhVhገRDcጋ࢐c
ᄈicgDᆍᄑ‚)Toese Lᄚc጑”)LokiRDᆀ
gRabT邁 \boeshЛDLRиgsᆁ”haጛsDRihi
᪆9ШḠᆆliLhVc. ᦆncaRshELRDoTRᄠ/Dh
EzጠshaacsDRᨠVhഠLeshihകDihРജs
DhLᠠ9⺆舘Dmᠠ(Sylvan Katz) ᆆ.⺆PoᜌR
Tᠠ(B⺆Martin⤠᪆OTRicLᔑDcDᬠtLo(gDio
oggcsgⰠᢆ᪆yRഛLaoTKo膆— hഠLeshihK
gDihРVLh(cgghLᠠu⺆noࠠfooTᠠ(Antony Van
Raan⤠᪆OTRicLᔑDcDᬠЛcNഛTo⸠2haacsDRi
u⺆noࠠfooTᠠToCoጠLoEhDoDଠᖆ198ゆt⸠᪆ЛcN
ഛTᔝhРeTRicLᔑDcDc⸠ᦆ198㦆t. \bᠠEokᬠ/Dh
tᰠshaacsDRiᠠEzጠgᰎKo\b Centre for Study
Science and Technology š CWTS (1cTDᜠVh
oToaRkᘠToesᄠᆆDcSTRsR)⸠5ᠠ2㖆acఠᔚhc
tᰠge鴛gDihioTRဠ/Dhఠ贛TDᜠVLciLoDRagv
᪆eCLcGഛTRᬠwRLhihtᰠeLhiTဠᆆviavcDgv
aRഛLhРToeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠVᰠLokLo
EhDsc‑)VLRЛࠛTR4 REaRhЛDLRиgsᆁ
ᄈKᄝoDhLhi \boesR \rav“mcࠝR₌((csDᄚ
ࠜgDR \boeCࠜN \rcvDcabࠜgDR.—tLhwTe4
VhKKᬗ輝e₌Dhwe”haጛsDRie‚)ěLRhK‛th
gDoThiacTRဠhsokoጠhKRࠠRภiRKTz脠ᔁc
mRoaRgDhi h \boeCࠜN haRDRsc, \rRLcsDhL
yomᄜToabࠜth (hTKo Vh Dc脈hጜtRvw,₭R
kRᴠVᰠhELokhioTR耠ജsDhᜠ2cNᔠЛᬠdcRL
(C. Le Pair), iᰎtaoiaviIRȠ᪆ToCoaᬠ1970-x
tt. \boeshwcDLRCcᔝe耠tLeVVᘠ᪆yomRhToab
ThРToeCThР(hTഛ Vᰠ(RkRsᬠ᪆yRഛLaoT
KoS⸠ᦆTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠCWT匠LeshihKRD
VLh(cgghᜠd⺆nheDcLg⸠9RabTzᬠToeshwc
DLRиgsᄛ shaጛsDRiz ᜘EhDo4D i).cabtRR
VhഠLeshihകDihРVLh(cgghLᠠn⺆%a/T贛ao
(W⺆Glдnzel, \nTRicLᔑDcఠ舘LhaRTso⤠ᆆVLh
(cgghLᠠЛ⺆ЛcNഛgജL(ᠠ(L⺆Leidesdorf,
Amsterdam University)Ⱐ᪆1cTDLᬠVᰠRk
eCcࠑ4 \boesR‑)DcSࠑsR (Observatoire des
Sciences et des Technique玆阠ФLoTmRv⤠VhK
LeshihകDihРജsDhLᠠP⺆5RDDᠠ(M⺆Zitt),
shaacsDRᨠVh\r LeshihകDihРജsDhLo
Л.).oDacL (Linda Butler, Australian National
University)‚)uigDLo጑R.₄eUcgDie而 Thth
CᄕጛTT逛 REaRhЛDLRиgsᄛ”haጛsDR
i造᪆MTKRᄬ 2RDoc, .LokRaRᄠᆆMᔁoTRR.
usDRiT逛‑ggጛKhioTRv‚)ToeshЛDLRR
ᖆToCoaᠠ70-膆tt⸠VLhihKRaRᔋ‑)VLhKha
輘4ఠicgDRᔋ‚).REaRhDcsᬠu褠ncTtLRR
VhഠLeshihകDihРVLh(cgghLᠠТ⺆.LoeTo.
Т⺆.Loeࠠ騠VLRkToTTzȠᔁcmRoaRgఠ᪆hE
aogDᄠLoKRhoToaRDRCcᔝhȠSRwRᄬ‗oEh
DoiIRȠ᪆OTRicLᔑDcDᬠlDihᔠ(.eKoVcID)
ᆆhKThiLcwcTTᰠgᰎKoiIRȠᆆiᰎtaoiavi
IRȠtLeVVᘠVᰠToeshwcDLRᄠ᪆.REaRhDcsc
u褠ncTtLRR⸠ЭDᠠtLeVVᠠizVhaTRaᠠᆆhVe
E጑shioao‗vK‑TDcLcg࢐S‑ggacKhioࠑN
VᰠToeCThȠVLhKesDRiThgDᄠᆆiaRvDcab
ThgDR (ᄄVosDe)‗ok጑C࢐S―DLoT ᄗo.
ЧacT造/DhtᰠshaacsDRio, \fhtKᠠghigcРwh
ahKzᬠRggacജioDcaᄬ’⸠%a/T贛ጠᆆu⺆Шe
EcLD (A.)Schubert)―Do጑ LRkToࠈ逄R
gVcmRoaRgఘwR‚)wRLhihw \boeshwcDᜑCc
ᔝhРghhE鴛gDic. dLh(cgghᜠТ⺆.Loe\b gDoa
hKTRw‑k ᬗi邁, \bot᜘GKᬈT邁 cKoab4
B⺆dLoNgᠠ(198㚆t.)⸠dᰎKTcᬠ/DᘠVLcwR4
VhaeCRaᄠVLh(cgghLᠠu⺆ШeEcᜌ‑)n⺆%a/T
贛a⸠MwcTTᰠТ⺆.Loe\b \boCoጠizVeᔝoDb
᪆197㦆t. Scientometric猠ᆆEzጠctᰠtaoiTzw
LcKosDhLhРEhacᬠ3〠acD⸠ТcVcLଠ/Dᘠ/gDo
(cDᘠVLRTvጠn⺆%a/T贛a⸠ᦆЧcShgahiosRR
hCcTଠRTDcLcᔈzᬠRggacജioTRဠVᰠToesh
wcDLRᄠVLhihKRaRᔋ―VcmRoaRgDhР᪆hE
aogDᄠvഛLThȠ(RkRsᄠജsDhLhРЯ⺆naoSᄬ
᜘EhDoiIRw‚)᜘kaRCT邁‑ࠕDRDeDoS c
ShgጜiomshN„y.ₘ.)nao脑“VeEaRshioa c
DzLcgDo‗᠆hD h”haRиgDiᬈTzw‘gěs
DoРRggacജioTRȠ᪆hEaogDᄠ(RkRsR⸠rT
VLosDRCcᔝᄠLoEhDoጠᆆVRgoጠhKRT⸠Тhabsh
KiᬠctᰠgDoDbᄠEzaᄠhVeEaRshioT造VLᄠgh
DLeKTRCcgDiᬠᖆജsDhLhРХ⺆3⺆ЧcLihThw
RภusoഛwRᄠToeᴠ%Bf⸠ᦆ198㞆t⸠Я⺆naoSR
EzጠTotLoGഛࠠwcKoab耠B⺆dLoNgo⸠dᰎK
TcᬠctᰠRTDcLcᖐ―wcgDRaRᔋ”)RgDhLRR
и缕shth―hVLhDRiጛTRv \bomᄕDow‚h‚Lc
wဠnDhLhȠwRLhihȠihNTz⸠rDc贠Я⺆naoSᄬ
osDᄚ࢐N‖CogDࠑs―hVLhDᄚacࠑာ za
VhNwoࠠᆆLoggDLcavࠠ᪆D4Lbwᬠ᪆.cLaRTc
᪆194㎆t⸠Я⺆naoSᄠᔝhLhVhgDRGTᰠᔝhTCoagv
᪆.cLaRTᬠ᪆201㊆t.
n \bogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠ᪆fhgᔑᄠge鴛gDie
cD \rhihabࠜ hab缜c REaᄜwcDᜑCcgshc
ghhE鴛gDihⰠVLhihKv鴛ᬠRggacജioTRv
᪆LokTz脠hLtoTRkomRvS㨠᪆P%ਠRw⺆P⺆n⺆Лh
whThghiᠠ(ജ贛Tఠ3⺆n⺆%LoThiᔝRN)Ⱐ᪆nM
yMТ༠fu褠(s⺆D⺆T⸠u⺆y⺆ЛREsRTK, \r⺆VcK⺆T.
n⺆u⺆PoLseghio)Ⱐ᪆MTgDRDeDᬠ(Rahgh
(Rᄠfu褠(K⺆(⺆T⸠M⺆n⺆PoLIoshio)Ⱐ᪆MT
gDRDeDc ᄜጜtRR hLv ᤔ (VLh(cgghL
u⺆M⺆deജisRT)Ⱐ᪆nzᕿcȠIshaᬠ/shThwRsR
(s⺆
.-w⺆T⸠n⺆n⺆dRgavshᨬ‏⺆u⺆9DcLaRthi
ᆆKL.)Ⱐ᪆MTgDRDeDᬠVLhEacРLokiRDRဠToe
sᄠfu褠(VLh(cgghᜠЛ⺆Э⺆PRTഛaR)Ⱐ᪆
MlТ
(s⺆VᔑS⺆T⸠u⺆u⺆uaoSicLKvT)Ⱐ᪆9oTsD-
dcDcLEeLtᔝhРeTRicLᔑDcDᬠ(r⺆n⺆Phᔝo
acio)Ⱐ᪆OLoabᔝhР(cഛLoabThРeTRicL
ᔑDcDᬠ(1cTDᜠwhTRDhLRTtᠠToesᄠᆆhE
LokhioTRvⰠP⺆u⺆ushci)Ⱐ᪆9ᐠfu褠(s⺆D⺆T.
y⺆u⺆Pokhi)⸠rtLhwTe耠Lhaଠ᪆RkeCcTRR
whDᄚomᄂ₍RDᄗhioࠑv―选Loa‚zKo
肝Rнv―hicDgᴑN gRShጜt Lh(cgghL
P⺆%⺆ЯLhIciᔝRNⰠiᰎtaoiaviIRȠhDഛa
VᔑShahtRᄠToeCThtᰠDihLCcgDiᠠᖆgcLcKR
T造60-脠ജ―cLcKRT造90-膆tt⸠VLhIahtᰠicso
᪆MMl鬠fuy⸠ᦆhsDvELᬠ201㎆t⸠᪆Mdfu褠VLR
eCogDRᄠThomson Reuter猠EzaᠠVLhicഛTo
VLcKgDoiRDcabT᠐ cGഖToLhKT᠐”hT(c
LᬈmRv₫dLhEጛwz \boeshЛDLRR.₄hgDhv
Tᄛ‑)ěLgěsDRiz‗okiRDRv», \bo”hDhLhN
EzaᄠVLcകDoiacT造ജsaoK造hDcCcgDicT
Tz脠ᔁcmRoaRgDhᨠᆆR脠shaacठRภ.cahLeg
ᔑᄬ’caRshELRDoTRᄬ₂RDovⰠyRKcLaoTജi
ᆆФLoTmRR⸠yoCRToဠᖆ199ㆆt⸠᪆MyMr褠fuy
VLhihKRDgv‛GcwcgvCTh \boeC࢐N―cБToL
VᰠToeshicഛTR耠ᆆToeshwcDLRᄠVhഠLesh
ihKgDihw‑บcgDࠜth₭Rጜgh(o‑)RgDhᜑso
ToesᄠVLh(cgghLᠠu⺆M⺆fosRDhio.
noGTzw₌ఘVhw‚)LoบRDRR \boeshwcDᜑR
soᴠKRᖍRVaRT逬 ᰎihav4鴛ȠRkeCoDb
/((ᬝDRiThgDb \boeCT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN,
gጛKecD―CRDoDb ᬗizN cGഖToLhKTzN
ᔑwVᰎReРVᰠh贛TsᬠToeCTz脠Rggacജ
ioTRȬ―hgDhviIRNgဠ᪆198㞆t⸠᪆ЛhTജTc.
2LhwᬠicKeUR脠᪆wRLᬠᔁcmRoaRgDhᨠ᪆hE
aogDᄠToeshwcDLRᄠ3⺆%oL(RaKo, %⺆9wha
aoⰠu⺆noࠠfooTᠠᆆKL.Ⱐ᪆LoEhDᬠVLRTRwoa
eCogDRᬠᆆVLh(cgghᜠu⺆noNTEcLtⰠhKRࠠRk
sLeVTcɿRS‚)9Шu‘KБࠑgDLoDhLhi \boe
sᄬ”hDhLzȠhKTRРRภVcLiz脠hgᰎToጠioG
ࠜgDb‑gVhabkhioTRv \boeshwcDᜑCcgᴑS
KoTT邁 \rav hጛc₌((ᬝDRiThth‗᠕VLc
ഛacTRဠRTicgDRmRȠ᪆Toese⸠yᠠ/DhРᔑw
VᰎRewᬠiTRwoTRᬠEzaᰠghᔗcജDhCcTᰠTo
KieS‚o輈ᬂIᆁ₌DoVoS“mᬈsR \boeCT邁
RggacജioࠑN‑)ᄈicgDᆍᄂ‚)ࠑS:‖Gc
i送hገcࠈzS‑)DcS, bc₭ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑc
ToShKRahᔋ‚)VLh贛ggᬠhEgeGഛTRv, \fosRS
soᴠ«%cThРCcahicso묠Raᄠ«9ᰎKoTRᬠsha
aoNഛLo묠[The Evaluation…, 1989]⸠舘ᴠwz
kT᠛w,₌DR cGഖToLhKT逛 LhᬝDz zaR
hgeUcgDiጛTz.
PhTRDhᜑTt REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS hso
koDcacȠIRLhsᰠRᔁhabkecDg NS䘠9Шu,
Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD), ᨗhVcнshN₂hwRggR
cN,₉omRhToጋ࢐w‑TgDRDeDhw h h጑Dᄝc
᪆hEaogDᄠToesᄠᆆDcSTRsᄠᆆPRTRgDcLgDihР
谝hࠜwRᴑ, \fhᜉhiaR‑)VLhwzIacTࠜgDR
ЯVhTRᄬ‘‌osGᬠᨠᔑgDcwᬠh贛TsᄠsoCc
gDiᠠRggacജioTRȠeTRicLᔑDcDhᨠResearch
Excellence Framework‚’c጑shELRDoࠑR.
ᦆ199㊆t⸠3⺆%oL(RaഠVRIcఠᰠiᰎLhᕿcР
ᔁLhgᬠTᠠRᔁhabkhioTRᬠgDoDRgDRsᄠmRDR
LeᬄhgDR \rav LcKgDoiRDcጛN ᜘iRDcab
gDioⰠVLhwzIacTThgDᄠᆆh贛TsᄠToeCThȠ
KcvDcጋThgDR‖ࠑicLgRDcDhi‑)VeE጑secD
LckeabDoD造RggacജioTRဠ᪆IS䤠ᔗoiTRDcab
Thth oTo጑ko i጑vࠑv (ᄄVosDhi) gDLoT
.habIhN―cwcLsR [Gar8eld, 1992].
rtLhЈhc‚ࠑwoࠑc \boeCThN“EUcgDicT
ThgDᄠ᪆199㞆t⸠VLRiacsaᠠgDoDbဠVLckR
ഛTDᠠ2hLhaciᔝhtᰠhE鴛gDiᠠncaRshELR
DoTRᄠahLKᠠf. ᾌဠ(R⺆May⤠ᰠikoRwhᔚvkR
ToeC࢐S‑ࠚcgDᆍᄂ‑)ToeCThN LhKesDᄚ
ThgDᄠTᠠhᔈhiᬠgDoDRgDRsᄠSC䤠kᠠ1981–
199㒆tt.ⰠhVeEaRshioTToဠ᪆GeLToaᬠScience
[May, 1997].
ᤠShഛ‗oEhD造ngcwRLThȠshT(cLcTmRᄠ
VᰠToesc, VLhihKRiIcNgဠ᪆199㦆t. ᪆.eKo
VcIDc, EzጠVhgDoiac\b ihVLhᔠᰠTchEShKRwh
gDᄠജgDeVᠠgDLoࠠᶆജgDhicLTzРgDoDRgDR
CcᔝRРKoTTzР᪆hEaogDᄠToesᄠᆆDcSTRsᄬ
RЛ4URw“DTh缛Tᄛ”)᜘k᜘EhDsc haR
DRsᄠ᪆/DhРToVLoiacTRR. yᠠshT(cLcTmRᄠ
Ezah“DЛиTh, Dh₫V᜘iRDcabgDiow―ጛ
ഖcD―hKᬂgDihioDb \roabࠛN缛we‗okiRDR4
ᆆgᰎKoTR耠TomRhToabTz脠gDoDRgDRCcᔝR脠
gae輆ⰠᔁhghETz脠hEcᔁcCRioDଠVhDLcETh
gDᄠ᪆ജgDhicLTz脠KoTTzS⸠yogDoaᰠiLcwဠ
KaဠThiz脠eᔑaRȠ᪆ഛaᬠജgDRGcTRဠigc
wRᜈhth LhtLcgᔘ‚)hEaogDR―ఘDRgDRᴑ
ToesᄠᆆDcSTRsᄬ DhE造hVLcKcaRDଠDᬠDLeK
ThgDᄬ ᖆshDhLzwᄠ᪆TogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠgDoa
sRio4DgဠgDLoT造VLᄠgEhLᬠᆆRᔁhabkhio
TRᄠDosR脠KoTTzSⰠᢆDosGᬠKaဠhVLcഛacTRဠ
RS‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzS hDLcEࠜgDcN...» [Bc
sao᜘mRv…, 1999].
MwcTTᰠ᪆/DhȠᔑDeomRᄠ9DoDRgDRCcᔝRȠ
RTgDRDeఠ螉l92rⰠgᰎKoTTzȠTᠠ%cTc
LoabThȠshT(cLcTmRᄠ᪆199㦆t.ⰠVLRgDeVRጠ
s)VLhicKᬈR4₭eTKoЛTDoabThth cGഖTo
LhKThtᰠh؎hLᠠVhaRDRsᄠ᪆g(cLᬠRT(hL
womRhTTz脠VhDLcEThgDcȠᆆLoEhD造gᰠgDoDR
gDRCcgsᄄR Koࠈ逄R i)ToeCTh-DcSࠑCcgshN
hEaogDR⸠蒆hKThȠgDhLhT逬‎oKoCᠠᔚhKRaoᔋ
ᶆhVLcഛacTR耠VLRhLRDcDhᨠᆆLokLoEhDsᬠ
gD᜘DᬉRиgsᆁ hKShKhi \rav hiz缛TRv
osDeoabThgDᄬ ജgDeVThgDᄠᆆsoCcgDiᠠgDo
DRgDRsᄠVᰠToesᬠᆆDcSTRsᬠiᰠigc脠gDLoTo脠
wRLoⰠᖆKLethȠ騠ᶆVhwhUᄠ᪆hVLcഛacTRᄠ
ThihȠgDoDRgDRCcᔝhȠVLhtLoww造螉l92ᐠ
᪆hEaogDᄠToesᄠᆆDcSTRsR. ᦆh؎hLᬠhDwc
CoahᔋⰠCDᰠ«VcCoDTzᬠLoEhD造viav4Dgဠhg
ࠜᨈzw VhsokoDcacw VLhRบhKgDio ࠜihth
kToTRv».’)soиgDic o᜘ЛDLhi‑kЛLᬈRv
Ez጑‚zELo࢐―oБ eE጑ᴘmᄑ‑)ggzጝR
TᠠTR脠[螉l92r]⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ REaRh
wcDLRCcgsRc hᴘkoDc጑ z጑“(ᆍRoጋTh
kosLcVac࢐”os”h጑CcgDicࠈzc hᴘko
DcaR‗oบRDRv \boeᴑ.₂hTcCࠜ,‖VhwvTeDzc
VhsokoDcaᄠTᬠhDwcTv4ఠioGThgDᄠgEhLᠠ
ᆆoToaRkᠠDosR脠DLoKRmRhTTz脠VoLowcDLhᨬ
soᴠLokwcL造(RToTᔑLhioTRဠToesᄬ”haR
иgDih‖иT邁,‎oTRwo4Uᆁgv‑ggጛKhio
TRvwᄠᆆLokLoEhDsowᄬ‑)D⺆K⸠ᦆkoiRᔑwhgDᄠ
hD”hTᴗcDࠜN‎oKoCR hteD‑gVhabkhioDbgv
LokaRCTzᬠVhsokoDcaR. ᦆeVhwvTeDhРh؎h
LᬠVhKCcLsRioahᔋⰠCDᰠTᠠVLhDvGcTRᄠVh
gacഈRS‍ioඍ᠌R–cD L᠚RDcabgDio \beG
Ko4DgဠiᰠigᬠEhacᬠDhCTz脠ᆆhEъcsDRiTz脠
h贛Tso脠RggacജioDcabᔝhȠഛvDcabThgDR.
n 2004)t.ⁿᄗhshc‚ࠑwoࠑc―VcmRo጑
gDhi Vh \boeCࠜN haRDRsc Vᜑiacsao―ఘ
DbဠahLKᠠB⺆2RTtᠠ(D⺆King)Ⱐ᪆DᰠiLcwv
VLckRഛTDᠠ2hLhaciᔝhtᰠhE鴛gDiᠠnc
aRshELRDoTR, Scienti8c Impact of Nations
[King, 2004]⸠ЛhLආB⸠2RTठhDwcCoጬ Dh
«…VLoiRDcጋgDie \bchEShKᄄo‗coጋTov
hmcTso \boeCࠜth‚saoKo \bomᄜToabࠜN \bo
esᄠ᪆wRLhie4»⸠uToaRภEzጠizVhaTc\b \rav
VLoiRDcabgDicTThȠgae輆造Of8ce Science
and Technology š OST (r(RᔠVᰠToesᬠᆆDcS
ࠑsc)’c጑shELRDoࠑR.₊cጋ4‑ggacKhio
TRv Ezah‚zviጛTᄛ₌((ᬝDRiThgDR To
mᄜToabTzS‑ggacKhioTRN‑)ghVhgఘiac
TRᬠToesᄠgDLoT造ᖆToeshȠKLetR脠31 gDLoT.
n)gD᠌bc zaR Lh᠈oaRkRLhi᠈z‎᠌L᠌z
TᠠRggacജioTRဠᆆLokLoEhDsᄬ oeCTov
VLᰍes఑iThgఋ‑)mR఑Lecwhgఋ―గoT
.habIhȠihᔋwcLsᄬ 15 gDLo\b l9, uigDLo
጑R,„igDLᄑ,₃cጋtᄑ,₇GThN„(Lᄝᄬ
2RDoာ₄ᄈtoVeLo,₇GThN₂hLcR,ₛoȚoTာ
MTKRᄬ‏LoTo⸠rsokoahᔋⰠCDᰠ98 % oDLoD
TᠠToesᘠ᪆wRLᬠVLRShKRahᔋ ᠠ3ㄠgDLoTe,
ᢆkoDLoD造hgDoabTz脠㘲―DLoࠠghgDoiRaR
igct 2 %⸠dhᔝhabsᘠmRDRLecwhgDଠLcksh
LokaRCocDgဠ᪆LokTz脠hEaogDv脠kToTRȬ‌h
Kav―hVhgఘᨑDcabࠜth‘ToaRko za‑g
VhጋkhioT‘tLctᄗhioࠈ适 hᴘkoDcጋ
mRDRLecwhgDᄬ shDhLzȠVᰎihaRጠVLhih
KRDb―LoiTcࠑv‗ok࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑T.₠oࠉ
gDLoT造h贛TRioagဠVᰠജaᬠgDLoT造᪆wog
gRic‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁―DoDᬂ
⸠.zaᄠgh
VhgఘiacTz‎oDLoDz‚oጜihth \bomᄜToab
ࠜth LhKesఘ \bo“Kࠜth cጜicso (wealth
intensity⤠ᖆmRDRLecwhgDb4⸠BaဠizviacTRv
KRgmᄁ጑ToLThN ToVLoiacࠈhgDR ToeC࢐S
RggacജioࠑN i)ᴘGKhN Rk oTo጑kᄗecҐS
gDLoࠠEzaᠠRᔁhabkhioTᠠsaogᔑ(Rso
mRဠOS吠ᆆVhgDLhcTᠠsoᜌᠠTomRhToabTzS
VᜑhᜑDcDhi₃hab缜N‚hgbwc᜝R.—so
koahᔋⰠCDᰠ᪆ciLhVcNᔝhȠToesᬠioGTe4
Lhጋ‑tLo而 \bcEhጋ缑c―DLo࢐, \fosRc”os
.cጋtRာ oࠑာₙᄈavTKRာ oࠑာ₞ic
mRဠᆆШicNmoLRv⸠ngᬠ/DᄠgDLoT造iwcgDc
g)T᠕cጛTᄛw 53 aT‑ЛaR“иTb‚逕h
sRȠRwVosఠkᠠVcLRhഠᖆ199㜠Vᰠ200ㆆt.ⰠᆆRS
mRDRLecwhgDଠghgDoiRaᠠ12,7 % ఠmRDRLec
whgDᄠwRLhihtᰠVhDhsoⰠ᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠKav
ncaRshEᜑఘTRR₌ఘ₍R(Lo―hgఘᨑao ᜑ
wcLTᰠDᘠGᬠicaRCRTᘠ騠12,8 %⸠dLᄠ/Dhw
nnሠ/DR脠gDLoࠠghgDoiRጠigct 6 %ⰠkToCR
DcጋTh cࠋIc, cw’c጑shELRDoࠑR.„i
DhᜠhDwcCoጬ DᰠVcLcഠaR贜РtahEoabThth
DcLLhᜑคo‑)etLhຐ \tጜEoabࠜth hDc
VጛTRv ᜘iRDcabgDio‚gcS―D᜘T \rhᎏTz
hELoDRDbgဠᶆToesc.
n \b᠕DhvUcc‚Lᬄv REaRhЛDLRи
ᔝRᬠVhsokoDcaᄠgDoaᄠCogDb耠VLhDhshao
hDCcDThgDᄠᰠഛvDcabThgDᄠToeCTz脠hL
toTRkomRȬ‖TRicLᔑDcDhᨬ‑ggacജio
DcጋgsRS \tLeVV‑)ᄈKᄚRKeoጋ࢐S―VcmR
oaRgDhi.₂)EREaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑw hsoko
nzghshmRDRLecwzᬠgDoDbᄠghgDoiav4\f 1 % owz脠
mRDᄗecҐS eE጑ᴘmᄂ‎o 11-acDࠑN cLRhK h”oG
KhȠVLcKwcDThȠhEaogDᄠVᰠsaoggR(RsomRᄠESI⸠Baဠ
soGKhtᰠthKᠠᄠsoGKhȠVLcKwcDThȠhEaogDᄠEcLcDgဠ
giᰂ hLᰉ₍RDRLecМgDR.
Dcavw“DThgvDgv”h጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ;
RS)
RDᄗecwhgDb;‑ЁosD-(osDhL \boeCTh
tᰠGeLToaoⰠ᪆shDhLhРhTᄠEzaᄠhVeEaR
shioTz;”haRиgDih‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁
gDoDcN㬠RTഛsᔠХRLIᠠᆆLokaRCTzᬠThL
wo጑khioࠈzc hᴘkoDc጑₍RDᄗecwhgDR.
ЭDᄠVhsokoDcaᄠKhaGT造RᔁhabkhioDb
gဠᖆeCcDhРshaRCcgDiᠠtLoTDhᨬ oeCTzS
VLcwRȬ‖CogDRဠ᪆ghgDoio脠LcKshaactRN
icഖUᆁ \boeCT邁₏eLToahi.‏ЛTTh―h
ihseVࠜgDb‚gcS₌DRS”ᜑDcᜑci hጜGc
Tᠠ᪆h贛TsᘠഛvDcabThgDᄠRggacജioDcav
R጑ \boeCThth”haacsDᄚo,‎oࠑwo4Ucth
gv₭eTKowcTDoጋ࢐Б‑ggacKhioࠑvБ
᪆9ШḠᆆKLetR脠LokiRDz脠gDLoToS.
IS䤠VhgacജioDcabTᰠLoᕿRLvጠᔁcsDᜠRT
(hᜄomᄜTTzS LhKesDhi.₄)1990)t. hwRМ
ToeCTz脠GeLToahᨠgDoaᄠDosGᬠRTഛsᔑ
LhioDbgဠizVeᔝᄠToeCTz脠shT(cLcTmRȠ
Conference Proceedings (CPCI-S  CPCI-SSH).
9hkKoࠑc eࠑicLgoጋThN Eokz KoࠈzS mR
DRLhioTࠜN–RDcLoDeថⁿጜ‚)ࠜte―)LoบR
DRcw ᄈ(hLwomRhࠈzS R)shЄeࠑᴘmRhT
Tz脠DcSThahtRN. C 19㠱)t⸠EzጠhLtoTRkhio\b
ജgDeĠ᪆LcGRwᬠhTaoNࠠᶆ.ԠSC䤠CcLcภRT
(hLwomRhTTe耠ᔑgDcwᘠDIALOG⸠yoCRToဠ
ᖆ198㢆t⸠esokoDcaᄠToeCThtᰠmRDRLhioTRဠ
gDoaᄠizShKRDଠTᠠCD-ROM.
ᤠ199㊆t. ISI EzጠVLRhELcDc\b shwVoTRcȠ
ThomsonⰠshDhLoဠ᪆2008-РgaRaoᔋ―)RT
(hLwomRhTTzРotcTDgDihРReuter猠ᆆhE
Lokhioao”LᘁTcN编4 cGKᘈoLhKࠖ4‑T
(hᜄomᄜTTe4”hwVoTR4 Thomson Reuters.
dᜑTmRVRoabࠜ ࠜ᪐c ihคhGࠜgDR Kav
ജgDeVᠠᶆesokoDcavРToeCThtᰠmRDRLhio
TRဠᆆLoEhD造ᖆTRwᄠhDsLzaRᔋ―)VhviacTR
cРgcDᄠMTDcLTcD⸠ᦆ199㞆t. SCI, SSCI, AHCI,
CPCI-S  CPCI-SSHⰠᢆDosGᬠJC劆騠Science
Edition, JC劆騠Social Science Editio渠Ezaᄠ
hEъcKRTcT造᪆cKRTe耠VhaRDcwoDRCcᔝe耠
Lc(ᬗoDRiTe4 oke \roTT邁 \boeCT邁 e
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i)Eokc \roࠈzS‑TKcsgᄗe而gv LRE጑kR
Dcabࠜ \ricToKmoDb―)VhጜᨑࠜN DzgvC–eC
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LhioTRဠ⸠ᦆ200㦆t. \bᠠVaoD(hLwᬠEzጠLok
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Citation DatabaseⰠ᪆201㎆t⺆騠aoDRThowc
LRsoTᔝRȠesokoDcaଠSciELO Citation Index
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Citation Index (KCI).₠ctRhToጋ࢐c‖ᴘkoDc጑
ToeCThth₍RDᄗhioࠑv‑TKcsgᄗe而 \boREh
acc‎ToCᄄzc‑gDhCࠑsR \boeC࢐S eE጑ᴘ
mRȠ᪆ᔚhR脠LctRhToS.
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VᰎihavcఠVLhgacKRDଠEzgDLᰠwcTv4URNgဠ
aoTKIo(\f \boeCThtᰠwRLᠠᆆh贛TRDଠwcgDᰠ
TomRhToጋ࢐S \boeC࢐S \rhgDRGcࠑN \bo”oL
DᬠwRLhihȠToesR⸠dhgDLhcTTzᬠTᠠVRhTcL
ᔝhȠRഛᬠ3⸠%oL(RaKᠠRT(hLwomRhTTzᬠ
LcgeLᖐ”hwVoTRᄠThomson Reuter猠izghsᰠ
hmcTc࢐ ᄗhi逄 \boeC࢐w―hhEUcgDihw.
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hwcDLRCcᔝR脠LcgeLghᨠgDoaᰠgᰎKoTRᬠwR
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io, 2010].₉oREhacc‑kicgD࢐Б‗cNDᄈtoБ
eTRicLᔑDcDhᨠgDoaᄠELRDoTᔝRȠLcNDRTআ騠
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ToahРTimes Higher Education㬠LcNDRTठШoT
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of World Universities (ᔠ200㎆t.⤠ᆆЛcNഛTᔝRȠ
(Leiden Ranking)ⰠVhKthDoiaRiocwzȠCWTS.
fokiRDRᬠMTDcLTcDᠠVLRicaᰠᶆgᰎKoTR耠
Bᰠ2014 \t⸠hgThiToဠEokᠠKoTTz脠Web of Science
Core Collectio渠RwcThioaogଠVLhgDᰠWeb of Science.
R)icEhwcDᜑCcgshth‗cNDRTघ Webometrics,
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igcS /Dᆁ LᬂDRTtoS, ko ᄕsa4иTᄛw Lᬂ
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VhᴘkoDc጑ (sh጑CcgDih―DoDcN,“VeE጑sh
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ghgDoihРeTRicLᔑDcDoⰠR脠mRDRLecwhgDb,
ᄄVosD-(osDhLz)‐iav而gv‚oGThN)—
ᢆ᪆ЛcNഛTᔝhРLcNDRTtᬠcKRTgDicTThʆ—
ghgఘiav肝cN―LcKTciบcIcTࠜN“mcTᴑ.
fhgD‚ࠑwoࠑv”)hmcࠝc₌((csDᄚThgDR
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R)eTRiᬗgRDcDoS ghVLhihGKoጕv ᜘k᜘EhD
shN REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑw―hhEUcgDihw hL
wo጑khioࠈzS‖ᴘkoDcacN, hkihav4URS
ghVhgఘiavDb‗okaRCTzc“EaogDR‎ToTRv.
ᦆ200㖆t⸠VLh(cgghLhРХ⺆ХRLIcР(J⺆Hirsch)
EzጠVLcKahGcࠠRTKcsᔠХRLIᠠ(ྑ)ⰠVᰎih
av4URN“mᬈRioDb“KThiLᬄᬈTh”oи
gDiᬈTe4 (mRDRLeᬄhgDb)‑)shaRиgDiᬈ
Te4 (sh጑CcgDih“VeE጑shioࠈzS‗oEhD)
ഛvDcabThgDଠRggacജioDcacN⸠Х⺆ХRLI
Vhaotoጬ DᰠKaဠ(RkRshᨠkToCcTRᬠྑ)㶆12
viavcDgဠജgDoDhCTzРhᔈhioTRcРKaဠVh
aeиTRv h輑kࠛTThN hkRmRR‘ggᄕDᬈDo
᪆eTRicLᔑDcDᬠ9ШuⰠᢆྑ)㶆1㠠whGcఠhEc
gěCRDb \rhᎏThgDb h輑kࠛTThth Lh(cg
ghLo. MTഛsᔠХRLIᢆ阠/DᰠhKR\b RภToREhacc
hEgeGKocwz脠VhsokoDcacȬ hᔝhabsᘠKio
ᔘwzS МUTzS RT(hᜄomᄜTTzS LcgeLᔘ
wRLᠠWeb of Scienc攠ᆆScopu猠VLcജgDoiav
4D habkhioDca4‚hคhGࠜgDb‘iDhwoDR
CcᔝᄠVhaeCRDଠkToCcTRᬠRTഛsgᠠХRLIo.
OCc࢐N‑wccD‑Tഛsg‗oi࢐N h,‛g጑
‛tᰠ
ρ―DoDᬂ‑Л4D h ᬈb缛N ᬗc
―gzጜs
soGKovⰠᢆsoGKoဠKLetoဠRภgDoDcȠ(
ꖆⶆ
RwccఠwcTcᬠCcР栠gᖐahs⸠ᦆR4Tᬠ200㢆t.
International Mathematical Union (PcGKeTo
LhK࢐N oDcwoDRCcgsᄂ―h4k)“VeE጑sh
ioa“EgDhvDcጋ࢐N \rhsaoK,‚送hገcࠈ适
2hwRDcDhw h”haRCcgDicTࠜN“mcTsc‑g
gacജioDcacȬ‚)shDhLhРizgDeVRጠVLhDRi
RgVhabkhioTRv REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS hso
koDcacȠᆆhghEcTTᰠVLhDRᨠྑ. ᦆkToCR
DcabThN―DᬁᬈR₌Dh‚逕DeVጛTᄛ oDᬄo
DRshᨬ woaᰠhᔚcജwacTTz脠ᰠkoiRᔑwhgDR
mRDRLecwhgDᄠh\f hEaogDᄠkToTRv, ᔚvkoTh
g)ࠑksᄄR hᴘkoDcavБ₍RDᄗecwhgDR
i)ИDcИDRsc
dhvᨑaRgb h᪐c hsokoDcaR‑T(hᜄo
mᄜTࠜN‎ToCRМgDR₏eᜈoጜi,‌oᴑc”os
Eigenfactor, LcKahGcࠈ适 \tLeVVhN―Vc
mRo጑gDhi‑k \nࠑicLgRDcDo’o缑ࠉDhTo
᪆200㞆t. (VhKLhETcᬠᔄ⸠Lokഛጠ2.5⸠«nkic
Icࠈzc»‑TKᄝoDhLz.₄hEgDicࠈ适₭osDhL
(Eigenfactor⤠ᆆRTഛsᔠiaRvTRဠgDoDbᄠ(Article
InAuence))ⰠᆆVhsokoDcaଠSJRⰠLokLoEhDoT
TzȠRkicgDThȠRᔁoTᔝhȠtLeVVhȠScimago
LabⰠLoEhDo4鴛ȠVᰠshTDLosDᘠᖆshwVoTRcȠ
ЭabkciRᜠ(Elsevier) \bᠠhᔈhiᬠgDoDRgDRsᄠ.Ԡ
Scopus.
fokiRDᄛ―ᬗiᄕT邁‖gaet \rav hab
khioDcacȠWo匠VLRicaᰠᶆgᰎKoTR耠eTR
ᴘጋ࢐S“Vmᄂ h‘To጑ke“DKcጋ࢐S
wogᔑihᨠRT(hLwomRR, \fosR脠soᴠAnalyze
Result猠ᆆCitation Reports⸠ᦆoitegDᬠ200㢆t.
Vhvᨑaogb hiov“VmRv, hบhav肝ov
hmcࠑioDb \rcvDcጋThgDb \boeC࢐S₭hT
ജᨠᆆotcTDgDᨬ₭RToTᔑLe4UR脠ToeCTzc
RggacജioTRဠTᠠshTseLᔈhȠhᔈhicⲆ—
Funding Agency⸠ᦆ200㦆t⸠VhviRagဠThizN
oToaRDRCcᔝRȠRTgDLewcTಆ騠InCitesⰠVh
บhav肝RN LhihKRDb―hVhgఘᨑDcabTzN
oTo጑k―DLoT,“Ltoࠑkomᄂ‑)ᄈKᄚR
ഖoabT邁‑ggጛKhioDcጛN,‗᠆hDo4Uᆁ
᪆LokTz脠hEaogDv脠kToTRv⸠Baဠ/DhȠ贛aR
EzaR ᜘k᜘EhDoTz gěmRoabT逛‘tLᬉR
Lhioࠈzc VhᴘkoDc጑. n)gcTDvELc 2014)t.
koVe鴛TᰠThihᬠVhshacTRᬠWeb of Science
PoDcLRoጠikvఠᔠgoNDᠠInternational Mathematical
Union (IMU) (URL: http://www.mathunion.org/
publications/report/citationstatistics0/).
R)InCites,‚sa考o肝cc‌osGc REaᄜwc
DLRCcᔝe耠gDoDRgDRsᘠES䤠ᆆJCR
MgVhabkhioTRc REaᄜwcDᜑCcgshN―ఘ
DRgDᄝR‘KБࠑgDLoDhLoБ \boesR‑)(ᄈoT
gᄗe4UᄄR“LtoࠑkomRvБ \rav“mcࠝR‑T
icgDᆍᄂ‚)ToeC࢐c‑ggacKhioࠑv Lᄈvah
tahEoabTzȠSoLosDcL⸠舘ᴠhDwcCoጠ3⺆%oL
(RaK,₫wz‐iaရЕv―iRKcDcavwR Lᬚ᜘
UᬈRv EREaRhЛDLRиgsᆁ ᄕgጛKhioTRȠ
᪆Thie耠hDLogaଠRTKegDLRᆆ阠h贛TsᘠLckeab
DoDᄚThgDR \boeC࢐S‑ggacജioࠑN,‚送ha
Tရw邁‚)eTRiᬗgRDcDgsᆁ‑)ToeCT邁”haጛs
DRioS묠[Gar8eld, 2011]⸠芆gh輘acTR4ⰠRThtKo
VLhRgShKR\f \fhⰠCDᰠ3⺆%oL(Ra\r \bokzioጠeGc
i)60-S \tt. LhIahth‚ᬝo₫kaheVhDLcEጛTᄛР
mRDRLhioTRcw»⸠蒆hKThȠgDhLhT逬₌Dᰠᔚvko
Th―)actshgD஀ oࠑVe጑Lhioࠑv oggwcKRo
/DRwᄠVhsokoDcavwRⰠᖆKLethȠgDhLhT邆—
g)EckhDicDgDiᬈThgDb4 woahshwěDᬈDT邁
«ᔁcmRoaRgDh᪻‑)oKwRTRgDLoDhLhᨠToesᄬ
g)ጛtshgDb4 ᬗeUᆁgv‎o‚zVhaࠛTᄛ \foshȠ
hmcTᴑ.ₗDh LhRgShKRD“KࠜᨗcwcTࠜ ᜑ
tጜEoabࠜw‗hgDc hDLcEࠜgDcN‚)RgVhab
khioTRR REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS hsokoDcacN
soᴠRTgDLewcTDhᨠh贛TsR⸠ycജihabgDih
ࠛshDhL邁‑kKoDcጛN \boeCT邁₏eLToahᨠ
᪆ᔚvkᄠᖆRᔁhabkhioTRcРRwVosD-(osDhLhi
VLRicaᰠᶆഛsaoLomRᄠVᰠh贛TsᬠToesᆆ—
Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA),
hVeE጑shioࠈhN‑kKoDcጋgshN”hЁoࠑcN
Royal Society Publishing
ᤠhDic\f Tᠠ/Dh\f izkhᨠToeCThtᰠghhE鴛
gDiᠠTᠠVLhIcKIcȠ᪆gcTDvELᬠ201㒆t⸠wcG
KeToLhKࠜN \boeCࠜN”hT(cLcTmRR Science
and Engineering Indicator猠᪆ЛcNഛTᬠEzaᠠ
VLhicഛTᠠIRLhsoဠKRᔝegᔑဠhؠhDicD
gDicTThgDᄠToeshwcDLRCcᔝhtᰠghhE鴛gDiᠠ
PoDcLRoጠikvఠᔠgoNDᠠURL: http://wokinfo.com/
sci-anniversary.html#timeline.
PoDcLRoጠikvఠᔠgoNDᠠRoyal Society Publishing
(URL: http://royalsocietypublishing.org/
citation-metrics#question2).
kᠠToഛGThᬠ(aeCIcc⤠RᔁhabkhioTRᬠRT
KRsoDhLhᨠToeshwcDLRR⸠ᦆഛTଠkosLzDRဠ
shT(cLcTmRᄠVLh(cgghᜠu⺆noࠠfooࠬ Lc
ฑKcTD ᨗhVcнshN‘gghmRomRR \boeshwc
DLRCcᔝR脠RTgDRDeDhᨠ(European Network of
Indicators Designers)ⰠghtaoᔑagဠikvDଠTᠠ
gcEဠshhLKRTRLe4Ue耠Lhaଠ᪆VhKthDhisᬠ
ᆆhVeEaRshioTRᄠshTgcTgeᔈhȠicLᔑᄠwo
TR(cgఘ Lh(cggᄜToabࠜth REaᄜwcDᜑ
CcᔝhtᰠghhE鴛gDioⰠᔚvkoTThtᰠᖆLokLoEhD
shȠgDoTKoᜌhᨠwcDhKRsᄠh贛Tsᄠᆆ/DRCc
ᔝR脠ThLРVLᄠR脠izVhaTcTRR.
Pz haThgDb4‗okKcaရw \fLᬚhte cGഖ
ToLhKࠜN REaᄜwcDᜑCcgshN“EUcgDicT
ThgDᄠᨠᔚvkᄠᔠsoCcgDihРEREaRhwcDLRCc
ᔝhȠh贛TsᄠഛvDcabThgDᄠToeCTz脠hLtoTR
komRȠᆆgcsDhLᠠizᕿcȠIshaz⸠ᦆᔚcDᬠLvKᠠ
VhgఘࠜiacTRN dLoᨑDcabgDio fФ‑)VLcฑ
ഛTDᠠf餠Vᰠh贛TsᬠToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠ
ФcഛLoabThᬠotcTDgDiᰠVᰠToeCTzРhLto
TRkomRvРizVegDRaᰠicᔋwᠠgDLoTThᬠLog
VhLႏcTRc₫r)VLcKgఘiacTRR hᴚoLఘab
࢐S―icKcࠑN(!!!)“ eE጑ᴘmRhࠈhN‘sDᄚ
ThgDᄠᆆmRDRLecwhgDᄠhLtoTRkomRN».
.eഛРToഛvDbgvⰠCDᰠPRTRgDcLgDiᰠhELo
khioTRဠᆆToesᄠf餠ᖐtLocఠshhLKRTRLe4
Ue耠Lhaଠ᪆LokLoEhDsᬠToeCTz脠VLhtLowР
᪆eTRicLᔑDcDo脠KaဠᰎToshwacTRဠgDeKcT
DhᨠᆆoᔁRLoTDhᨠᖆhᔈhiowᄠRᔁhabkhio
TRv REaᄜwcDᜑCcgshN―ఘDRgDRᴑ‑T(hL
womRhTTz脠LcgeLghᨠThomson ReutersⰠCDᰠ
EeഛఠᔁhghEgDihioDଠVhizIcTR耠soCcgDiᠠ
hELokhioTRဠ᪆贛ahРᆆsoCcgDiᘠVhKthDhisᄠ
gVcmRoaRgDhi h REaᄜwcDᜑR.
dRhTcLᔝRᬠRggacജioTRဠ3⺆%oL(Ra
KᠠVLRicaᄠᶆRᔁhabkhioTR耠wcDhജahtRᄠ
mRDᄗhioࠑv‑)Vhviacࠑ4―hVcLࠑᴘ SCI)–
.ԠScopusⰠgᰎKoTThȠshwVoTRcȠElsevier
᪆200㒆t⸠ugghmRoDRiTzᬠᔚvkᄠTᠠhᔈhiᬠ
mRDᄗhioࠑv Lᄚc጑”)LokiRDᆀ‗ok጑C
TzS‘athᜑDМi‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜth hRgso,
isa4CoဠHITS and Pagerank⸠rEᠠoathLRDwᠠ
Rᔁhabke4ఠgDLesDeLTzᬠᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠicE-
goNDowᄠCcLcภtRVcLgᖐasR.
dh Tcࠑ4 Lh(cggRhToጋ࢐S―VcmRo
aRgDhᨠVᰠEREaRhwcDLRᄬ o缠ХХ䦆i⸠gDoa
icshw REaᄜwcDᜑR,‚hVጜDR᩿cN‚)gc
EဠigᬠRഛᄠgᰎKoDcaဠSC䤠ജsDhLᠠ3⺆%oL
광aKo,“EaoKoDcav ThGcgచo \boगoK
ᆆVLcwRȠwRLhihtᰠToeCThtᰠghhE鴛gDio.
lgaᄠE造ge鴛gDihioaᄠyhEcaciᔝRᬠVLc
БR h‑T(hLwoDᄝc, \boeshwcDLᄑ‑)gh
mRhahtRᄠToesᄬ Dᰠ3⺆%oL(Ra\r ജaGcT
EzጠE造gDoDଠVcLizРaoeLᬘDhРDoshN
VLcБR ko htLhЈ适 isaoK i)LokiRDRc
/DR脠ToesⰠkToCcTRᬠshDhLz脠᪆ᔝaoKzio
肝cwgv‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜw RLc \fLeKࠜ
ěLchmᬈRDb.
Пшэеуч Р, к,* Нншхнып П, П,* Суязчхо Н, Х,
₉oeCToဠ
ᆆDcSTRCcgsoဠRT(hLwomRဠsoᴠhKTᠠRภkoKo̠sREcL-
TcDRsᄠ// \ngVcSᄠ(RkRCcgsR脠Toes. 1959. T. 69⸠ꒆ1.
9⺆13–56.
Рхшяэтпючхц Р, С,* Ннэчуюыпн П, Н,* дтэоыц Н, Х,
₄ጜih
ᲆ3KGRTᬠ%oL(RaKᬠ/⼠yoeC.-DcST⸠RT(hLwomRv.
9cL⺆2. 1995⸠ꒆ12⸠9. 23–28.
Рхоехшхю Н, Л,
₄DoThiacTRᬠToeshicKcTRဠᨠ999ꀠ
(9cLcKRTᠠ60-脠thKhᨠХ鄠i.) /⼠yoeshicKCcgsRᬠRggac-
KhioTRv㨠gE. \boeC. \fLeKhᨠ⼠fuy⸠MyMry⸠1cTDᜠToeC.-
RT(hᜄ.‑ggacK. h \boesc,“ELokᰚoTR4‑ \fc脈hጜtR
vw㬠hDi⸠LcK⸠u⸠M⸠fosRDhi⸠P., 2011⸠9. 217–272.
Рэноыпючхц л, П,
ₛLeKToဠgeKbEᠠToeshicKcTRဠ᪆fhg-
gRᄠ/⼠yoeshicKCcgsRᬠRggacKhioTRv㨠gE. \boeC. \fLeKhᨠ
⼠fuy⸠MyMry⸠1cTDᜠToeC.-RT(hLw⸠RggacK⸠VᲆToesc,
hELokhioTR耠ᄠDcSThahtRvw㬠hDi⺆LcK⺆u⺆M⺆fosRDhi.
P., 2010⸠9. 115–124.
BcsaoLomRဠᰠToesᬠᄠRgVhabkhioTRᄠToeCThtᰠ
kToTRဠ/⼠ngcwRLToဠshT(cLcTmRဠ«yoesᠠKioKmoDଠ
ěLihth―DhጛDRv:₉hi᠐“DicDgDiᬈThgDb».₃eKoěID,
ncTtLRv, 2㘠R4Tဠ騠ㄠR4aဠ1999 / hഠ/tRKhȠrE-
LokᰚoDcabࠜN, \boeCࠜN‑”eabDeᜈᰂ“ᜉoTRkomRR
rr褠(3yl92r⤠ᄠPcGKeToLhKThtᰠghicDᠠToeCTz脠
gh4khi (ISU).
Сыоэып Р, Н,
₉oesᠠᰠToesc㨠nicKcTRᬠᨠhEUcᬠToesh-
kToTᄛ.₂ᄛi:₉oeshio‍ewso, 1966.
2hwweTRsomRv‚―hiLᬄᬈThN \boesc:―E. ᬗᬚhKhi
/⼠VhഠLcK⸠Э⸠P⸠PRLgshthⰠn⸠y⸠9oKhigshth⸠P.㨠dLh-
tLcgg, 1976. C. 438.
Ннэчуюыпн П, Н,
‒cLi适―hicDgsᄂ‖ᴘkoఛጋ RE጑
ᰉLo(RCcgᴑS―gzጜs h‑T(hᜄoDRsc //₉oeC.-Dc脈.
RT(hLwomRv⸠9cL. 1. 1976⸠ꒆ2⸠9. 30–32.
Ннэчуюыпн П, Н,* дтэоыц Н, Х,
‏T(hᜄomᄜTTov Lh
KeᶍRv‑ \fc脈hጜtRv‛c hKthDᰚᴑ‚‏TgDRDeDc \bo
eCThȠRT(hLwomRᄠ9ШḠ/⼠yoeC.-DcST⸠RT(hLwomRv.
9cL⺆1. 1985⸠ꒆ12⸠9. 6–15.
Ннэчуюыпн П, Н,* аэыштпючхц Н, Р,
₂hЁb4ఛL‑₌Dᄝo
mRDRLhioTRဠ/⼠dLRLhKo. 1987⸠ꒆ9⸠9. 100–107.
Ннэчуюыпн П, Н,
ₛᄁR̈zc“缑EsR‚‎oယᴘS \bo hae
CcTRᬠtLoTDᠠ/⼠yoeC.-DcST⸠RT(hLwomRv⸠9cL. 1. 1998.
ꒆ5⸠9. 40–42.
Ннэчуюыпн П, Н,
‒hkᆍᄑ“ఛCcgDicࠈzS‚ekhi‚ ᄗh
iz脠LcNDRTto脠/⼠ЭshThwRsᠠhELokhioTRv. 2010⸠ꒆ2.
9⺆35–46.
Ннэшнчыпн Х, П,
₄ᄕDᬄo―ivkᬂ cGഖ \rhseЛTDowR,
VhgDLhcTToဠTᠠhgThiᬠggzahᴠ(VᰠesokoDca耠Science
Citation Index) /⼠yoeC.-DcST⸠RT(hLwomRv⸠9cL. 2. 1973.
ꐠ6⸠9. 3阸.
Нххнцшып Н, Х,* дтэоыц Н, Х,* Рхшяэтпючхц Р, С,
—gࠜ᪐
ToeCThȠRT(hLwomRR⸠P.㨠yoeso, 1965. C. 435.
Нххнцшып Н, Х,* дтэоыц Н, Х,* Рхшяэтпючхц Р, С,
₉o
ëzc”hЄeࠑᴘmᄑ‑‑T(hLwoDᄝo.‟.:₉oeᴘ, 1976.
9⺆435.
Нншхнып П, П,* Нушьчточы З, Н,
₉oeshwcDLRv⸠P.㨠yoeso,
1969⸠9. 192.
rmcTsᠠToeCTz脠GeLToahᨠsoᴠsoToahᨠgivk /
5⺆.⺆.oLRThiᠠᄠKL. /⼠yoeCTh-DcSTRCcgsoဠRT(hLwᠭ
mRv⸠9cL⺆2. 1968⸠ꒆ12⸠9. 1–11.
3yl92ᐠ[9oND]. URL: http://www.uis.unesco.org.
аэыштпючхц Н, Р,
₠cVLcggRLhioTToဠToesᠠ⼠VhഠLcK.
P⺆%⺆ЯLhIcigshth⸠P.㨠dhaRDRkKoD, 1985. C. 431.
?b_gp W, C,
Citation Indexes for Scienti8c Literature? //
American Documentation. 1955. Vol. 6⸠ꒆ1. P. 31–32.
Bpm_b W, J,
Librarian Turned Enterpreneur Makes Millions
off Mere Footnotes // Science. 1978. Vol. 202⸠ꒆ664.
P⺆853阸57.
Cpmlgl B,
The need for a theory of citing // Journal of
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The Sage of Cambridge. 4S Award
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E_p�cjb C,
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Vol⺆122⸠ꒆ3159. P. 10㢖111.
E_p�cjb C,
Citation Index in Sociological and Historical
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P⺆42–46.
E_p�cjb C,
SCI and ASCA Promote International Contacts
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E_p�cjb C,
The Mystery of the Transposed Journal List玆阠
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П дшнпт энююннуэхпнюуюя пыинызоыюух х ыдэнохчтохя онучынтуэхх п ьэычтююнх ьэх
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Оьхюноы ьыехыеы ч ьыюуэытохю эчюьтэуоых ычтоыч чышхчтюуптооых х чнчтюуптооых
ьычнинутштц онучоыц ьэыеучухпоыюух, Рнююныуэтоы ьэхчхоы эыюун хоутэтюн х пыю
уэтоыпнооыюух нтуыеып онучынтуэхх юы юуыэыоы ненхохюуэнчхх онучоых инптетохц
х дыюуенэюуптооых ыэдноып уьэнпштохя, Рнююныуэтон унчзт эышь юьтчхншхюуып ьы
онучынтуэхх п онучоыц ыэднохинчхх, Пычнинон юпяиь нтзеу онучоын х утхоышыдхчтючхн
ьэычтююннх х ьэтеюунпшто зхиотооыц чхчш онучоыц х утхоышыдхчтючыц ьэыеуччхх,
Рнююныуэто пыьэыю учтун чхюштооыюух онучоыды ьтэюыоншн х этюуэюоыды ыотюьтчтохя
онучоыц етяутшьоыюух ешя ычточх эффтчухпоыюух онучоыды х утхоышыдхчтючыды ьэы
чтююып* н унчзт пыьэыю чхюштооыюух учтоых х пнэхноуып хинтэтохя онучоыц ьэыеучухп
оыюух, Пэтеюунпштон чнэухон пинхныюпяитц х инетэзчх пэтнтох ьыяпштохя хинтэхных
нэутфнчуып онучоыц х утхоышыдхчтючыц ьэыеуччхх,
DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0004
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whGTᰠh贛TRDଠVᰠghhDThIcTR耠CRgaᠠDcS,
sDᰠgDoጠeCcTzЬ”)DcЬ”DᰠVzDoagဠRРgDoDb.
dᰠ/wVRLRCcᔝhwᘠToEa4ഛTR4, 7㖆┠oiDh
LhᨠhVeEaRse4ఠkᠠigᬠiLcwဠToeCThȠsoLbc
L造hKTᘠRaᄠKiᬠgDoDbᄬ DᰠghgDoiavc\f 2㖆%
hE鴛tᰠCRgaᠠgDoDcȠ[Price, 1986ⰠL⺆223]⸠rD
g4Ko―acKecD, Dh”os ᄈᄄew \fhጋsh“Kᄈ
RภCcDzLc脠oiDhLhᨠVLhജa輘c\f \boeCTe4
soLbcLᘠ(EhacᬠVhKLhEThᬠhEgeGഛTRᬠᔄ.
᪆Lokഛaᬠ3.6⸠dhsokoDcaᄠKaဠeCcTz脠ᆆhL
toTRkomRN)⸠BhaဠgDeഛTDhᨬ‚zELoiIR脠To
eCTe耠soLbcLeⰠRภCRgaᠠigc脠gDeഛTDhᨬ h
aeCRiIᆁ \rRVahw,‛Uc ᬈb缛.
2Lhwc \fhth,‚)hVRᔘTࠜN‚zIc―Scwc―ఘ
mRhToLThtᰠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠLcgeLghᨠge鴛
gDiecఠᔝLzDoဠetLᰎoⰠCDᰠeCcTzȬ haeCRᨠ
hKR\b LoภtoLoTDR耠izഛacTRဠLcgeLghᨬ Vc
LcgDoTc\f isaoKzioDଠeᔑaRဠ᪆ജgDRGcTRᬠ
Thiz脠LckeabDoDhᨬ ᠠ᪆aeCIcРgaeCoᬠEeഛ\f
᜘EhDoDb \boK‖aeC缛Tᄛw‗ckeabDoDo, hae
иTThth‗oࠛc, Dh \roጛsh c‚gᬉKo \fLcEe
cDgv \rav \roabࠛN缛th‗okiRDRv \boeCThth
ToV᜘iጛTRv‑aR ᜘sDRиgshth‑gVhabkh
ioTRဠLckeabDoDo⸠yeGTᰠgഛaoDଠc鴛‗oภ
hthih᜝e, Dh‎ToCRМgDb haeCcTTzS \bo
eCTz脠LckeabDoDhᨠജgDhicLTᰠh贛TRiocDgဠ
иLck Thth–cD‑)Dhabsh hgጛ LRЛࠛ
TRဠTᠠVLosDRsc⸠ychEShKRwhgDଠLcteavL
ࠜ \rhsoຐioDb‚oGࠜgDb LhጜTtRLhio
TRဠizഛacTRဠLcgeLghᨠTᠠVLhജaGcTRᬠ
RggacജioTRȠVᰠToeCThwᘠToVLoiacTR耠
ᔁhghEgDiecఠh贛TsᬠeCcTzРioGThgDᄠVLh
ihKRwhtᰠRggacജioTRဠRkiTcⰠᢆTᬠRkTeDLᄠ
shaacsDᄚo‛KᄈhҐIacࠈᄝhi―)eCcDhw
igcS‖ᴘkoࠈzS‚避c“ghEcࠈhgDcN Lhmcg
go LᄈvDRv‗cIcࠑN.
ᤠhEgeGഛTRv脠᪆soCcgDiᬠoLtewcTDᠠVLh
DRi‗cteavᜈhN“mcTᴑ ogDh ᜑihKRDgv
VLRЛL“‚LᬄᬈR,‎oD᜘иTThw₅.)Я.)dᬗcab
woThw \bo \rhᴘkoDcጋgDih \tᄁhDckz‒eoࠝo
Lc⸠ᦆsoCcgDiᬠiᰎLoGcTRဠVLhDRᨠRᔁhabkh
ioTRဠKoTThtᰠVLRwcLᠠhDwcDRРgacKe4鴛ᬺ
ih-ěLi邁, LRЛL₅.)Я.)dᬗcabwoTo―shLcc
Khᴘk通ocD, Dh–ᅿb“Ccࠋ TcEhጋIhc CRg
aᰠa4ഛȠthDhi造shT贛TDLRLhioDଠigᬠᔚhR
ᔑa造DhabsᰠTᠠLcIcTRᄠVLhEacw造ᆆജgDRt
TeDଠLckeabDoDo㬠ih-iDhLzS, \bᬠhEvkoDcabTh
VhiDhLvDb LcKzKeURN eDb, hGࠜ‗oEhఘDb
acsDhLhРᆆDhCTᰠDoᶆGᬠ
hT贛TDLRLhioDbgv
TᠠgahGThȠkoKoCcⰠVLRCcРTRsDᰠhఠioᔠTc
Eeഛ\f \fLcEhioDଠVLhwcGeDhCTz脠hDCcDhi.
yoVLRwcLⰠ᪆201㎆t⸠acsDhᜠeTRicLᔑDcDo
yb4-%/wVIRLᠠMDoࠠЧ輘\b (Yitang Zhang)
hVeEaRshioጠ᪆Annals of Mathematic猠gDoDb4,
Vᰎihav4Ue耠ge鴛gDicTTᰠVLhKiRTeDgv
᪆ജsokoDcabgDiᬠtRVhDck造ᰠVLhgDz脠CRgaoS-
EaRkࠛmo脮₄ih4 ᬗie4‗᠆hDe [Klarreich,
2013崠hࠠhVeEaRshioጠ᪆iᰎLogDᬠ5ゆacDⰠᆆ/Dh
EzጠctᰠVcLizȠToeCTzȠLckeabDoఠVhgaᬠVh
aeCcTRဠgDcVcTᄠPh䐠᪆199ㆆt.
fogᔄhDLcᨠhtLoTRCcTRဠRഛoabThȠwhഛ
aᄠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠLcgeLghᨠTᠠToeCTzᬠRg
gacജioTRvⰠicLTcwgဠᶆLᬘabThgDᄬ‚)shDh
LhȠLcgeLᖐⰠizഛavcwzᬠTᠠToese, \bᬠDhabsh
koiRgvఠhఠghgDhvTRဠ/shThwRsᄠgDLoTz, \bh
ᆆwcTv4Dgဠ᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠhఠVLRhLRDcDhi
LokiRDRv⸠dᰠhELokThwᘠizLoGcTR耠n⺆Л⺆2h
GciTRshio, \rRLcsDhLᠠྑТ鬠OLᐠfuyⰠghgDh
vTRc \boeᴑ‑)Dc脈hጜtRN)—₌Dh LhRบhKTov
hఠeLhiTဠLokiRDRဠgDLoT造[fogCc\f \bᠠhKThth
eCcThth, 2012]⸠舘GKzȠThizȠth\r ToeCThc
ghhE鴛gDiᰠwhGcఠgDhasTeDbgဠᖆghsLo鴛TR
cР(RToTᔑLhioTRvⰠsoᴠgacകDiRcⰠCogDଠRg
gacKhioࠑN LRKcDgv‚送hገvDb‎o cࠋ缑c
geww造RaᄠghsLoUoDଠVcLghToa⸠ᦆgaeCoc
Lcteavᜈhth―ᰝLoUcTRv₭RToTgRLhioTRv
h輑KoDb haeиTRv‚逕hsᆁ‗ckeabDoDhi \bo
VLc輈ᬄ eLhiࠛ ࠛ VLᆁhKRDgv. 9DhRwhgDb
VhaeCcTRဠToeCTz脠LckeabDoDhᨬ”hDhLzc
VᰎGᬠwhteఠEzDଠhVeEaRshioT造᪆ToeCTzS
GeᜈoaoS,―hVhgఘᨑwo‚)LoบRDzS―DLo
To脠(VhKLhETcᬠᔄ.: [2hGciTRshᨬ‒havshᨬ
2010崠ᆆKoacᬠ᪆KoTThȠtaoic)⸠yctoDRiTzw
gጛKgDiᄛw \rhathiLᬄᬈThth―hs᜘UᬈRv
(RToTᔑLhioTRဠRaᄠᔑgDcwoDRCcᔝhtᰠTc
Kh(ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑv \boeC࢐S‑ggacKhioࠑN
viavcDgဠTciᰎwhGThgDଠEzgDLhtᰠihᔁLh
RkihകDiᠠTchEShKRwhtᰠCRgaᠠeCcTzSⰠsh
DhLzᬠᔄhte\f \tcTcLRLhioDଠToeCTzȠLckeab
ఘD‚zghshth‖LhiTv, \roGc‚)gaeCoc”LoDࠜth
LhgDᠠ(RToTᔑLhioTRv⸠uToahtRCToဠVLh
Eጛwo ЛKጛTThth LhgDo Cᄕao eиT邁 ihk
TRsocఠᆆ᪆gaeCoᬠTchEShKRwhgDᄠEzgDLhth
᜘kiRDRv LRhLRDcDT邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN.₉oeso
soᴠᔑgDcwᠠRTcLmRhTToⰠhEgeGഛTRᬠgahG
ThgDᬂ‖V᜘iጛTRv‑ࠛLmRhTTzwR gᄕDᬄo
wᄠizShKRఠkᠠLowsᄠKoTThȠLoEhD逬‑)Kav
KoabࠛN缛th DᬈRv‗ᬝhЛTഖcDgv“E᜘
DRDbgဠᶆsTRt: [Pcജek, 2010].
1.1.‗tཱྀBDD‏SBTwkਈѿ
dLR LRTvDRR‗᭿ᬈRN“‗᠕VLcKcጛTRR
LcgeLghᨠTᠠToeCTzᬠRggacജioTRဠiᰎTR
ᴘcD gRDeomRာ”htKo eLhicࠋ”hЁcDcࢍᄑ
Vh \fcwoDRsc”hTᴗcDࠜth‑ggacKhioTRv–R
mo, LRTRwo4Uᬉh‗᭿ᬈRv,―DoThiRDgv c
KhgDoDhC࢐w \rav‛Kᄈh጑CThth‗cIcࠑv.
Лᆍh, Lᄈᄄo4Ucc‗cIcࠑc, Lᄚacᴘ
cD―cEc‚)VhМUb―VcmRoaRgఘ,‎ToshМth
ᖆVLcKwcDhРRggacജioTRvⰠRaᄠDhthⰠsDh
МGcD―(hᜄeaRLhioDb‘ᜉewcTDRLhioT
TzN‚oLRoTD‗᭿ᬈRv.‒LRiጛиTᄛ”)VLh
贛ggᘠh贛TRioTRဠLcIcTRဠ/sᔁcᜌᠠ᪆VLcK
wcDThȠhEaogDᆆ騠ToRaeCIRȠizEhᜠVLR
VLhCᆁ ᜘iT邁 egahiRv脮₋oЛCe, Dh, Vh
geDR, \boeshЛDLRv, LRЛTရw᠐ \roGc ck
VLRiጛиTRv₌sgěLDhi‚)VLcKЛDThN“Eao
gDᄬ‌hGᬠghഛLGRఠLckeabDoD造/sᔁcᜌThth
kToTRv‚)KieS‘gěsDo脮‒ᬗizN‘gěsD)—
ToeshwcDᜑCcgᴑc VhsokoDcaR DLcEe4D Kav
gihᬉh‗᠕иDo LRiጛиTRv \t᜘whDT邁―ě
mRoaRgDhi⸠nDhLhȠoᔁcsಆ騠KoTTzᬠVhsoko
Dc጑‗oggCRD通o而gv \bo oggᄚc \roࠈzS,
hDLo輘4UR脠LckeabDoD造ToeCThȠKcvDcab
ThgDR―)koKᬗ輝hN‚h‚LᬄᬈR (VhKLhEࠛc
hEgeGഛTRᬠᔄ⸠᪆Lokഛaᬠ1.㔠ᆆ᪆taoiᮆ3).
n)gaeC᠛ VLRiጛиTRv /sgěLDhi Te輈h hD
icDRDଠTᠠDLᄠihVLhgo㨠sDᰠwhGcఠizgDeVRDb
/sᔁcᜌhЬ”oᴠg(hLweaRLhioDଠihVLhᔠ/sg
VcᜌᘠᆆsDᰠ(hLweaRLec\f \fcwoDRsᘠshTseLgo
VᰠLoᔁLcഛacTR耠LcgeLghi.
lgaR‚)gD᜘ࠛ‗᠆hD᠛D cEhabI᠐ \tLeVVo
ᔁcmRoaRgDhᨬ DᰠhDEhᜠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠactsᰠwh
GcఠEzDଠVLhicഛ\b VeDcРhVLhgᠠkToshwzS.
u)cgaR”a4иi邁―ěmRoaᄕDhi“LtoTRkh
ioDଠ᪆(hLwoabTzȠsaeE, DᰠwhGTᰠLcIRDb
R)VLhEጛwe₌sgěLDRkz \bhi邁 CጛThi Kav
ihᔁhaTcTRဠVeaᠠ(shLVego⤠/sᔁcᜌhᨬ c
hEShKRwhtᰠ᪆ᔑaᘠcgDcgDicTThȠeEzaᄠ/sg
Vcᜌhi⸠dcLizᬠosoഛwRᄠToesⰠVᰠgeDᄬ‐i
av጑gb”aeEoБ₌sgVcLDhi, LᄚacᴘcҐБ
KaဠhDicDhᨠTᠠihVLhᖐⰠshDhLzᬠihaThioaR
МToLShi. gaR‖CcTzS―ఘࠜᨑDgv habIc,
DᰠwhGTᰠhDhELoDଠVeጠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠᆆVLhᔑDb
R脠VhLcshwcTജioDଠ/sᔁcᜌhᨬ”hDhLzᬠToR
aeCIRРhELokhРwhte\f hDicDRDଠTᠠihVLhᖐ
VLᄠVLRTvDRᄠLcIcTRဠᰠLoᔁLcഛacTRᄠLc
geLghi‚)eฝhN LcKwcDࠜN“EaogDR.‟hGࠜ
TᬠgᰎKoioDଠᔚhȠshLVeᔠ/sᔁcᜌhᨬ‘)Vhabkh
ioDbgဠge鴛gDie4URwᄬ oVLRwcLⰠwhGTᰠRg
VhabkhioDଠ«2hLVeᔠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠVᰠcgDcgDicT
࢐w \boeᴘw»
.‒LR LRiጛиTRR₌sgěLDhi
TeGTᰠVhwTRDb, CDᰠiᰎwhGc\b shT(aRs\f RT
DcLcghi. ᦆᔑaᘠekhgDᄠVLcKwcDThȠhEaogDR
whGTᰠTᬠToNDᄠTᄠhKThtᰠ/sᔁcᜌoⰠshDhLzN
E造TᬠEzጠᔚvkoࠠᖆVLcDcTഛTDowᄠTᠠLcgeL
ᖐⰠaREᰠgowᄠVLcDcTഛTD造EeKeఠcKRTgDicT
Tzwᄠ/sᔁcᜌowᄠ᪆VLcKwcDThȠhEaogDR.
dhKLhETh,―)VLᄄcLoБ,―hmRoጋ࢐N‘gVcsD
VLRiጛиTRv₌sgěLDhi‗okhE᜘T‚)ጛsmRR,
VLhCRఘTࠜN P.)P.)9hshጜ᪐w (DcsgD–cᶍRR
ᔄ.: [9hshah, 2011])⸠noGTᰠVhwTRDbⰠCDᰠ/sg
VcᜌToဠh贛TsᠠVᰎihavcఠVLRTvDଠgowhc
DhCThᬠᆆEzgDLhᬠLcIcTRc, \bᰠCogDᰠghVLhih
GKocDgဠge鴛gDicTTzwᄠkoDLoDowᄠTᠠVhRᔝ
谝gVcLDhi‑)hᜉoTRkomR4 Lhmcgᔘ“VLhᔘ.
rKTᠠRภVLRCRࠠihgDLcEhioTThgDᄠToeshwc
DLRCcᔝR脠wcDhജᨠh贛TsᄠsoᴠജVhaTcTRv
ᶆ/sᔁcᜌTzРLcIcTRv҆騠/DᰠiᰎwhGThgDb
EzgDLcᬠᆆഛIciaᬠVhaeCRDଠജgDeĠᶆeGc
g(hᜄeaRLhioTTzw‗ckeabఘఘw₌sgVcLDࠜN
h贛TsᄠᖆeCcDhРigc脠htLoTRCcTRȠTᠠVhae
Ccࠑc‑)ᄈDcLVLcDomᆀ‗ckeጋDoDo.
http://www.expertcorps.ru/
lg጑ Ґ VhgwhDLᄄ KᄈoБse LokiRDRv
shLVegᠠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠsoᴠ/aRDThtᰠsaeEo, \fh
izviRDgv \ric―ah輈hgDR:“DEhL \bhi邁 ጛ
ࠜi \fhabsh \bo“gࠜic‗cshwcTKoDcabࠜN
gᄕDᬄz hиTb E逕DLh VhTᆏ᠛D hEURN
eLhicTଠCacThᨠsaeEoⰠᆆCacT造saeEoⰠᔄc
TRᨠhEaogDଠᔚhR脠ToeCTz脠RTDcLcghᨬ h
teD ěLcgDoDb gጛKRDb ko ThizwR ᜘EhDowR
᪆hEaogDᄬ ᰠshDhLhȠEzaᄠhDhELoTz⸠uTo
aRk‗okT邁‚oLRoTDhi‗᭿ᬈRN‚)hEa᠕DR
ghSLoTcTRဠsoCcgDiᠠ/aRDTz脠saeEhᨠ᪆Vh
VeavLThȠ(hLwᬠVLRicഛࠠ᪆ghhDicDgDie4
鴛ȠaRDcLoDeLᬠ[l(Rwh, 1988]⸠rᔈhiTzw
egahiᄛw‖iᬗᬈThgDR‚)KhᎏThw‖Lhiࠛ
/sᔁcᜌhᨠviavcDgဠiᰎwhGThgDଠജVha
ࠑDb Tcࠑc”haact‚Tc缈ᄄR VLRkToᴘБ,
giRKcDcጋgDie4UᄄR‚)Vhጋke―hSLoTcࠑv
izghshtᰠeLhiTဠ/sᔁcᜌᠠ᪆ᔚhcȠVLcKwcD
ࠜN hEaogDR.’)soCcgDic hKhEࠜth Vᜑจo
sᠠwhGTᰠEzaᰠE造RᔁhabkhioDଠgᖐasᄠTo
KoTThtᰠ/sᔁcᜌᠠ᪆eCcETRsoS, \bᰠജihab
TᰠCogDᰠ/DᄠgᖐasᄠVhviav4DgဠeGᬠVhgac
gЛLDR‖иThth.‒LᄛwጛwhN‎oЛThN h
GcఠgaeGRDଠhDEhᜠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠTᠠhᔈhiᬠTo
eshwcDᜑCcgᴑS hsokoDcacN.‟hGࠜ hNDR
KoabIᬠᆆhDERLoDଠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠDhabsᰠᖆRg
Vhጋkhioࠑcw₭hLwoጋ࢐S hᴘkoDcacN.
ᦆ/DhРgaeCoᬠw造TᬠᔚvkoT造TchEShKRwh
gDb耠VhKഛLGRioDଠ/aRDTzȠsaeؠ/sᔁcᜌhᨬ
VhᔝhabsᘠEeഛРhDERLoDଠTeGTz脠/sᔁcᜌhi
Vh\r shTsLcDTe耠koKoCe⸠9ahGThgDଠLᬘ
aRkomRᄠKoTThȠgScw造᪆DhwⰠCDᰠ/sᔁcᜌz
᪆saeEᬠTᬠDhabsᰠizVhaTv4ఠLhaᄠhLoseahᨬ
izThgvUᆁ‗᭿ᬈᄛ h‎oKoTThwe‚hVLhge,
TᰠDosGᬠVLcKhgDoiav4ఠRT(hLwomR耠ᰠDhЬ
sDᰠRภCacThᨠsaeEᠠaeCIRРhELokhРwhGcD
hDicDRDb \bo hgDoiacࠈ适‚hVLhg.
yoRaeCIRw‗᭿ᬈᄛw‐iaရDgv”hw
VLhwRgᔈzȠVhKShഠwcGKᘠwhKcab耠saeEᠠ
ᆆwhഛab耠VhRᔝᠠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠVᰠ(hLwoab
TzРVhsokoDcavw⸠ТosⰠ/sᔁcᜌ逬 eKeCᄠᔁc
mRoaRgDowᄠ᪆VLcKwcDThȠhEaogDᄬ―whte\f
VLchKhጛDb“t᜘TRиTᄛ“DEh᜘₌sgěLDhi
DhabsᰠTᠠhᔈhiᬠ(hLwoabTz脠VLRkToshᨬ
o)(hᜄoabTzc VhsokoDcaR, VhKᴗcVav肝Rc
wTcTRᬠ/sᔁcᜌhᨬ eKeఠᔁhghEgDihioDଠ
VhizIcTR耠hEъcsDRiThgDᄠVLᄠhDEhLc⸠dᰠ
hVRᔘTࠜN―Scwc‗oEhఘ4D \boeCTzc₏eᜈo
az⸠fhaଠsaeEᠠ᪆/DhРgaeCoᬠRtLocఠLcKos
mRhTToဠshaactRဠRaᄠghicDⰠᢆLc贛TkcTD造
hDERLo4DgဠTᠠhᔈhiᬠwTcTRဠCacThᨠsaeEᠠ
ᖆRᔁhabkhioTRcРVLᄠTchEShKRwhgDᄠTo
eshwcDᜑCcgᴑS hsokoDcacN.
ᐠCcРw造ജaGT造ᔁLoIRioDଠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠ
VLᄠLoᔁLcഛacTRᄠLcgeLghi㼠lgaᄠihVLhᔠ
EeഛఠVLcകDoiavDଠghEhȠkoKoCᘠLoᔁLc
ഛacTRဠigc脠LcgeLghᨠwcGKᘠTcᔝhabsRwᄠ
VLcDcTഛTDowᄬ‌ᰠ/sᔁcᜌ造whteఠVLhicgDᄠ
LoᔁLcഛacTRᬠTcᔝhabsRwᄠᔁhghEowᆆ騠
ᆆigᬠhTᄠEeKeఠhEhᔈhioTT造ᄬ‚ᰎwhGTh,
ᔁLoicKaRiz⸠yᰠcgaᄠw逬‗oᔁLcഛaRᨠLc
geLᖐⰠShDRРVhaeCRDଠLckeabDoఠᆆwhGcР
hVRgoDଠGcaocwzȠhELoภEeKe鴛th, ᪆shDh
LhРLckeabDoఠLᬘaRkhio\b, \fᰠihVLhᖐ₌sg
VcᜌoРജaGT造(hLweaRLhioDbgဠ᪆DcLwR
To脠GcaocwhtᰠLckeabDoDᢆ騠贛aᄠshTseLgo.
rDwcDRЬ Dᰠ贛aᄠTᬠhEvkoDcabTᰠ(hLwe
጑Le而gv‚)DcLБToS haeCcࠑv”hࠝLcD
ThtᰠLckeabDoDᠠRggacജioTRv⸠dLᄠLoᔁLc
ഛacTRᄠLcgeLghᨠwhteఠgDoiRDbgဠ贛aᄬ
ᔚvkoTTzᬠᖆVhKഛLGshȠge鴛gDie4UR脠
ToeCT邁”haጛsDRihi,―)᜘kiRDᄛw \boeCT邁
tLeVV, ghkKoTᄛw Thihth ToV᜘iጛTRv ᄕ
gacജioTRN⸠rᔈhiThᬠDLcEhioTRᮆ騠贛aଠ
ജaGTᠠEzDଠg(hLweaRLhioTᠠജ Lhic
ഛTRဠhVLhgᠠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠᆆVLcകDoiacTᠠ
᪆(hLwc, ജgDeVThȠ/sᔁcᜌoЬ ToVLRwcᜠ
i)(hLЛ \fᬝgDo―)hVᄕoTᄛw₏ca᠛whth‗c
keabఘఘ,‚)(hᜄc“DᴗzDzS‚hVLhghi‑aR
᪆(hLwᬠoTscDz⸠BaဠizVhaTcTRဠ/sᔁcᜌR
k造ജaGTᠠEzDଠghELoTᠠhVLcഛacTToဠRT
(hLwomRဠhؠh贛TRiocwz脠VLcDcTഛTDoS,
VLRCcРioGTᰠsoᴠghELoDଠKoTTzcⰠshDhLzᬠ
Vᰎihav\f /sᔁcᜌᘠ᪆ghhDicDgDiRᄠᖆ贛ab耠
izᔝokoDଠᔚhᬠwTcTRc, \foᴠᆆtoLoTDRLhioDଠ
icLᆭRmRLecwhgఋ /఑S KoTTzS (VᰍLhETcc
/sᔁcᜌToဠh贛TsᠠLogᔄoDLRiocDgဠ᪆sTR
t: [ХoEEoLK, 2009]).
nihKဠVhTvDRᬠ贛aᄠ᪆VLh贛gᔠ/sᔁcᜌ
Thtᰠh贛TRioTRv, \beGTᰠVhTRwoDbⰠCDᰠTᬠ
E通ocD₍cacN ck‎oᄈDcLcghioࠈzS–ᆍ.
1caᄠigctKᠠᔚvkoT造ᖆaRmowᄬ haeCo4UR
wᄠizthKᘠhఠLckeabDoDhᨠജgDRGcTRဠ贛aR.
yᬠwhGc\f EzDଠhKThȠ贛aᄠᚆhLtoTRkomRᄠ
(ToVLRwcLⰠᚆeTRicLᔑDcDo⤠ᆆᘠtLeVV造aRm,
shDhLzc―CRDo而 \bchEShKᄄ逄 \rhgDRGcࠑc
贛aR. 2LhwᬠDhth, ᖆ/DhȠtLeVVhȠaR贠ജaG
T造EzDଠghtaoᔈ造Dc, sDᰠwhGc\f koEahsRLh
ioDଠജgDRGcTRᬠ贛aᄠᔚhRwᄠഛNgDiRvwR.
nhVLhᔠᰠ贛av脠/sᔁcᜌRk造ᆆshTgcTgeᔠ
᪆(hLweaRLhisᬠ贛aᄠcgDଠDh\f VLhETzȠso
wcTbⰠshDhLzȠVᰎihavcఠVhaeCRDଠToREh
ጛc”oиgDiᬈThc‗᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ‗cgeLghi.
dLᄠhEgeGഛTRᄠ(hLweaRLhihᴠ贛acȠ
KaဠVLRTvDRဠLcIcTRȠVᰠRDhtoР/sᔁcᜌR
k造ioGTᰠkoDLhTeDଠKiᠠoᔁcsDoⰠᢆRwcTTh:
CDᰠഛaoDbⰠcgaᄠVLcDcTഛTDhᨬ‍hgDhNTz脠
VhKഛLGsRⰠEhabIcⰠCcРLcgeLghᨬ‑ⰠhELoD
TzȠihVLhgⰠCDᰠഛaoDbⰠcgaᄠVLcDcTഛTDhᨠ
TcജgDoDhCTᰠKaဠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠigc脠Lc
geLghi⸠ԚᠠLcIcTRဠ᪆/DhРgaeCoᬠwhte\f
EzDଠLᬘaRkhioTz㨠aREᰠRkwcTcTRᬠhEъcwᠠ
izKcaရw邁‗cgeLghi,–REh‑kЛࠛTᄛ h
LhthᨠhDEhLo⸠noGTᰠVLᄠ/DhРeCRDzioDb,
CDᰠizEhᜠwcGKᘠKiewဠioLRoTDowᄠLcIc
TRʆ騠/DᰠCo鴛‚gctᰠizEhᜠwcGKᘠsLoDsh
iLᬄᬈTzw‑gиLVoTᄛw‗cgeLghi‑)ihg
VRDoTᄛw₫ᆏKRiᬈиgsᆁ»“輑KoTRN.
yoVLRwcL, RᔁhabkeဠVhaRDRCcᔝRȠLcgeLg,
wh輈h–hEERLhioDb‗᭿ᬈᄛ,‚zKcavv‗c
geLᖐ‍aဠtLeVĠgᰠᔈRGcTTzwᄠVhsokoDc
avwᄠ᪆DhРGᬠhEъcwcⰠCDᰠᆆKaဠVLhKesDRi
Tz脠tLeVV⸠lgaᄠVhജEThᬠLcIcTRᬠEeഛ\f
VLRTvDh, Dᰠw造aREᰠVhKsLcVRРeicLcT
ThgDଠ᪆DhЬ CDᰠizghsRᬠVhsokoDcaᆆ騠Tᬠ
mcጋ, ጑Eh gࠑkᄄ VhᴘkoDc጑ e)hgDoጋ࢐S,
DoᴠsosⰠVhTRkRᨠVaoTsᘠ᪆hKThРwcgDcⰠw造
ghkK᠛w“輑KoTᄛ higᬄcgDThth hTᆏc
TRဠVaoTsR⸠ᦆgaeCoᬠcgaᄠhgDo4DgဠTcLog
VLcഛacTTzᬠLcgeLᖐⰠEhacᬠVLhKesDRiTᰠ
isaoKzioDଠR脠᪆wcLhVLRvDRဠVᰠLokiRDR耠
eLhiTဠVLcDcTഛTDhᨬ‑ᔝa4Coဠ«TcജgDhN
TzS묠VLcDcTഛTDhᨠRภᔑgDcw造LoᔁLcഛac
TRv‗cgeLᔜᨮ
dhgacKࠑN ihVLhg i)VLᄚacCcࠑR₌sg
Vcᜌhi㨠sDᰠ(hLweaRLec\f \fcwoDRsᘠshTseL
go㼠蒆hKThȠgDhLhT逬‌cwoDRsᠠshTseLgᠠTᬠ
whGcఠEzDଠkoKoTᠠhCcTଠഛDoabThⰠcgaᄠ
/DᰠTᬠshTseLᔠTᠠizVhaTcTRᬠhVzDTh-shT
gDLesDhLᔝhȠLokLoEhDsᄬ‘)ᖆKLethȠgDhLh
T逬“TᠠTᬠwhGcఠEzDଠg(hLweaRLhioTᠠsoᴠ
LcIcTRᬠtahEoabThȠkoKoCR, \foᴠsoᴠ᪆/DhР
gaeCoᬠw造LRᔝecРTᬠജGKoDbgဠLckeabDo
Dhi⸠ТosGᬠLcKsᰠigDLcCo4DgဠkoKoCᄬ‍aဠ
shDhL邁 V᜘sDRиgshc VLRЛࠛTᄛ Lckeab
DoDhᨠToShKRDgဠ᪆thLRkhTDᬠVaoTRLhioTRဠ
h\f \fLc脠KᰠVvDᄠacD⸠9shLcᬠigcthⰠᚆDoshȠ
«sLoDshᔗhCThN묠koKoCᄠcgDଠiVhaTᬠshT
sLcD࢐N hDLcERDcጋ‑)shaacsDᄚ‖Cc࢐S,
shDhLzᬠeGᬠLoEhDoaᄠToഠkoKoCcȬ Dᰠ
VᰎihavcఠiRഛDଠshTDeL造VLosDRsᄠkᠠDc
hLcDRCcᔝRwᄠshTgDLesmRvwR⸠2DᰠwhGc\f
g(hᜄeaRLhioDb hgఘࠜ᨝e‎oKoCR–eCIc,
CcРeCcTzȬ‖GᬠLoEhDo4URȠ᪆VLcKwcDThȠ
hEaogDᄠᆆVhTRwo4URȠiᰎwhGTzᬠᔚvkᄠ
LckeabDoDhi―)VhDLcEThgDvwR‖иT邁,‗᠆h
Do4UR脠᪆KLetR脠VLcKwcDTz脠hEaogDvS㼠舘
GcDgvⰠCDᰠ᪆VLcKahGcTThȠgScwᬠge鴛gDie
c\f TcsRȠVhLhCTzȠsLet: icKଠghRᔝoDcaଠ
whGcఠᔈoCoaᠠgoРVLcKahGRDଠDcwᘠRggac
ജioTRvⰠᢆkoDcРVhKoDଠkovisᘠTᠠshTseLᔠ
ᆆizRtLoDଠcth. rKTosᰠ᪆hVRgoTThȠLoTcᬠ
gScwc,―Scwc―oМVhKgDLhNᴑ, \bcD”hT(aRs
DᠠRTDcLcghᨬ‌oᴠsoᴠᔈoCoaᠠRwcTTᰠ/sg
Vcᜌ造h贛TRio4ఠVLcKahGcTTe耠DcwᘠTᠠ
VLcKЛD ᬗgěsDRiThgDR‛c‗ok᜘EhDsR,
iᰎwhGThgDᄠkoicLIRDଠLoEhDᘠᆆVhaeCRDଠ
LckeabDoDⰠᆆDhabsᰠTᠠgacKe4鴛Р/DoVᬠoi
DhᜠDcw造ghLciTecDgဠᖆshaactowᄠkᠠVLoiᰠ
i送hገRDb‗oEhDe.
dᰠgeDᄬ“VRgoTToဠizIᬠgScwᠠviavcDgဠ
shwVLhwRgghЬ”hDhLzȠVᰎihavcఠᔈRkRDଠ
koD᜘Dz \bo VLRiጛиTᄛ LcgeLghi D᜘KRmR
hࠈ逄R gVhghEoБ, hVRgoࠈ逄R i)(hLwc
VvDᄠDosDRᴠVLRiacCcTRဠLcgeLghᨠ[ЛoDeL,
2013,―. 179–197].‒LhmRDᄗhioࠈe4”ࠑte
.LeTᰠЛoDeLᠠgDhRఠVLhCRDoDଠ᪆ജVhaTc
Tᄛ”)LᬝhЛTKhioTThN‚z缛”TRtc ᬗc
sᠠdLoNgo, \foᴠsoᴠhTᄠikoRwTᰠജVhaTv4\f
KLe\t \rLetoⰠhDLo輘ဠsoᴠshaRCcgDicTTzȠ
oᔁcs\f ഛvDcabThgDᄠToesᄬ DoᴠᆆghmRoab
TzȠshTDcsgDⰠ᪆Lowso脠shDhLhtᰠVLhRgShKR\f
࠘eC࠘v \rcvDcabThgDb.
9ᴗzఘv hghEcTࠜgDb―Scwz ᔘМVhK
gDLhNsᆆ騠/DᰠiᰎwhGTzȠhDShഠhఠVhDLcE
ࠜgDR LosDRᴑ”os”ᜑDcᜑv hacจhgDR
LckeabఘDhi \boeCࠜN‗oEhDz.‟hGࠜ \bo
LRghioDଠwLoCTe耠soᜌRTeⰠshtKᠠigᬠeCc
Tzᮆ騠eCogDTRsᄠVLh贛ggᠠToCTe\f «RtLoDଠ
᪆ERgcL묠ᆆhDhLieDgဠhఠVLosDRCcᔝR脠Vh
DLcEThgDcN⸠nTcITᬠVLh贛gᔠEeഛఠLᬘaRkh
izioDbgvⰠhKTosᰠ贛aଠVLh贛ggᢆ騠VLosDR
CcᔝhᬠVLRwcTcTRᮆ騠TᬠEeഛఠജgDRtoDbgv.
OCogDTRᴑ \boeCࠜth Lhmcgᔘ ᜑจo4D, Dh
hVᄕoTT᠐―Sᬄo―hKᬗ輑D₌ጛЛTDz‗ᄕso,
TᰠcᬠtaoiThᬠVLcRwe鴛gDiᲆ騠eᔝhLcTRᬠ
ToeCThtᰠVLh贛ggᢆ騠hseVocఠiᰎwhGTzᬠ
RkKᬗ輝R.
ᤠCcР贛aଠeᔝhLcTRဠToeCThtᰠVLh贛g
go㼠dhCcwᘠTcജgDoDhCTᰠKaဠ/DhtᰠeGᬠ
koKcнDihioTTzS‗cgeLghi?‏บcgDࠜ, \bo
VLRwcLⰠCDᰠDhabsᰠ᪆gDLoTo脠OEC䐠᪆201ㆆt.
᪆ToeCTz脠RggacജioTRv脠EzaᰠkoTvDᰠ4,3
waT cahiᬝ‑)CᄕጛTThgDb‖иT邁‚)wRLc
kᠠVhgacKTRᬠVhaicsᠠDhabsᰠiᰎLogDoaᠠ
[OECD, 2014]⸠rᔈhiToဠVLRCRTᠠiahGcTRဠ
LcgeLghᨠ᪆ToeCTzᬠRggacജioTRဠghgDhR\f
᪆DhЬ DᰠLckeabDoD造RggacജioTRȬ EeKeCᄠ
VLᄄcTcࠈ逄R \bo LosDᄝc, hkihav而‑k
wcTvDଠhsLe輘4URȠwRL, VLRᔁhgoEaRioဠ
ctᰠᶆVhDLcEThgDvРhE鴛gDio⸠rKTosᰠKaဠ
VLᄄcTcࠑv \bo LosDᄝc \boeC࢐N‗ckeጋDoD
ജaGcࠠEzDଠeGᬠVhaeCcT⸠ЭDᰠᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠ
ToCoDb ᜘EhDoDb \boK ᬉh VhaeиTᄛw ࠛhE
ShKᄄh―eUcgDicࠈh‗oࠋIc.
1.2⸠mBlBGMlONOTwԠຐTORCTMĠ
GtMSBఌB
nᰎഛNgDiRᬠLckeabDoDhᨠToesᄠᆆDcSTh
ጜtRR \bo₌shࠜwRse”os―RgDcwe \rhgఘDhCࠜ
VhKLhETᰠLogᔄhDLcTᰠ᪆ghhDicDgDie4鴛N
aRDcLoDeLᬠ[PhsRL, 2012, . 45–106]⸠9Do
DRgDRCcᔝe耠kToCRwhgDଠᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠiah
GcTRvwᄠ᪆ToesᘠᆆDcSThahtR耠ᆆeLhiTcw
谝hࠜwRCcgshth‗oบRDRv―DLoT RఘDcab
whGcఠegDoThiRDଠgoЬ“ELoDRiIRᔋ”)ToR
Ehጛc‗ᬁLckᬈDoDRiThwe \b᠆hLe \roTT邁
rᜉoTRkomRR₌shࠜwRCcgshth―hDLeKTRCc
gDiᠠᆆLokiRDRv, ജgDeVThwᘠVᰠVhKVRᔝc
[OECD, 2014]⸠2TRtᠠBGh/aဠPhsRLᠠ[Ph
sRL, 2012崠viavcDgဠVhgacKTcȠ᪆DLRoഛ
ᴈRt,”hDhថc \ro4D‑gCcᜁzio肝cc“VRᔘ
TRᬠKaဠVhTRwoTRဠigc脠oᔁcsDhᨠToeshwc
DᜑR:”TRघ cLcso‒Loнo,“VRgzio肝ov
Eokhizc hKShKz”)ᄈKᄝoDhLow;”ࠑto
.LeThₜoDeLo,“VRg通o4Uov―hmRoጋ࢐N
oᔁcsDⰠ᪆Lowso脠shDhLhtᰠiᰎTRso4ఠoᜌc
(osDz,‑kЛLရw逛 \boeshЛDLᄛN;”TRto
BGh/aဠPhsRLoⰠRภshDhLhȠCRDoDcaଠVh
CcLVTcఠVhTRwoTRᬠ贛acȠToeCThtᰠᆆDcS
TRCcᔝhtᰠVLh贛ggo.
BG⸠PhsRᜠVLcKaotocఠwhഛaଠᔚvkᄠTo
eCࠜth‑)Dc脈RCcgshth Lhmcgghi [PhᴑL,
2012, ⺆31–44]ⰠshDhLoဠ᪆hEhE鴛TThРiR
ഛ LcകDoiacTᠠTᠠLRg⺆1⸠yᠠgScwᬠeCDc
TᰠVLcകDoiacTRᬠ.⸠ЛoDeLᠠ[ЛoDeL, 2013,
g⺆257崠ᲆGRkTcTThРmRsaᬠLokiRDRဠToesR.
BaဠhVRgoTRဠwhഛaᄠRᔁhabkhioTᠠTh
DomRv gRgDcЈhN KᄈoБsR (hEgeGKcࠑc
VLRЛTRwhgDR hKcጛN―ᄕDᬄThN \rRTo
wRsᄠᔄ⸠᪆[Price, 1986])ⰠshDhLoဠVᰎihavcD
VLcKgDoiRDb‚aRvTᄛ₌ጛЛTDhi―ᄕDᬄz
KLe\t \bᠠKLetᠠᖆesokoTRcРhELoDTz脠ᔚv
kcȠᆆkoKcLGcᴠ᪆ᔑgDcwᬠ[Pcജek, 2010].
nihKRDgဠഛacTRᬠTᠠKiᠠiRKᠠkToTRN:
Ω-kToTRcⰠVLcകDoiav4鴛ᬠgewwᘠkToTRN
hؠegDLhNgDiᬠwRLᠠᆆᔁhghEo脠ctᰠVᰎTo
TRvⰠᆆλ-kToTRcⰠhDicCo4鴛ᬠTᠠihVLhgⰠsos
RkwcTRDଠhsLe輘4URȠwRᜠᖆRᔁhabkhio
TRcРDcSThahtRN. Ω-kToTRᬠgᰎKoc\f hᔈh
iᘠKaဠiᰎwhGThgDᄠToLoURioDଠλ-kToTRv,
CDᰠhDLoGcTᰠeVLoiav4鴛ȠgDLcashN
s)«s᜘Te»,‚cKeUᬄe”)«ؘggᬂTe»―)RЛࠛw
/acwcTDo⸠5Toᴠ«Va4g묠LvജРᖆeVLoiav4
鴛ȠgDLcashȠhEᰎToCocఠVhahGRDcabTe4
givkb: cw hጋIc \boᴘV጑iocDgv‚)БLc
Ω-จoTRN, \fcw habIc \fc脈hጜtRCcgᴑS
kToTRȠw造whGcРgᰎKoDb. ԚhNThᬠVcLc
CcLsRioTRᬠgDLcasᄠᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠVLh贛gg
ToshVacTRဠVLhRgShKRఠᖆge鴛gDicTThN
koഛLGshN; \boVLRwcLⰠhఠwhwcTDᠠhVLcഛ
ጛTRv LRCRTz‎᠆hጛioTRv \rh hЛTDo
ToShGഛTRဠᔁhghEᠠacCcTRဠ(DcSThahtRv,
ToV᜘iጛTT᠐ \bo‑kЛࠛTᄛ cahiᬝo)
VLhShKRఠwThtᰠacDⰠᢆKaဠTcshDhLz脠ko
EhጛioTRN hᄕs―VhghEhi–ᬃᬈRv hGcD
koDvTeDbgဠᆆTᠠഛgvDRacDRv.
Тc脈hጜtRR,―hgఘiav肝Rc“gࠜie
λ-kToࠑN, \bc“tLoࠑCᄚo而gv \fhጋsh‑TGc
TcLTzwᄠDcSThahtRvwᄬ‘)isa4Co4ఠiᖀ
ghihseVࠜgDb ᜑcМi h‑คcTcTR4 RLo,
᪆DhРCRgaᬠhE鴛gDiᠠsoᴠghgDoiThȠCogDᄠ
ToIcth RLo.‒hwRМ \fc脈hጜtRN,₧-จoTRv
isa4Co4ఠ᪆gcEဠᆆToEhᜠ«Lc贛VDh᪻Ⱐsh
DhLzᬠwhteఠEzDଠ(RsgomRcȠToEa4ഛTRȠ
R)gఘDRgDRCcgᴑS‎oshࠜwcᜈhgDcN Eck hg
ThioTRȠ᪆(hLwᬠΩ-kToTRN⸠rDgeDgDiRᬠDo
sR脠hᔈhioTRȠTᬠVᰎihavcఠVhTRwoDଠtLo
TRm造VLRwcTcTRဠLc贛VDhᨠᆆVLRCRT逬 Vᰠ
shDhLzРhTᄠLoEhDo4ఠRaᄠwhteఠVcLcgDoDଠ
᜘EhDoDb.₉oVLRЛL,“Ea᠕Db cKRmRTz, c
ᔄhDLဠTᠠEhabIRᬠLcgeLᖐⰠshDhLzᬠ᪆Tcᬠ
isaoKzio4DgvⰠജ―R脠VhᜠviavcDgဠᔝhLcᬠ
T᠆hLhw‚逕hsheLhiࠛi邁₫LᮍᬁDhi», ᬄ
7
уровнем
развития
может
установить
набору
сотрудничества
доступному
Джоэля
книг
всех
наукометрии
, 2012].
Таким
рекомендуемая
триада
книг

базовые
Бруно
Латура
описывающая
аспект
измеряемые
наукометрией
почерпнет
научного
процесса
научного
технического
процесса
. 31–44],
которая
. 1.
учтено
Латура
Латур
, 2013,
. 257]
цикле
развития
науки
использована
системной
динамики
Price D., 1986),
элементов
системы
друг
друга
обратных
задержек
системе
Медоуз
, 2010].
Вводится
деление
сумму
знаний
мира
отвечающее
окружающий
основу
отражено
управляющей
стрелкой
ведущему
бассейну
Знак
положительную
больше
мире
знаний
можем
что
процесс
существенной
задержкой
момента
определения
заболевания
момента
лечения
человека
некоторых
заболеваний
лечения
может
затянуться
Ученые
Практики
Рациональность
Наука
Технология
ецепты
Инструменты
Ресурсы
научного
технического
процесса
Мокиру
основу
только
всю
совокупность
приемов
мира
ꀑᔮ‱⸠ἜKcጋ―ᨐฑ oᘃࠜtᰠᄠDc脈ᄃcᔝᰉᰠė᲍cggᰚ ᰠ֏⸠Ἔᴑ᜖
LckeabఘDhw hTRwoTRv Lhmcgghi₏RจcT
ThtᰠmRsaᠠhLtoTRkwᠠ[PhsRL, 2012, ⺆232–
255]. no輈zw /ጛЛTDhw Ω-kToTRN viaရDgv
LomᄜToabTzN cDhK”os―hihseVࠜgDb ᜑ
cwhᨬ–c輘UR脠᪆hᔈhiᬠToeCThtᰠwcDhKᠠ
[Less Wrong, 2006]⸠ЭDᄠVLRcw造Vᰎihav4\f
БࠑБkᄗhioDb‑gᴘGcࠑv (biases)‚)VLh
mcggc‗᠕geGKᬈRN“‚ࠛIࠛw RLc.
2oGKzN―ጛഖ4URNⁿot h‑kЛࠛTR4
Ω-kToTRʆ騠/DᰠEhacᬠshwVosDThc, \bc
VLhDᄚhLcCᄚhc‑)Vhገhc“VRgoࠑc ᄗo
Vh―᜘iࠛTR4―)VLcKzഖURw“VᄕoTᄛw.
BLetov₭hLwe጑Lhiᴘ \roࠈhth Lᄈmᄁo
KoTᠠB⺆%RabEcᜌhw㨠«5ToCcTRᬠToeCThN
LoEhDz hGࠜ‑คcᜑDb Rgጜw LcKz
KeURS eE጑ᴘmᄂ, Dcࠑc”hDhLzS―Do
ThiRDgv ᬈe輈zw hgጛ₌DhN‗᠆hDz»
[mRD⸠Vh㨠ycNtcEoe/L, 1968Ⱐg. 147]⸠ТᰠcgDb
ᴘGK适 \bhi适 \boeC࢐N‗ckeጋDoD \rhaGcT
ghsLoUoDଠkoDLoD造TᠠᰎToshwacTRᬠᖆVLc
KzKeUᄄR“EhEUcࠈ逄R‚)VhaeCcࠈhw
(osDc \boeC࢐Б‗ckeጋDoDoБ–REh―hsLo
UoDଠToIᄠeᔑaRဠVᰠVhaeCcTR耠(osDhi
TcVhᔗcകDicTTᰠRภVLRLhKz⸠MภKoTThN
(hᜄeaRLh᨝R hGࠜ‚zicgDR”ᜑDcᜑN
hmcTᴑ ToeCࠜN LckeabఘDRᨈhgDR sos CRg
aᰠ(osDhᨬ ᠠshDhLhᬠghsLoUocDgဠജgDeV
Vᜑ‎ToshwgDic―)KoTTzw‗ckeabఘDhw.
2hgicࠈ适 hᴘkoDcጋ, KhgDᄉocҐN LR
VeE጑ᴘmᄑ‗ckeጋDoDo‑)Vhkihav4Uᄂ―e
KRDଠᰠgDcVcTᄠghsLo鴛TRဠCRgaᠠ(osDhᨬ
/Dh CRgጜ mRDRLhioTRN KoTࠜth KhsewcTఘ
soᴠ᪆(hLwᬠmRDoD, Doᴠᆆ᪆(hLwᬠesokoTRN
TᠠhE鴛RkicgDTzȠ(osD.
dLᄠLogᔄhDLcTRᄠihVLhgᠠVLRLo鴛TRဠ
λ-kToࠑN \beGTh LᄈvDb‚h‚ࠑwoࠑc, Dh
᜘kT逛 \boeCT逛 \boV᜘iጛTRv hLhGKo4D
Lok࢐c \rRgmᄁ጑࢐₧-kToࠑN.₉oREhacc
᜘gVLhgD᜘ࠛTT逛₧-kToTRv LcKgDoiav4D
R࢏ᬈᬗT逛‑)ЛKRmRࠕsᄛ \rᄕmRVaRTz.
n)KoጋTcɿcw LR“VRgoࠑR₧-kToࠑN e
KeఠVLRihKRDbgဠVLRwcL造RภhEaogDᄠRT
GᬈᬗThth‎ToTRv, cviTh‗᠕VLhgD᜘Tv4
URᬠhVRᖐiocwzᬠhghEcTThgDᄠTᠠigᬠiRK造
λ-kToࠑN.₠ok጑CRc‚)KRgmᄁ጑ToS―)DhCsR
kLᬈRv \boeshЛDLRиgsᆁ‑ggጛKhioTRN
Tcge鴛gDicTTh, \foᴠsoᴠKaဠRggacജioDcaဠ
ioGTᰠVhTRwoDbⰠCDᰠλ-kToTRဠgae輘\f \raဠ
eജiacDihLcTRဠge鴛gDie4UR脠VhDLcETh
gDcN cahicᴘ.₄hmRoጋ࢐c‑)tewoࠑDoL࢐c
Toesᄠwhte\f TosaoKzioDଠᔚhᄠhghEcTThgDᄠ
Tᠠλ-kToTRvⰠEokRLe4URcgဠTᠠTRS⸠ЭDᄠhgh
EcTThgDᄠTchEShKRwᰠeCRDzioDଠVLᄠToesh
ЛDLRиgsᆁ‑ggጛKhioTRvS \roTT邁 \boeᴮ
n LhDRihVhጜGࠜgDb \boeCࠜwe‑TGc
TcLTzȠwcDhഠsoᴠᔁhghؠToshVacTRဠᆆhE
Lo鴛TRဠkToTRȠhᔈhio\b \bᠠRᔁhabkhioTRᄠ
«Lc贛VDh᪻)騠/iLRgDRᴠsoᴠᔁhghEᠠLcIc
TRဠkoKoCᄬ”htKᠠToesᠠTᬠVLcകDoiRaᠠDc
hLR4ⰠhEcᔁcCRio4Ue耠EzgDLhᬠᆆDhCThᬠ
L᭿ᬈᄛ‎oKoCR [Koen, 2003].‏࢏ᬈᬗ \rha
GcࠠLcIoDଠkoKoCe, \bᬠജGRKovᔋⰠVhsᠠTo
esᠠVLcജgDoiRఠLokiRDe耠DchLR4⸠dhsoko
DcጛT VLRЛL (᜘T贖kgsᆁ eиT邁, shDhL逛
᜘k᜘EoDzioaR LcKgDoiጛTᄛ“)ghVLhDRi
acTRᄠwoDcLRoahᨬ‘)᪆/DᰠiLcwဠoTtaRN
ᔝRᬠRTGcTcL造gDLhRaᄠiᰠФLoTmRᄠwhgD造
(CogDଠ/DR脠whgDhᨠ/sᔁaeoDRLecDgဠKᰠᔑ脠
VhL, LhNKv Lhiᬗse‚Lᬄᬈᬄ).
訑sጠhELoDThȠᔚvkᄠkowzsocDgဠVᰠaR
ࠑR“D₧-kToࠑv cLck‑kwcLRDcጋ࢐c‑T
gDLewcTD造ᶆΩ-kToTRvЬ Dᰠ᪆DchLRᄠhEc
gěCRi᠛D EcgshࠛCThc LR᜘Uᬈᄛ \boeC
࢐S‎ToࠑN (VhKhE࢐c₍ᄝ᎐ \bok通o而gv
egRaRio肝RwR) cLck‗oบRDRc \fc脈hጜtRN
R)᜘k᜘EhDse‚gc hጛc―hiᬗ缛TT邁‑kЛ
LRDcabTz脠VLREhLhi⸠ᦆhEaogDᄠഛNgDiRဠ
KoTThtᰠeᔑaRio4鴛tᰠmRsaᠠLokaRCRဠ
wcGKe‑TGcTcL࢐Б‑)ToeC࢐Б cDhKoБ
gDRLo4DgvⰠᆆVLh贛gᖐ‑ggacജioTRȠᆆLok
LoEhDhᴠTᬠwhte\f EzDଠToഛGTᰠLokഛacT造
Kaဠ贛acȠgEhLᠠgDoDRgDRsR⸠dh/Dhwe, \bo
VLRwcLⰠVLᄠgEhLᬠgDoDRgDRCcᔝR脠KoTTz脠
ᲆToesᬠᆆDcSThahtRRⰠRภhE鴛tᰠhEъcwᠠ
Mr2ꀠTᬠwhteఠEzDଠizഛacT造hEъcw造
(ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑv \fhጋsh \bo \boese.
rghEcTThgDଠsoᴠΩ-kToTRȬ‌oᴠᆆλ-kToTRȠ
i)Dhw, DᰠജgDeĠᶆTRРTciᰎwhGcࠠEcภa4
ഛȬ”hDhLzᬠVLhIaᄠᔁcmRoabTe耠VhK
thDhisᘠᆆജgDoDhCTᰠKhatᰠVLosDRshioaR
LoEhDᘠgᰠkToTRvwR⸠Л4EhȠGcao4URȬ
VhDLoDRᨠTcshDhLhᬠiLcwဠᄬ‚ᰎwhGTh,
gewwᘠഛTctⰠᔄhGcఠVhaeCRDଠജgDeĠVLos
DRCcgᴑ s)a4EhN hVeEaRshioTࠜN gఘDbc.
rKTosᰠKaဠVhTRwoTRဠghഛLGRwhtᰠgDo
D଑ TchEShKᄄh Tc Dhጋsh EzDb kToshҐw
g)hgThi࢐Б₍RDᄗecҐБ‑gDhCࠑᴘБ,
TᰠᆆiaoഛDଠigcwᄠEokhizwᄠkToTRvwᄠVh
VLcKwcDThȠhEaogDᄬ‚)DhРCRgaᬠᆆDcwᄬ
shDhLzᬠviTᰠTᬠhDLo輘4Dgဠ᪆VRᔋwcT
࢐S‑gDhCࠑᴘS.’)cgDcgDicࠈzS \boeᴘS, h
h贛TsᬠB⸠dLoNgo, \raဠToഛGThtᰠhEhᔈh
ioࠑv LcകDoiacࠈhN‚)VeE጑ᴘmᄑ‑T
(hLwomRᄠTchEShKRwᰠVLRiacCଠ᪆ᔗcK
ࠛw 12 LcKzഖUᆁ‗᠆hD, c”hDhLzwR
TeGTᰠᰎToshwRDbgဠKaဠVhTRwoTRဠgeDR
hVeE጑shioࠈhN‗oEhDz [Price, 1975,‗.)125].
5ToCcTRᬠVeEaRsomRȠᆆgᖐahᴠ᪆VhgDLh
cTRᄠgcDᄠoLtewcTDomRᄠജgDoDhCTᰠVh
LhETᰠLogᔄhDLcTᰠ᪆aRDcLoDeLᬠ[ЛoDeL,
2013Ⱐg. 46–110].
dLᄠhEgeGഛTRᄠioGThgDᄠVhgDLhcTRဠ
ᆆVhKഛL輘TRဠgcDᄠoLtewcTDomRᄠwhGTᰠ
egazIoDb”hTD᜘LteЛTD, Dh \rav ᬝhDhL邁
hEaogDcȠToesᄠ/DᠠVLh贛KeLᠠviavcDgဠജ
gఘDhCࠜ―ጜGࠜN–REh‚hhEUc \bcihคhG
ThȠ᪆ᔑaᘠwoahtᰠCRgaᠠRggacജioDcacȬ
LoEhDo4UR脠᪆hKThȠhEaogDR⸠f⺆2haaRTภ
᪆ᔚhcРRggacജioTRᄠghmRhahtRᄠ(Rah
gh(RᄠVhsokoጬ DᰠVLh贛gᖐ‚)(Rahgh(Rᄠ
VhജET造VLh贛ggoР᪆cgDcgDicTTz脠Toeso脠
ᖆKiewဠhghEcTThgDvwᄬ”hDhLzᬠkosa4Co
4Dgဠ᪆ge鴛gDicTTᰠkowcKacTThРDcwVᬠ
LokiRDRဠᆆRThȬ cР᪆cgDcgDicTTz脠To
esoSⰠ(hLwᬠVhgDLhcTRဠgcDᄠoLtewcTDomRᄠ
[Collins, 2000Ⱐg. 65–205].
Bav hEUcgDio VeE጑ᴘmᄑ ᄉLo而 Lhጋ
iࠛITᆁ LRkToshi, hizIo4Uᆁ‖iᬗᬈ
ThgDଠ᪆DhЬ DᰠToeCToဠLoEhDᠠഛNgDiR
DcabTᰠicഛDgv, ᢆToeshwcDLRCcᔝRᬠVh
sokoDcaᄠRtLo4ఠLhaଠᔑtToahᨠhؠeLhiTᬠ
izVhaࠛTThN ᜘EhDz. rKTosh \boaRCᄛ‘L
Dc(osDhᨬ₭eTsmRဠshDhLz脠VhTvDToⰠᢆgh
ഛL輘TRᬠTcജgDeVTᰠKaဠEhabIRTgDiᠠ
T᠕cጛTRv, hGcD hLhGKoDb cKhiᬗᄛ
s)᜘EhDc eиT邁 i)KhathgLhCThN ěLgěsDR
ic⸠BaဠVLcജDiLo鴛TRဠᔈRGcTRဠജicLRဠ
goБ‖Cc࢐c LcKVLᄈᄄo而 cLz \rav h
VeavLRkomRᄠᔚhR脠ജgDRGcTRN⸠ТosRᬠwcL造
(ToVᜑwcL,―oND \boeCࠜN“ᜉoTRkomRR)‖ic
጑Cᄚo而“DsLzDhgDb‑T(hLwomᄑ“ Lh
ihKRwz脠RggacജioTRv脠ᆆToeCTz脠ജgDR
GᬈRv脮₄Tᆏᬈᄛ‖LhiTv \rhiᬗRv”)᜘EhDc
eCcTz脠᪆hE鴛gDiᬠVhDcTmRoabTᰠhVoᔈᰠ
DcЬ DᰠCogDᰠVLRihKRఠᶆghsLo鴛TR耠(R
ToࠕRLhioTRv,”hDhLhc ᬗᬗ᠕VLcKcaရD
gဠ᪆VhabkᘠKLetR脠RTDcLcghᨠhE鴛gDio⸠fc
teavDhLhР᪆eᔑaRio4鴛РmRsaᬠizgDeVoc\f
eLhicTଠLcgeLghᨬ‚zഛavcwz脠TᠠVhKഛL
GoTᄛ ᄕጛTThgDR‖иT邁‑)R࢏ᬈᬗhi.
ᤠλ-kToTRv脠ge鴛gDiecఠoToahtRCToဠᔑ
DeomRဠᖆജgDeVhРᶆTRЬ ᖆDhȠaRIଠLokTR
贛Ȭ DᰠTᬠDLcEecDgဠhEcᔁcCRioDଠജgDeV
ThgDଠജsewcTDomRᄠKaဠhE鴛gDioⰠᔝhLcᬠ
gDoiRDgဠ贛aଠhgahGTRDଠജgDeĠᶆDcSThah
tRCcᔝRРgcsLcDoРKaဠVhKഛL輘TRဠshT
seLcTDࠜth LcRweUcgDio.’hVLhg h᪐
IcTRဠജicLRဠᶆRTGcTcLoРsoᴠThᔑDcavР
λ-kToTRȠDhGᬠTᬠgDoiRDgv, \foᴠsoᴠizthKᠠ
hD‚ጜGcTRN‚)Dc脈hጜtR4‚cᜑ(RmRLecDgv
ge鴛gDicTTᰠVLh鴛ⰠCcР᪆Toese.
2htKᠠw造hEgeGKocРeLhicTଠΩ-kToTRȠ
᪆hE鴛gDicⰠw造ജaGT造gcEᬠhDKoioDଠhDCc\f
᪆DhЬ Dᰠ/DᰠDhabsᰠDᬠkToTRvⰠജgDeĠᶆsh
DhLzw h輈h haeCRDb ᬗck‖иT邁.—DЛ
DRЬ DhⰠVᰠh贛TsᬠB⸠dLoNgoⰠVhLvKsᠠ1ゆ%
gDoDcȠTᬠCRDo4DgဠTRscЬ”LhwᬠoiDhLhᨠ
[Price, 1986ⰠL. 108]⸠yRsoshȠDLotcKRᄠ᪆DhЬ
CDᰠCogDଠRT(hLwomRᄠTᬠihgDLcEecDgဠeCc
Tzwᄬ cD⸠rKTosᰠTchEShKRwᰠVhwTRDbⰠCDᰠ
KoGᬠcgaᄠLckeabDoD造TcshDhLz脠Rggacജ
ioࠑN‎o(ᄝgᄗhio࢐‚)iRKc eE጑ᴘmᄑ
ᆆ/DᄠVeEaRsomRᄠജgDeVT逬 DᰠTc\f toLoT
DRȬ DᰠKaဠRᔁhabkhioTRဠhDLoGcTThtᰠ
᪆gDoDbv脠kToTRဠTᬠVhToജERDgဠiLcwcTᄬ
ᔚcL脠TchEShKRwhtᰠKaဠCDcTRဠᆆVhTRwo
TRဠToVRgoTThtᰠ᪆LoEhDoS.
lgaᄠKaဠജgDeVᠠᶆΩ-kToTRvРDLcEe4D
gဠeCcTzc, \fᰠsoᴠTᠠR脠hᔈhiᬠRTGcTcLz
(VLosDRᴑ) hteD―VhghEgDihioDb‗hgDe
λ-kToࠑN?‟ᄗ‖Cc࢐S‑)БL‑TGcTcLhi
TᬠRkhaRLhioT造KLeठh\f \rLetoⰠᢆiᰎwhG
ࠜgDb―(hᜄeaRLhioDb‚hVLhg‑)VhTvDb
hDicD \t᠗᠈DRLecDgv“ڝcN“ؗokhi᠌cab
ࠜN EokhN. Bav ghkKoTRv‑TࠜiomᄜTTzS
Dc脈hጜtRCcgᴑS‗cIcTRN hKthDh᨝e‑T
Gᬈᬗhi chEShKRwh LhihKRDb―hiЛgD
Th―)VhKthDhishN eKeUᆁ‖иT邁.ₛLR‑k
CcD逗cS‘iDhLhi,”hDhLzc“VeE጑shio጑
hKTᘠRaᄠKiᬠLoEhD造᪆cgDcgDicTTz脠ToesoS
R)ࠛ LhKhᎏRaR‚)KoabࠛN缛w”oLbᬗe
eиThth,―shLcc‚zER᜘4D”oLbᬗe‑࢏c
TcLᠠ(hEgeGഛTRᬠ/Dhtᰠ(osDᠠᔄ⸠LoTcc
i)taoic).₄hiЛgDT᠐ hKthDhiso‖иT邁
R)R࢏ᬈᬗhi R)ihiጛиTᄛ‑S i)ToeCTzN
VLh贛gᔠtoLoTDRLecDⰠCDᰠizVeᔝTRsRⰠiz
E᜘iIᄛ‑࢏ᬈᬗTe4”oLbᬗe, eഖD c
DhabsᰠaeCIᬠVhTRwoDଠvkzᴠToesᄠᆆEeKeD
ᔁhghET造CRDoDଠToeCTzᬠLoEhD逬 ᰠᆆTo
VLosDRsᬠVhaeCoఠVLcകDoiacTRဠᰠLckeab
DoDo脠ToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄬ‚)shDhLhȠeCo
gDihioaR‚)soCcgDic hМUTRshi.‒LcKVh
ahGcTRᬠᰠDhЬ DᰠeTRicLᔑDcDⰠ᪆shDhLhw
i送hገv而gv \boeC࢐c‑ggacKhioࠑာ h
บhavcD \boRaeCIRw“ELokhw hKthDhᨑDb
izVeᔝTRshᨠᶆVLosDRCcᔝhȠഛvDcabThgDᄬ
acGRఠ᪆hᔈhiᬠDhthⰠCDᰠwThtRᬠRTKRso
DhL造LcNDRTthᨠiekhᨠviav4Dgဠh贛TshN
eLhiTv‑ЛTTh ToeCT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN (hE
geGഛTRᬠLcNDRTthᨠᔄ. ᪆CogDᄠ3.12. Mg
VhabkhioTRc REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑS \roTTzS
VLR hgDLhcࠑR‗cNDᄈthi‚ekhi‑)ToeC࢐S
hLtoࠑkomᄂ).
BhaGT造aᄠigᬠiek造hEvkoDcabTᰠicgDR
ToeCTe4‗᠆hDe,‚zVegs᠐―ěmRoaᄕDhi
izghshtᰠsoCcgDio㼠rDicDⰠᔝhLcc, \bcD, \bc
KhaG࢐.ₛhጋsh hLvKᴘ 175‖ࠑicLgRDcDhi
ᨠ9ШḠviav4DgဠRggacജioDcabᔝRwᄠ[fh
khiᔝ, 1995]⸠.4KGcD造RggacജioDcabᔝRS
eࠑicLgRDcDhi―eUcgDicࠈh hጋIc, cw
i)iekoS,”hDhLzc‎oࠑwo而gv \fhጋsh Lc
VhKoioTᄛw.—Diᬃ᠐ \bo hgDoiጛTTzN‚h
VLhgⰠwhGTᰠVLcKVhahGRDbⰠCDᰠTcshDhLhc
iLcwဠKhgDoDhCTᰠghᔗcജDhCRDbgဠDhabsh
TᠠizVeᔝᬠVLosDRshᨬ TᬠLokiRioဠ᪆iekoS
Toesᘠᆆ/shThwဠഛTbtR. rKTosᰠTcRkEcG
ࠜ \bogDeVocD hwcTD,”htKo‖LhicTb‎ToTRN
VLᬁhKoioDcጛN‚)iekoS \b᠕Dhabsh“DgD᠛D
h\f \fcse鴛tᰠeLhiTဠLokiRDRဠToesᄬ Dh
eLhiᬈb V᜘sDRshi i)gD᜘ࠛ gDoThiRDgv ࠛ
shࠝeLcTD࢐w h―LoiTcࠑ4―)LokiRD逄R
gDLoToБ ᄗo.
rDwcDRЬ Dᰠc鴛“KRࠠoLtewcTఠ᪆Vhabke
RggacജioDcabᔝR脠eTRicLᔑDcDhᨠghgDhRD
ᨠDhЬ DᰠR脠izVeᔝTRsᄠviav4DgဠaeCIRw
soToጜw \fLoTg(cLo \fc脈hጜtRN.ₗDh―iv
koTᰠᖆDcЬ DᰠhTᄠTᬠhDvth鴛T造tLekhw
ge鴛gDie4UR脠᪆VLosDRsᬠVLcKgDoiacTRȬ
ᢆVhaeCRaᄠkToTRဠᲆVcLcKhiz脠Rggacജ
ioTRvSⰠshDhLzᬠEeKeఠജgDeVT造᪆VLosDR
sᬠeGᬠVhgaᬠDhthⰠsoᴠizVeᔝTRsᄠToCTeD
ᔚh耠VLosDRCcᔝe耠ഛvDcabThgDb⸠9aoEzw
wcgDhРRggacKhioDcabᔝR脠RTgDRDeDhᨬ c
icKeURS hKजజise―DeKcTజi,‐iavcకv
DhⰠCDᰠKaဠihVah鴛TRဠR脠LckeabDoDhi
᪆VLosDRsᘠDLcEecDgဠghഛL輘DଠgDLesDeLe,
koࠑwo4Ue4gv LᄝaoK࢐Б‑)hVzDTh-
shTgDLesDhLᔝRwᄠLoEhDowᄬ‘)/DᰠkowcK
aရD ᜘sDRиgshc LRЛࠛTᄛ \boeCT邁
LckeabఘDhi.
锌h‐iaရDgv“t᜘TRCRDcጛw‗hgDo‎To
TRȠ᪆whഛaᄠᔚvkᄠToeCThtᰠᆆDcSTRCc
ᔝhtᰠVLh贛gghᨠ⠗Rg. 1)㼠ЭDᰠcgDcgDicTTov
eEzaଠeCcTz脠ᆆVLosDRshi⸠lgaᄠghhDicD
gDie4UoဠhEaogDଠkToTRȠTᬠToShKRDgv
᪆hEaogDᄠiTRwoTRဠeCcTz脠ᆆVLosDRshᨬ
DᰠᖆeDLoDhȠRggacജioDcacȠR/RaᄠRTGc
TcLhᨠcgDଠLRᔝ zgDLᰠTᬠihggDoThiRDb
eLhicTଠiaoഛTRဠkToTRvwᄬ‑)CogDᰠ贛To
ihggDoThiacTRဠEeഛఠge鴛gDicTThN⸠fR
ᔝᄠeDLoD造kToTRȠgDoaᄠkToCRw造ᶆshTme
X
)i.ⰠigacകDiRᬠDhtᰠCDᰠmRsa造GRkTR
oᜌc(osDhᨬ haeCcTTz脠᪆VLh贛ggᬠVLR
wcTcࠑv₧-kToࠑN,―Do጑―hVhgDoiᄄz
g)VLhKhᎏRDcabThgDb4 cahiᬃcgshN₏Rk
TR. nᰠiLcksᬠVLRicഛT造VLRwcL造eDLoDz
kToTRȬ LRCcРioGTᰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠTR
᪆hKThРgaeCoᬠeDLoDᠠTᬠEzaᠠ(oDoab
ࠜN.₄aeCoN―)soRࠜihN”RgጜDhN―shLcc
RaᎀgDLᄗecD LᄄcL‖DLoDz‎ToࠑN‚)hL
toTRkomRvSⰠRwc4UR脠ജgDeĠᶆRgShKThwe
ᖐLb4ⰠRภshDhLhtᰠVLhRkihKRagဠVLhKesD,
hKTosᰠRkഛLGsᄠigc脠eCogDTRshᨠVLh贛g
go Tc gDoThivకv ᰌ 谌hज wcTbIᬮ PhGTh
aᄠᔗcകDiowᄠToeshwcDLRᄠizviavDଠhE
aogDᄠᖆLRᔝhРeDLoD造kToTRN㼠rDicಆ—
TcDⰠwhGTᰠDhabsᰠizviRDଠhEaogDᄬ”hDh
L逛 Lᬝ᜘DRaR‗okiRioDbgv”os \boeCT逛
KRᖍRVaRT逬 TᰠEcภ/sᔁcᜌhᨠhVLcഛaRDb
VLRCRTe Lᬝ᜘UᬈRv‗okiRDRv ᜘sDR
CcᔝᄠTciᰎwhGTh⸠ᦆᔚvkᄠᖆ/DRРTeGTh
hDwcDRDb \rio hwcTఘ: hKhETzN hTR
DhLRTt―)VLRiጛиTᄛw₌sgěLDhi za z
hCcTଠജLhtRР(Doᴠsoᴠ/sᔁcᜌ造izsa4
Co4DgဠRภVLh贛ggᠠVLhRkihകDiᠠThizS
จoTRN);”Lᰄc \fhth, hTRDhᜑTt \bc oLoT
DRLecఠVhaThD造ToShGഛTRဠigc脠gaeCoci
VhDcࢍRoጋThN‖DLoDz‎ToࠑN.
lgaᄠ᪆hDഛabThȠgDLoTᬠigacകDiRᬠeEz
጑‖Cc࢐S‑጑ LosDᄝhi‖DcLv࢐“DKcጋ
TzᬠhEaogDᄠkToTRȬ‌ᰠigctKᠠcgDଠiᰎwhG
ThgDb LRiጛCb \be輈hth―ěmRoaᄕDo‑k-ko
s਄ࠏkOI‐wD܏bO
ₚ ᄜጜtRиgᴑ‘sDRᨈhc‚ᮝcgDih,‚zKcaᬈࠜc‑k hLgᴑS‚hKhLhgaᬂ
Digeneasimple砠vVhTgsRwᄠRggacKhioDcavwᄠS. Murakami, T. Takemoto  Z. Shimizu  1953 \t. [Nitta,
1958]. Digeneasimple砠RgVhabkecDgဠᨠDLoKRmRhTThȠvVhTgshȠwcKRmRTc⸠yokioTRᬠsRgahDᠠVh
aeCRጘ“ఠvVhTgshtᰠgahiᠠKainins漠騠VLRkLoᴠwhLv. „ 1970-脠tt⸠sRgahDᠠIRLhsᰠRgVhabkecDgဠ
᪆TcNLhERhahtRᄠsoᴠosDRioDhᜠhVLcKcacTThtᰠDRVᠠtaeDoИDTz脠LcmcVDhLhᨠ[Kainic acid, 2014].
ХRwRCcgsoဠgDLesDeLᠠsRgahD造VLRicKc࠘ ᠠLRg. 2.
ᤠshTmᬠ1990-脠tt. soRThioဠsRgahDᠠ࠘Coጘ RgCc
koDଠRภsoDoahthᨠigc脠(RLw-VhgDoiURshiⰠᠠshtKᠠ
gThiᠠVhviRጘgଠᨠsoDoahtoS, \fᰠgDoጘ―DhRDଠk࠘CR
DcabTᰠKhLhGᬠ[Kainic acid, 2014]⸠rsokoahgbⰠCDᰠiTᬠ
koiRgRwhgDᄠh\f /DRscDhᴠigᬠwRLhizᬠkoVog造soR࠘Dᠠ
VLhRkihKRጠTcsRȠvVhTcmⰠshDhLzȠeIcጠ࠘ cTgR4,
ᆆgVhghؠizKcacTRဠsoR࠘DᠠRภihKhLhgacȠᨠVLh
wzIacTThРИgIDoEᬠEzጠeDcLvT⸠dLhIaᰠTcgshabsᰠ
acD, VLcGKᬠCcР(RLw造gDoaᄠVLhRkihKRDଠgRTDcDR
CcgsRȠsoR࠘DⰠshDhLzȠEzጠk࠘CRDcabTᰠKhLhGᬠiz
KcacTThtᰠRภihKhLhgacȠ[Idelsong, 2009].
sMtGMऊ଄kTOI₏OV缋E ‏UऊଈOI‐MࠋऊUOTK\n.

ᤠshTmᬠ2011 \t. ᨠgcDᄠMTDcLTcఠEzጠhVeEaRshioࠠoTh
ࠑЈ适 \fcsgD,“VRg通o4Uᄂ‖DcL4”hTgDLesDhLgshN
KhsewcTDomRᄠ࠘ c(DcSRwRCcgsRȠkoihKⰠVhgDLhcT
TzȠᨠ࠘Coaᬠ1980-脠tt. [Institutional memory…, 2011].
5oihഠigᬠiLcwဠKᰠ࠘VRgoTRဠDcsgDᠠLoEhDoaⰠVLhEacИ‚hkTRsጘ‚‌hఠwhwcTDⰠshtKᠠEzaᰠVLR
TvDᰠLcIcTRᬠᰠctᰠwhKcLTRkomRR.  DcsgDᬠhVRgoT造DLᄠgDhLhT造VLhEacwz㨠(RkRCcgsoဠeDLoDᠠ
KhseЛTDomRR (i \fhw ᄕጛ‑‚₌ጛsDLhTThw‚RKc); cVhaThc“D᜘GcTᄛ‚ \rhseЛTDomRR‑T(hL
ИmRᄠᰠVLRTvDz脠VLᄠVLhcsDRLhioTRᄠLcIcTRv脠ᄠhtLoTRCcT࠘ဠKhgDeVThgDଠgVcmᄘaRgDhi,
shDhLzᬠwhteఠVᰠLoEhDo4UcwᘠkoihKᘠihggDoThiRDଠVLhcsDTe耠KhsewcTDomR4, \bchEShKRwe耠
Kav‛th‗cshࠕDLesmRR.
fRg. 2⸠ХRwRCcgsoဠ
DLesDeLᠠ
soRࠜihN ᴑgጜDz
tLoTRmz⸠Baဠ/DhtᰠജgDoDhCTᰠVhKഛLGR
ioDଠiTeDLᄠgDLoT造TchEShKRwhᬠCRgaᰠ/sg
Vcᜌhᨬ”hDhLzᬠwhteఠRഛTDR(RmRLhioDb
ThᔑDcaဠDLcEecwz脠kToTRN⸠rKTosᰠ/DᰠTc
igctKo‚hคhGࠜ”os h₌shࠜwRCcgᴑw,
DoᴠᆆVᰠVhaRDRCcᔝRРVLRCRTow⸠dh/Dh
wᘠ᪆gDLoTᬠജaGcࠠVhKഛLGRioDbgဠsos
Бࠑwew‖Lhicࠋ‚aoKcࠑv‚gcБ‚RKoБ
kToTRȬ”hDhLzᬠTchEShKRw造KaဠihᔁLh
RบhKgDio”ᜑDRCcgᴑS \fc脈hጜtRN.‟osgR
weРeCcTz脠ᆆVLosDRshᨠhVLcഛavcDgဠᔝh
LcᬠiᰎwhGThgDb耠ᔑgDcw造hELokhioTRv
ihgVLhRบhKRDb”oKថ‑)ihคhGࠜgDb4
谝hࠜwRᴑ hKKcLGRioDb Lhmcgg‚hgVLh
ᄎiᰍgచo‎ToTRN.
1.3⸠ᮠKBlIBВԠtBDRtDf
BaဠghgDoiacTRဠh贛TsᄠToeCThȠഛv
DcabThgDᄠVhwRwᰠ/sᔁcᜌTz脠ᄠToeshwc
DLRCcᔝR脠h贛ThsⰠhᔈhioTTz脠TᠠEREaR
hwcDᜑCcgᴑS hsokoDcaႁ, \bchEShKRМ
eCRDzioDbⰠsosRᬠLcgeLᖐ‚zഛavaRᔋ Tᠠ
VLhicഛTRᬠRggacKhioTRȠᄠᔝhabsᰠa4ഛȠ
LoEhఘጜ \bo haeCcTRc‗ckeabఘఘ.
r贛TRЬ”oᴠwThtᰠKcTcठizഛavcDgv
TᠠVLhicഛTRᬠToeCTz脠RggacജioTRN.
ꀘggwhDLcࠑc‗cgeLghi“tLoࠑCᄚocDgာ
ᴘs VLoiRah, Dhጋsh₭ᄈoTghi逄R Vhᴘ
koDcavwR. ЭDᰠᔚvkoTᰠᖆTcജgDeVThgDb4
ᄈ(hLwomᄑ“ oDcLRoጋTh-DcSࠑCcgshw
hEcgěиTRR ToeCT邁
gጛKhioTRN To
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ꀑᔮ″⸠f᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠKh጑₭ᄈ᠈ᔑ᜜ᨘࠑဠ褏ᒂꀠĜ“DKcጋ࢐Рᔌ᜘࠘Р
ᄠDᬄ᠌ᄝ᠄‚′011 \t⸠⠑ᔌᰃࠑᴺ⁛OECD, 2012])
eLhiTᬠVhKoiav4鴛tᰠEhabIRTgDiᠠgDLo\b,
ToVLRwcLⰠcᬠTcఠ᪆gDoDRgDRCcᔝR脠gEhL
ࠑᴘS OECD [OECD, 2014].’)gEhLࠑᴘS \bo
eLhiࠛ ᬝhDhL邁―D᜘T hKhET᠐‑T(hL
womRဠജgDeVTo⸠yoVLRwcLⰠഛDoabToဠRT
(hLwomRဠᰠLcgeLgoSⰠ(RToTghiz脠ᆆhEh
LeKhioࠑာ LᄚacᴘcҐS \rav‚送hገcࠑv
ToeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠ᪆ieko脠ᆆToeCTzS
hLtoࠑkomRvS‟ᄈRgDcLgDio“ELokhioࠑv
ᄠToesRⰠghERLocDgဠ9cicLh-5oVoKTzw
ToeCTh-wcDhKRCcᔝRР贛TDLhР(95yP1)
VLᄠ9dE%ЭТਠ«ЛЭТM묠Rw⺆n⺆M⺆OabvThio
(ЛcTRTo⤠ᆆVeEaRsecDgဠcGcthKTᰠ᪆(hLwc
gDoDRgDRCcᔝR脠gEhLTRshi⸠ᦆ/DR脠gEhLTR
ᴘS eE጑se而gာ \boVLᄄcL, hᴘkoDc጑,
otLctᄗhioࠈzc h‚gcw‚ekow―DLo࢐
[yoeC࢐N hDcࢍRoa‚ekhi‑)ToeC࢐S…,
2014]ⰠᢆDosGᬠജgDeVT造hDഛabTzᬠiz
VeᔝᄠVᰠsoGജwᘠ(cഛLoabThwᘠhsLete
ᖆRT(hLwomRcȠVᰠsoGജwᘠieke⸠BaဠhL
toTRkomRȠfu褠VhജEToဠRT(hLwomRv
ജgDeVTᠠ᪆RkKoTRv脠MTgDRDeDᠠVLhEacw
LoบRDRv \boeᴑ₠ẉ
yᠠLRg. 3 LRicഛTᰠLoᔁLcഛacTRc
ജaᄠhఠE4KGcDᠠTᠠyMr2ꀠ᪆TcshDhLzS
gDLoTo脠wRLᠠ᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠh\f \fcwoDRsR
Vh \roࠈ逄 OECD [OECD, 2012]. oࠈzc h
ഗeऑw―గoTow‑)VcLRᰍow hteD zఋ
VhaeCcTz Rk జज Gc RgజCTRso, sᰌhLzN
Lcteavᜈh“EࠜiavcDgv.’oGࠜ, Dh LcK
gDoiጛTT᠐―DoDᄕDRso c‖CRDzi᠛D \rc
ጛTᄛ \bo‑ggጛKhioTRv‑)᜘k᜘EhDsR, Dh
viavcDgဠLckeabDoDhРgahGThgDᄠgᰎKo
TRဠᆆRᔁhabkhioTRဠwcDhKRsᄠLokഛac
TRv \bo ᄕD逛‑ggጛKhioTRv‑)᜘k᜘EhDse
i)a4EhN₉༔2f.ₛcИDRsR₉༔2f”ጘg
gR(ᆍᄗhio࢐ Vh IcgDR ToVLoiacࠑvw:
cgDcgDiᬈT逛, \fcSTRиgsᄛ, cKRmRࠕsᄛ,
gcጋgshShkvNgDicࠈzc,―hmRoጋ࢐c‑)te
woTRDoLT逛.₠᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ \bo \rRot᜘wЛ
http://www.issras.ru/
1 Natural
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ꀑᔮ‴⸠f᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠVeE጑sᢍᄂ‚gc脠ᔌ᜘ࠠธ ᬗᄜ\r 20ㄱ–2013 \t\t⸠Ĝ‌ᬄ᠌ᄝ᠄⁏ECD.
༕Dᰃࠑᴺ⁉湃楴es, Thomson Reuters (2012)
(Data Processed: March 31, 2014. Data Source: Web of Scienc攠99)
RЛcD‐iTh‚z᜘GᬈThc―ЛUᬈᄛ‗᠕Sh
ജᨠ᪆hEaogDଠcgDcgDicTTz脠ᆆDcSTRCcᔝRS
yMr2f. ᦆᔗcKTcРVᰠwRLᘠLogShK造DosGc
gЛUᬈz‚)hEa᠕Db cKRmRࠕsᆁ‑ggጛ
ജioTRȬ ᰠ᪆EhabIcȠgDcVcTᄠᔄc鴛TRc
hEcgěиTh‎o―иD‗᠕ShKhi“DKcabT邁
LokiRDz脠gDLoࠬ LcGഛ‚gctᰠ9Шu.
lgaᄠw造VhᔄhDLRРTᠠLoᔁLcഛacTRᬠ
Kh጑ eE጑ᴘmᄂ h \fcwoDᄝow OECD‎o
2011–201㎆tt⸠⠗Rg⺆4), \fᰠeiRKRРVhiDhLcTRᬠ
ᴘLDᄈz‗ogVLcKcacࠑv₭ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑv
g)VhV᜘ishN To ЛKRmRࠕsᄛ ᄕgጛKhio
ࠑv.’zEhL cLRhKo‘tLctᄗhioࠑv \roࠈzS
᪆DLᄠthKᠠToCRToဠᖆ201ㆆt⸠hVLcഛavcDgဠ
DcЬ Dᰠ(RToTᔑLhioTRᬠ201ㆆt⸠iaRvc\f \bᠠ
CRgaᰠVeEaRsomRȠᖆkoഛLGshN⸠2hLLcsDTcᬠ
EzaᰠE造ghVhgDoiRDଠ(RToTᔑLhioTRᬠᆆVe
E጑ᴘmᄑ‎o hacc \r጑ࠈ适‑TDcLioa‚Lc
ЛTR, \bh”oLDRTo‗᠕VLcKcጛTRv c ᬈရD
gဠTᠠVLhDvGcTRᄠVhgacKTR脠30–4ゆacD.
n ᬄ LRCRTo ᬗoiThЛLThgDR‗᠕VLc
KcጛTRv₭RToࠕRLhioTRv?’h-ěLi邁,‗ok
TzᬠgDLoT造ᔁcmRoaRkRLe4DgဠTᠠDc脠Dcwo
DᄝoS,”hDhLzc \ro而 osgᄄoጋ࢐N‚saoK
i)L᭿ᬈᄛ‎oKoC, \boREhጛc‚hgDLcEhioTT邁
᪆/shThwRsᬠgDLoTz⸠yoVLRwcLⰠТeLmRဠhD
KocD―eUcgDicࠈh hጋ缑N LRhLRDcD‑g
gacജioTRvР᪆gcabᔝhРSᰎvNgDicⰠCcР
ЛKRmRࠛ.₇輈᠐₂hLcv“gThiT逛‗cgeL
gz‚saoKzi᠛D‚)R࢏ᬈᬗT逛₉Mr芠.’h-
iDhL邁,―KiRt‚)ěLi逛 \fLR \fᬄoDRиgsᄛ
hEaogDᄠhVLcഛavcDgဠDcЬ Dᰠ᪆soGKhȠ
RภTR脠Rwc4DgဠgDLesDeL逬”hT贛TDLRLe4
URᬠge鴛gDicTTzᬠ(RToTghizᬠLcgeLᖐⰠ
ᆆge鴛gDiec\f \fLoKRmRဠisaoKzioDଠ(R
ToTᖐ‚)VhaeCcTRᬠToeCThtᰠLckeabDoDᠠ
ꀑᔮ‵⸠f᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠธగ᠌‗cgᘗgᰚ ᠠ᪐Ĝገᬈᄛ₉༔芠⸠訑괗造ᰎ̘࠘4ఠᘗᰚᬈଠthDᰚࠜᔌᄠ
Dc脈hጜऑᄠTRL.  ጜsᬠFunders ᠎᠈ᰠ᜘ᔁ᜛Kcጛࠑᬠ‑ᔌᰃࠑsᰚ₭ᄈ᠈ᔑ᜜ᨘࠑဠĜ―ᬝDᰗ᠄
谝ᰈᰄᄝᄮ’ ጜsᬠPerformers ᠎᠈ᰠ᜘ᔁ᜛KcጛࠑᬠᄕĜገᄌcጛ�†
༓ᎀᔌ᜘贑ဠᄎ㨠http://wp.iˆ.uzh.ch/leitner/?p=346
15
Распределение
затрат
ресурсов
выполнение
Цифры
уровень
TRL.
распределение
Performers
указано
: http:CCwp.ifi.uzh.chCleitnerC?p 346
видимого
результата
научной
публикации
нужно
выбирать
выбирают
пять
какой
разные
курсы
также
уровни
разных
межстрановых
использует
курс
национальных
доллару
паритету
покупательной
способности
соотношению
суммы
которую
необходимо
набор
Результаты
расчета
период
приведены
табл
. 1.
таблице
значение
всем
OECD.
Отметим
расходы
вузах
аналогичной
оцениваются
50
150
. PPP $,
объясняется
исследованиях
разработке
высокая
публикации
объясняется
большей
расходов
разработки
исследования
1
Стоимость
публикации
PPP $*
2000–
2004
2001–
2005
2002–
2006
2003–
2007
2004–
2008
2005–
2009
2006–
2010
2007–
2011
2008–
2012
342,1 351,9358,9362,1365,2366,2359,6 349,7337,8
597,4 607,3609,6609,7613,5622,5631,4 639,3645,1

НИР
науки
. Thomson Reuters, 2013.
�hgacKe4鴛ȠhDKoCcȠ᪆VLosDRCcᔝhȠ
KcvDcጋThgDR. av‛gDcgDicࠈzS‑)DcSࠑCc
ᔝR脠yMr2ꀠDosRwᄠgDLesDeLowᄠviav4Dgဠ
thgeKo᜕Dih,“؛gVcCRio4Ucc“؜᜜ThgVh
ghEThgDଠᆆEckhVoᔈhgDଠgDLoT逬‘)DosGᬠ
VLhwzIጛTThgDb, ᄕVhabke4U᠐ VhaeиT
࢐c‗ckeጋDoDz \rav―hkKoࠑv‑ࠈhiomRhT
Tz脠VLhKesDhi⸠nhVLhᖐ‗oᔁLcഛacTRဠLc
geLghᨠജgDoDhCTᰠVhKLhETᰠLogᔄhDLcT造
᪆aRDcLoDeLᬠ[ЛoDeL, 2013Ⱐg. 261–280)].
yeGTᰠhDwcDRDb, CDh, \bcᔄhDLဠTᠠge鴛
gDiᬈT逛‎oD᜘Dz \bo₭RToࠕRLhioTᄛ c
KRmRTᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠᆆEhabIhᬠCRgaᰠ
VeEaRsomRȠ᪆KoTThȠhEaogDRⰠVLhtLcgᔠ
kഛᔋ habIᬠThᔑఠSoLosDcᜠToshVac
TRဠhDഛabTz脠«Lc贛VDh᪻⁛PhsRL, 2012,
g⺆232–255]⸠ТosGᬠTchEShKRwᰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠ
RwcTࠜ―ఘDbR h cKRsh-EᄜጜtRCcgᴑw
RggacജioTRvРghഛL輘ఠEhabIᬠigctᰠTc
icLR(ᆍᄗecҐS‑ggacKhioࠑN.
PhGcఠEzDbⰠᔄc鴛TRᬠkoDLoఠ᪆hEaogDb
DcSTRCcᔝR脠yMr2ꀠKRsDecDgဠDcЬ DᰠEhab
IoဠCogDଠkoDLoఠVhVoKoc\f \bᠠ/DoĠhVzDTh-
shࠕDLesDhLgsᆁ ᜘k᜘EhDhs? MggጛKhioTRv
Vhsokzio4DⰠCDᰠജaဠLogShKhᨠTᠠ(eTKo
wcTDoጋ࢐c‑ggacKhioࠑာ”hDhLzc \ro而
EhabIᬠigctᰠgDoDcȠ᪆ToeCTz脠GeLToaoS,
᪆gDLesDeLᬠyMr2ꀠgDoERabTᠠᆆghgDoiavcD
VhLvKsᠠ1ゆ%⸠rgDoabTzᬠLogShK造LoᔁLcഛ
av而gv cGKe LᄝaoK࢐Б‑ggacKhioࠑv
wᄠᆆLokLoEhDsowᄠ[ЛoDeL, 2013Ⱐg. 270].
ТosGc‗᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ‚zKcaရw邁‗c
geLghi‚)Dᬃᬈᄛ₏RkࠛTThth₍Rsao₉Mr芠
whGTᰠVLhRaa4gDLRLhioDଠ⠗Rg. 5)ⰠLokKc
aRᨠVcLRhഠLoEhD造VᰠeLhiTvРthDhiThgDᄠ
DcSThahtRᄠᶆRᔁhabkhioTR耠TᠠVLosDRsᬠ
2ᬋጒI 1
nb༄bఋؠMഈྭ₏RU܄vઁЄ₀ਠ輅ऄMഠภ轿ଆ ԋ‎⁐偐․*
2000–
2004
2001–
2005
200㊖
2006
2003–
2007
2004–
2008
2005–
2009
2006–
2010
200㞖
2011
2008–
2012
nc጑shELRDoࠑv
342,1
351,9358,9
362,1
365,2
366,2
359,6349,7
337,8
餗oTmRv
597,4
607,3
609,6609,7
613,5
622,5
631,4
639,3
645,1
蔛LwoTRv
682,3
695,2
713,3
730,6
753,1
771,5
791,4
811,0
828,3
--OECD
839,1853,1
866,6
887,4
909,9
924,5
932,4
935,6
934,1
蒞u
864,1
877,1
890,6
915,9
944,5
967,0
978,6
984,3
987,0
3G࠘ဠ2hLcv
973,2
942,2
933,4
956,9
976,4
983,5
993,3
996,3
991,5
fhᔕRv
483,9
544,5
621,2
706,7
784,3
887,2
971,5
1018,9
1071,6
舑DoN
1102,4
1101,2
1099,41099,5
1106,0
1141,4
1183,2
1217,7
1249,2
ЯĜTRv
1186,0
1239,1
1300,4
1375,8
1452,0
1496,1
1527,31547,6
1553,4
* dLRicKᬈz‗᠕иDz oiDh᜘, kToиTRv‖VhLvKhиTz i hLvKsc ihk᜘gDoTRv Vh VhgጛKࠛwe VvDRጛDࠛwe
VcLRhKeⰠCRgaᰠgDoDcȠhVLcKcacTᰠVᰠGlobal Comparisons. InCites, Thomson Reuters (2012). Data Processed: June
1Ⲇ2014. Data Source: Web of Scienc攠99ⰠLogShK造TᠠyMr2ꀠVᰠ[OECD, 2014].
(Technology readiness level – TRL) [Technology
readiness level, 2014]⸠yᠠLRg. 5 RKThⰠCDᰠ
T᠑Ehacc k᠌L᠌Tzc /D᠁z TogDeVᢀD Vh
gጛ₌DoVo₭eTKoЛTDoabT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN
(eLhiTᄠthDhiThgDᄠ1–2)⸠ТosGᬠTchEShKRwᰠ
hDЛDRDb, CDh /DoV (eTKoЛTDoabT邁 ᄕ
gacKhioࠑN₭ᄈoTgᄗecDgv \fhጋsh \thge
KoLgDihРsoᴠToREhacᬠLRᔝhizȠᆆᔠge鴛
gDiᬈThN‎oKᬗ輝hN‚)VhaeиTRR ᜘sDRи
gᴑS‗ckeabఘDhi.
r贛TRЬ”oᴠwThtᰠEzaᰠVhDLoCcTᰠഛTc\t
TᠠVLhRkihകDiᰠiRKRwhtᰠLckeabDoDᢆ騠To
eCThȠVeEaRsomRR⸠dLᄠh贛TsᬠTeGTᰠizER
᜘Db,‎o”oshN ᬗRhK LhicgDR‑kЛLᬈᄛ.
舘ᴠVLoiRahⰠizERLo4ఠVvDଠacఠsoᴠwR
ࠑwoጋ࢐N―Lhs,‎o”hDhL适‎oicLIo而gv
RggacജioDcabᔝRᬠVLhtLoww造ᆆᔉaoGR
io4Dgv‛gDcgDiᬈT逛‑kЛࠛTRv₭RToࠕR
LhioTRv⸠ᦆsoshȠioa4DᬠgCRDoDb㼠ᦆLokTzᬠ
thKz”eLgz‚oᎀD“D጑Co而gာ \fosGc“D጑
Co4DgဠᆆeLhiTᄠGRkTᄠ᪆LokTz脠gDLoToS.
Bav VLhicKᬈRv ЛGgD᜘Thi邁 g᜘iࠛTRN
OECD‑gVhጋkecD”eLg \bomRhToጋ࢐S‚oᎀD
ᶆജaaoLᘠ9ШḠVᰠVoLRDcDᘠVhseVoDcabThȠ
ᔁhghEThgDᄠ(PPP $)ⰠshDhLzȠLoggCRDzio
cDgဠVᰠghhDThIcTR耠gewwzⰠshDhLe耠TchE
ShKRwᰠkoVaoDRDଠkᠠhKRToshizȠToEhᜠDh
ioLhi‚)g᜘iTRi᠛w邁―D᜘To脮₠ckeabDoDz
᜘gиDo―DhRwhgDR‎o vDRጛDTRN ᬗRhK
VLRicKcT造᪆DoEa⺆1⸠rDഛabTᰠ᪆DoEaR贛‚z
ഛacTᰠkToCcTRᬠVᰠigcРgDLoToРOECD⸠rD
wcDRЬ DᰠLogShK造᪆iekoS
 h‘ToጜtRCࠜN
wcDhKRsᬠh贛TRio4Dgဠ᪆KRoVokhTᬠh\f 50 \rᰠ
150 \fzg. PPP $ⰠCDᰠhEъvᔈvcDgဠEhabIcȠgh
ᔗcജDhCcTThgDb耠iekhᨠTᠠRggacജioTRvS,
иw \bo‗ok᜘EhDso脮ₛosGc―DhRD“DЛDRDb,
CDh‚zghᴘv―DhᄄhgDb“KThN eE጑ᴘmᄑ
᪆fhgᔑᄠᆆ2RDoᬠhEъvᔈvcDgဠEhabIcȠജ
ጛN‗᠕ShKhi \bo \fcSThahtRиgsᄛ‗ok᜘EhD
sᄬ cРTᠠRggacജioTRv.
uToahtRC࢐w“ELokhw“mcࠑw”h጑CcgDih
gDoDcNⰠhVeEaRshioTTz脠TᠠhKThtᰠRggacജ
ioDcaဠ᪆DcCcTRᬠVvDᄠacD⸠fckeabDoD造h贛T
sᄠVLRicഛT造᪆DoEa. 2⸠PcDhKRsᠠLogCcDo
rDCcఠyMꀠKaဠLokLoEhDsᄠVaoTᠠLokiRDRဠToesᄠ
᪆OLФOⰠVcLizȠ/DoV. Thomson Reuters, 2013.
2ᬋጒI 2
舄ఇ༠GRU܄vઁҭ‎₏ԉЏഠ轿଄ ԋ ਠMഈ༂༠耊ࡿb༂༠ภЌఇBഏชࠄ羃
䙔E)*
*‒LRicKᬈz‗᠕иDz‘iDh᜘,‎ToиTRv‖VhLvKhиTz‚ hLvKsc‚hk᜘gDoTRv h hgጛKࠛwe vDRጛDࠛwe c
LRhKeⰠCRgaᰠgDoDcȠesokoTᰠVᰠGlobal Comparisons. InCites, Thomson Reuters (2012). Data Processed: June 1, 2014.
Data Source: Web of Scienc攠99ⰠRggacKhioDcaᄠFTE \bᠠVcLizȠthഠᨠVcLRhKᬠVvDᄠac\f [OECD, 2014].
2000–
2004
2001–
2005
200㊖
2006
2003–
2007
2004–
2008
2005–
2009
2006–
2010
200㞖
2011
2008–
2012
fhᔕRv
0,290,290,290,300,310,320,330,330,35
舑DoN
0,320,360,410,460,510,500,530,530,54
ЯĜTRv
0,700,710,750,720,72
0,69
0,680,680,71
蜮₂hLcv
1,08
0,98
1,06
1,10
1,171,11
1,10
1,09
1,14
--OECD
1,28
1,271,30
1,28
1,311,32
1,33
1,35
1,36
餗oTmRv
1,77
1,75
1,71
1,70
1,69
1,76
1,751,72
1,74
蒞u
1,681,671,671,61
1,70
1,76
1,77
1,82
1,79
蔛LwoTRv
1,621,61
1,65
1,68
1,731,781,79
1,801,80
nc጑shELRDoࠑv
2,58
2,45
2,322,20
2,17
2,07
2,11
2,212,30
CRgao eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑KcTDRCTo‑gVhጋkhioT
ThȠVLᄠVhgDLhcTRᄠDoEa. 1⸠ЧRgaᰠRggacജ
ioDcacȠKoTᰠTᠠToCoabTzȠVcLRhഠVvDᄠacD
R)VᜑicKcࠜ s)谝ᨑioacTDe Vh VhaࠜN koTv
DhgDᄠ(FTE)⸠rDഛabTᰠ(hThРizഛacT造hE
URᬠkToCcTRဠVᰠigcРgDLoToРOECD⸠rKTo
Rk―ow邁 \bRksᆁ LhഖsDRiThgDᬂ h ᄕae
hVeEaRshioTTz脠kᠠVvDଠacఠgDoDcȠᚆfhg
ᔑR. dLRCRTᠠDoshtᰠVhahGcTRဠ᪆DhЬ CDh
EhabI᠐ C᠕Db thgeKoLgDiᬈT邁 ᜘gShKhi
i)To缛N―D᜘ࠛ \rhgD᠛Dgv LhwzIጛTThgDR,
VLᄠ/Dh҆thgeKoLgDiᲆ騠hᔈhiThȠRgDhC
TRᴠLogShKhᨠTᠠyMr2f⸠Baဠ2RDoဠTRksRc
จoCcTRv hsokoDcav‐iav4Dgv‗ckeabఘDhw
osDRiThtᰠLhgDᠠiahGcTRȠ᪆ToesᘠVLᄠhD
gDoioࠑR‗hgDo Rgao eE጑ᴘmᄂ.
1.4⸠hDMUBTTMD଄ TOlw4\n
vM܄CBDbkBࠈf. \rOࠈf.
dLᄠVLhicഛTRᄠToeshwcDLRCcᔝhtᰠRg
gacജioTRဠTchEShKRwᰠeCRDzioDb, \raဠshth
VLhihKRDgဠoToaRkⰠsDᰠctᰠVLhihKRఠᆆᖆso
shN₍cጋ4,”osRc‑gVhጋke而gv‑gDhCࠑsR
KoTTzS⸠dᰠgeDᄬ oeshwcDLRဠviavcDgဠ
(hᜄhN”haRCcgDicTࠜth‘ToaRko \bo“g
Thic―VcmRo጑kᄗhioࠈzS‑gDhCࠑshi
KoࠈzS. 2h጑CcgDicࠈ适 oTo጑k‚hkwhGcT
Dhጋsh LR \bo጑Cᄑ‑gDhCࠑshi \roࠈzS,‗c
ጛioTDT邁‗᭿᠛wzw‎oKoCow.₄hEgDiᬈTh
ജgDeVThgDଠwogᔑihᨠKoTTz脠hDThᔑDcabTᰠ
ToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠᆆഛaocఠiᰎwhGTzР
VLhicKᬈᄛ \boeshЛDLRиgsᆁ‑ggጛKhio
ࠑN ck \bo጑CRv hጋIhthⁿDoDo \fcSࠑCc
gsᆁ―ěmRoaᄕDhi h hᄕse,‑kiጛиTR4
R)hE᜘EhDsc ᬗiRCT邁 \roTT邁.‒LcKgDoi
ጛTᄛ“”haRиgDiᬈThw‘ToaRkc”os cDh
ഛ hKഛLGsᄠVLRTvDRဠLcIcTRȠRkahGcT造
᪆sTRtᬠ[B/icTVhᜌⰠ2R, 2014], \raဠetae
EጛTThth‑keиTRv‘gěsDhi”haRиgDiᬈ
ThtᰠoToaRkᠠwhGTᰠhELoDRDbgဠᶆLcshwcT
Khioࠈ逄‚)TcN‑gDhCࠑᴘw.
fogᔄhDLRРoᔁcsD造VLhicഛTRဠshaR
CcgDicࠈhth‘To጑ko \roࠈzS,”hDhLzc h
kiᰓvD₌((csDRiTh‚zVᰓࠐDb \boeshwc
DLRиgsᄛ‑ggጛKhioTRv.‒ᬗihc,―)иth
TeGTᰠToCoDbⰠ/DᰠhVLcഛaRDb, \raဠshtᰠiz
EeഛDᬠthDhiRDଠoToaRk, cgaᄬ”hTcCTh, iz
TᬠVLhihKRDᬠToeCThᬠRggacജioTRᬠᖆ贛
ጋ4 hKthDhisR eE጑ᴘmᄑ.‒hDLcERDc጑
ioIctᰠoToaRkᠠhVLcഛav4ఠ贛aଠVLhih
KRwhtᰠoToaRkᠠ(ToVLRwcLⰠ᪆iRഛ‚hVLh
ghᨠRggacജioTRv⤠ᆆ(hLwᘠVLcകDoiacTRv
LckeabDoDhi. 蒆ihVLhgowᄠ«CDh?묠ᆆ«Kav
shth?묠TeGTᰠhVLcഛaRDbgဠVcLc\r \boCo
ahРRggacജioTRvⰠᢆTᬠVhgaᬠVhaeCcTRv
LckeabఘDhi,‌os”os hGࠜ hDLoDRDb ࠜ
th‚LᬄᬈR‚VegDe4,―hER᜘v‑)oToaRkRLev
KoTTzcⰠshDhLzᬠTᬠKo4ఠhDicDᠠTᠠVhgDoi
acTTzᬠihVLhᖐ⸠BhihabTᰠCogDᰠVhDLcER
DcaᄠgowᄠTᬠwhteఠCcDsᰠg(hLweaRLhioDb
koKoCe⸠fogᔄhDLRРKiᬠiᰎwhGTzᬠVLR
CRTz: \bcKhgఘDhs‎ToTRN“‚hคhGࠜgDႁ
ToeshЛDLRR‑)ࠛиDs᠐₭hLweaRLhiso‗c
I᠛whN VLhEጛwz. n)ěLihw gaeC᠛ chE
ShKRwh LhihKRDb“EeиTᄛ, \bo LRЛ᜘S
Vhsoຐiov‚hคhGࠜgDR‑)htLoTRCcTRv
wcDhജᨠToeshwcDLRR⸠nᰠiDhLhРgaeCoc
LᬝhЛTഖcDgv―ToCoao“EഖwoDb LhEጛ
weⰠVLhicgDᄠ/sᔁLcgg-oToaRภᆆTᠠVLRwc
Lo脠eDhCTRDଠVhgDoiacTTe耠koKoCe. dLh鴛
i送hገRDb \bcgshጋsh LcKioLRDcጋ࢐S
oToaRkhᨬ hgacജioDcabTᰠeDhCTvဠVLc
gacKecwe耠贛abⰠCcРVhaeCRDଠhDic\f \bo
EcgVhacจzN‚hVLhg.
9oҐN \taoi࢐N‘gVcsD \rcvDcጋThgDR‘To
጑Dᄝhi, i送hገv4URS sh጑CcgDicࠈ适
oToaRkⰠghgDhRఠ᪆DhwⰠCDᰠEcᔁhackTᰠhtLo
TRCRioDbgဠVLcകDoiacTRcР(osDhᨬ”hDh
L逛―ጛഖ4D‑k“E᜘EhDoTT邁 \roTT邁.₉eG
TᰠVLcകDoiRDଠioLRoTD造LcIcTRȬ‚ᰎwhG
TᰠKoGᬠLogᔄhDLcᨠᖍcToLRᄠLᬘaRkomRᄠ
DhtᰠRaᄠRThtᰠLcIcTRv⸠dLcകDoiacTRᬠ
ioLRoTDhi‗᭿ᬈRv‚ЛgDc―)LckeabDoDo
wᄠoToaRkᠠTᬠkowcTvc\f \raဠVhDLcERDcacȠ
TchEShKᄄhgDb LᄈᄄoDb‗cIcࠑc―owh
gDhvDcጋTh.—KTosh LcKahGcࠈzc‚oБ
ioLRoTDz \rhᎏTz“иLCRioDb hDᬈmRoab
TᰠLᬘaRkecwzᬠiᰎwhGThgDᄠᖆoToaRkhР
ࠛtoDRiT邁 hgጛKgDiRN.₄hiᬗ缛TTh c
ജVegDRwᰠVLcകDoiavDଠDhabsᰠhKR\b io
LRoTఠഛNgDiRȠVᰠLckeabDoDoРoToaRko,
БࠑwoጋThc CRgah VLcKgDoiavcҐS ioLR
oTDh᪆騠Kio⸠ЧcРEhabIᬠLokTzS, \bᰠLᬘaR
kecwz脠ioLRoTDhᨠi造ᔄhGcDᬠVLcKahGRDb,
DcРoKcsioDTcᬠEeഛఠVLRTvDhᬠLcIcTRᬠ
[Лhie缝R 避acࠑာ 2014,―. 40–56].
no輈zw hЛTDhw LR‚z᜘EhDsc‗ᬝh
wcTKomᄂ‐iavcDgv \bchEShKᄄhgDb hࠑwo
TRဠVLh贛gghᨬ”hDhLzᬠVLRihKvఠᶆToEa4
KocҐw \roࠈ逄.—LRcTDᄗevgb \fhጋsh \bo
gDoDᄕDRиgsᄛ \roTT逛,–ᬉsh \roDb‚Vhaࠛ
i送hገᄄzc‗cshwcTKomᄑ,”hDhLzc,“K
Tosh, c LRicഖD”)VhaeиTR4₏ca᠛w邁
LckeጋDoDhi.₉oVLᄄcL, ThtRc eE጑ᴘ
mᄑ,‚送hገcࠈzc‗hggᄂgsᄄR‘iDhLoБ
ghiwcgDTᰠᖆkoLeEcGTzwᄬ“EaoKo4ఠᔗoi
ࠑDcጋTh hacc‚zghsᄄR“mcࠝoБ”oCc
gDio, cw i送hገcࠈzc \fhጋsh LhggRvToБ.
BoDb‗cshwcTKomᆀ VeE጑shioDb hጋIc
gDoDcȠᖆkoLeEcGTzwᄠghoiDhLowᆆ騠/Dᰠ
VeDb”)eic጑Ccࠑ4―hiwcgD࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ
ᖆRThgDLoTmowᄬ‘)TᬠVeDଠVhizIcTRဠsoCc
gDio eE጑ᴘmᄂ.
dᬗcK LcKgDoiጛTᄛw‗ckeabDoDhi chE
ShKRwᰠhEvkoDcabTᰠVLhicLRDଠihᔁLRvDRᬠ
RDhthihth \rhsewcTఘ \bo”haacघS,₌Dh h
kihaRఠRkEc輘DଠജgoKTz脠hIREhᴠ᪆oToaR
kc⸠ЧDhE造izVhaTRDଠᆆVLcകDoiRDଠoToaRภ
ToRaeCIRw“E᜘khw,‗ᬝhЛTKecDgv“E᜘
DRDଠiTRwoTRᬠTᠠwcDhKRseⰠRᔁhabkecwe耠
hKࠜN‑k‚cKeURS”hTᔘaDRTth᪐S₭Rᜄ
wR᜘ [MࠕDLeЛTDz McKinsey, 2009]. 2)Cᄕ
aᘠToREhacᬠCogDz脠TcKhCcDhᨠ᪆VLcകDoi
avcwzS‘ToaRkoS“DThgvకv“కeకDiRc–REh
gowhȠwcDhKRsᄬ ᰠshDhLhȠEzጠizVhaTc\b
oToaRkⰠaREᰠcᬠhEhᔈhioTRဠᆆhDgeDgDiRᬠ
hEъvᔈcTRဠizEhLᠠEcTCwoLshᨬ‌⸠c⸠Lc(c
LᬈDT邁 LRЛLhi.‒hKLhEࠛc“gDoThiRw
gဠTᠠTchEShKRwhgDᄠhEъvᔈcTRဠizEhLᠠ
EcTCwoLshᨬ”hDhLzᬠVᰎihav4ఠVLhicgDᄠ
ᔗoiTRDcabThᬠRggacജioTRc⸠lgaᄠi造
gLoiࠑiocDc‗ckeጋDoDz \rcvDcጋThgDR‖Cc
TzS, DᰠsoᴠwRTRweРജaGT造VᰎoEhDRDbgဠ
ᲆDhЬ DhE造izELoTTzᬠKaဠᔗoiTcTRဠsha
actᄠLoEhDoaᄠ᪆EaRkshȠVLcKwcDThȠhEao
gDᄬ‘)᪆RഛoaᬠEzaᄠᔗoiTRw造VᰠiLcwcTᄠ
ToeCThȠsoLbcL造ᆆDRVᘠhLtoTRkomRR. lgaᄠ
TᬠgDoiRDgဠ贛aଠVLhicഛTRဠtahEoabTz脠
ᔗoiTcTRȬ‌ᰠGcaoDcabTᰠeCRDzioDଠᆆLc
tRh࢐ ᄗo,‚)shDhLzS‗oEhDo而―Loiࠑio
ᬄ逛‖иT逛.’zEhL”hLLᬝDT邁 ᬈCwoL
sh᪆騠/DᰠജgDoDhCTᰠgahGToဠkoKoCo, \bh,
EeKeCᄠizVhaTcTThȠhKRࠠLokⰠhTᠠVᰎihav
cD‚)KoጋTcɿcw‑gVhጋkhioDb―hkKoࠈ适
T᠆hL₌ጛЛTDhi―᜘iࠛTRv,“EvkoDcabTh
soGKzȠLoภVLhicLvv, \bᬠToLeIRahᔋ–ᄠeg
ahiᄛ”hLLᬝDThgDR―᜘iࠛTRv.
BaဠVLcകDoiacTRဠLckeabDoDᠠGcao
DcጋTh‗okLoEhDoDb‛KᄈhhELok࢐N―DRጋ
h(ᰗwacTᄐ Kጐ VhiDᰗv4URSgv Lckeab
DoDhᨠoToaRkoⰠCDᰠVᰎihaRఠhELoDRDbgဠ
ᶆVLcKzKeURРizihKoРVLᄠVLhicKcTRᄠ
g᜘iࠛTRN.ₗDh \fosGc‖ЛTbIRD‎oD᜘Dz h
DLcERDcacN \bo hTRwoTRc–htRᴑ‑kጜGc
TRဠ᪆VhiDhLv4URSgဠജsewcTDoS⸠rEvko
ఛabTh―hSLoTဂఛ‚gc‗oEh̑c oఛLRoaz
oToaRkoⰠicKଠ/DᰠVᰎihaRఠ᪆EeKe鴛Рihg
gDoThiRDଠioGTzᬠഛDoaᄬ”hDhLzᬠEzgDLᰠ
k᠆zio4Dgv LR‚zVhaࠛTRR hgጛഖ4Uᆁ
LoEhD⸠PcDhഠicഛTRဠKTciTRsᠠVLhcsDᢆ騠
ToRaeC缑N cDhK \rav hi避cࠑv”oCcgDio
VLhicഛTThtᰠoToaRko⸠ᦆ/DhРKTciTRsᬠ
Te輈h s᜘Dsh koVᄕzioDb VLRTvD逛 L᭿c
TRvⰠCDhE造EzaᠠiᰎwhGThgDଠCcLcภKiᬠTc
ഛaᄠVhgaᬠgKoCᄠoToaRDRCcᔝhtᰠhDCcDᠠ
VLhicgDR‗okEhL haeCcTࠜth‗ckeabఘఘ
g)mcጋ4 hTvDb LRCᄈz―hicLIcࠈzS“缑
EhᴠᆆhDwcDRDଠeKoCTzᬠToShKsᄬ”hDhLzᬠ
gDhRD LRЛTvDb‚)KoabࠛN缛w.
.ck \rhgDeVo”)RgDhCࠑᴘw \roࠈzS”h጑
CcgDicTTzȠoToaRภTciᰎwhGcT⸠舘GKzȠ
RgDhCTRᴠhEaoKoc\f ᔚhRРToEhLhРSoLos
DcLRgDRs, shDhLzᬠTeGTᰠeCRDzioDଠVLᄠ
i送hገcࠑR‘To጑ko \roࠈzS.‒LR“ELoEhD
sc ᄈ(hLwomᄑ \beGTh hጋIc‚ࠑwoࠑv
eKcavDb‚hคhGࠜgDvw‘iDhwoDRฑLhioT
ThȠhELoEhDsᄠKoTTz脠ᖆRᔁhabkhioTRcР
VLhtLoЄ,‘)Tc‗eCThwe oࠑVe጑Lhioࠑ4
g逗逄R \roࠈ逄R.‏gVhጋkhioࠑc‘iDhwo
DRkomRᄠVLᄠhELoEhDsᬠKoTTz脠Vᰎihavc\f
ᔈRkRDଠCRgaᰠhIREhsⰠVhaeCocwz脠igacK
gDiRᬠLeDRTThȠLeCThȠhELoEhDsᄬ‑)Ehab
IᬠghᔗcജDhCRDbgဠTᠠLcIocwhȠkoKoCc.
ТosGᬠgDhRఠhELoDRDଠiTRwoTRᬠTᠠജgDeV
ThgDଠoToaRDRCcᔝR脠EoภKoTTzSⰠ᪆shDhLz脠
RT(hLwᢍRv Lcച᠗RDcabTh“ؗoEhD᠈o
R)Koࠈzc hKthDhiac࢐ \rav―LoiࠑDcጋ
ThtᰠoToaRko⸠5oDLoD造TᠠRᔁhabkhioTRᬠ
VhജETz脠EoภKoTTz脠hseVo4ఠgcEဠVLᄠTc
hEShKᄄhgDR‚送hገcࠑv hጋIhth“Eъcwo
oToaRDRиgshN‗᠆hDz.
9ah輈hgDb‚zVhaࠛTRv \boeshЛDLRи
ᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠᔚvkoTᠠᖆDcЬ DᰠVLR
oTo጑kc KoࠈzS TeGTh VhࠑwoDb shTDcsgD
VLhihKᄄzS‑ggacKhioࠑN. g጑ Lhih
KRDଠoToaRภEcภeCcDᠠDcwoDRsᄠRggacKe
ᬄ邁 LcKЛDT邁“Ea᠕Dᬂ, \fh₍ᬈThgDb
LckeabDoDhᨠEeഛఠVhജETᠠ贛TThgDᄠRT
(hLwomRR“―LcKࠛN \fᬄě᜘DeLc \fcao
VᰠEhabTR贛
TᬠVᰎihav4鴛ȠizviRDb,
Cbv \fᬄě᜘De᜘ \bᆏc/iz缛 \bhLwoab
ThN)⸠ᦆ/DhРgaeCoᬠiᰎwhGT造KiᠠioLR
oTDo‗᭿ᬈRN.’h-ěLi邁, h輈h―hkKoDb
VeጠshTgeabDoTDhᨠ᪆VLcKwcDThȠhEaogDᄬ
ᖆshDhLzwᄠVLhihKRDଠhEgeGഛTRᬠVLh
ihKRw邁‑ggጛKhioTRN.’h-iDhL邁, h輈h
ihᔁRDoDଠToeshwcDLRCcᔝR脠ᔁcmRoaR
gDhi‑k‖иT邁,‗᠆hDo4Uᆁ h \fᬄoDRsc
ᄕgጛKhioTRN,‑)/Dh \boRaeC缛c‗᭿ᬈᄛ.
Яiavvgb \fosGc‘sDᄚ࢐Б‖Cc࢐Б, \boesh
wcDLRCcᔝRᬠᔁcmRoaRgD逬―)hKThȠgDhLh
T逬―whteఠeCRDzioDଠshTDcsgఠVLhihKRwzS
RggacജioTRȬ‘)ᖆKLethʆ騠EeKeఠaeCIR
Б LhihKࠑᴘБ‗ckeጋDoDhi‘To጑ko.
1.5⸠萊KBt%vРҐOtbB)Ov஠ ORCTMN༠
wzbB茈M܏NwCBDv༂M₏tཱྀBDD༎
n Lhmcggc‚zVhaࠛTRv \boeshЛDLRи
ᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠTchEShKRwᰠeCRDzioDଠ
Dᜑ”a考c᪐S‘gVcsఘ \boeCࠜth‑)Dc脈hጜ
tRCcᔝhtᰠVLh贛gghi: 1⤠sDᰠtcTcLRLec\f \bo
eCTzᬠLckeabDoDz; 2) \bcജgDeVThgDଠ᪆hE
鴛РgaeCoᬠRkwcLcTRဠiaRvTRဠToeCTz脠
LckeabDoDhᨠTᠠVLosDRse; 3⤠koKcLGsᘠwcGKᘠ
whЛTDhw hviጛTRv‑Kᬑ‑)VhaeиTᄛw
ěLi邁‑kЛLRw邁‗ckeabDoDhi.
dLᄠoToaRkᬠToeshwcDLRCcᔝR脠KoTTz脠
io輈h‚RKcDb”haጛsDRiz‖иT邁,‗᠆hDo
4UR脠ToഠVhaeCcTRcРLckeabDoDhᨬ”hDhLzᬠ
i造RkwcLvcDc⸠MToCᬠiᰎTRsoc\f ghEaok\b
ihᔁLRTRwoDଠoᜌc(osD造ToeCThȠഛvDcab
ThgDᄠsoᴠToEhᜠghEzDRNⰠshDhLzᬠഛwhT
gDᜑLe4D \bcgఘERabTzc‎oshࠜwcᜈhgDR
ᆆshDhLzwᄠwhGTᰠeVLoiavDbⰠeicaRCRioဠ
VLcജgDoiavcwzᬠLcgeLᖐ⸠9ivkଠᖆVLos
DRshȬ“EgeGKocwoဠ᪆Lokഛaᬠ1.2, \bᬠVh
LhGKocఠiRKRwz脠oᜌc(osDhᨠᆆwhGcఠEzDଠ
h贛TcTᠠDhabsᰠVᰠshᔚcTTzРVLRkTosow.
rKTosᰠToREhabIRᬠDLeKThgDᄠgᰎKo4ఠko
ഛLGsᄠ᪆VLh贛ggcⰠVhLhGKo4鴛РToeCTzᬠ
᠗Dc(᠝Dz.
9DLesDeLeⰠ᪆Lowso脠shDhLhȠLokiRiocDgဠ
Toeᴘ, hGTh“VLcKc጑Db”os–hᴘጋTe4
ToeCTe耠tLeVVᘠCRgacTThgDb耠ജ‱㔠Ccah
ics. rEъcKRTv4URРToCoahРKaဠtLeVV造
viavcDgv \boeC࢐N‗eshihKRDcጋ,”hDhL适
hVLcKcaရD \boV᜘iጛTᄛ‑ggጛKhioTRN
tLeVVz⸠nwcgDᬠtLeVVᘠഛLGR\f \bcᔝhab
sh hwcTDhi.’h-Vc᜚zS,₌Dh‚hคhGࠜgDb
/((ᬝDRiTh‑gVhabkhioDb‚zKcጛTT逛
LcgeLᖐ
VahUoKᄬ oeCThᬠhEhLeജioTRc,
wekcNTzᬠshaacsmRᄠᆆD⺆V.)⸠nh-iDhLzSⰠ/Dᰠ
ihคhGࠜgDb―hᴗoUoDb‎oDLoDz acࠜi
tLeVV造TᠠᰎToshwacTRᬠᖆThizwᄠToeCTz
Б‗ckeጋDoDoБ, haeCcࠈ逄R‚Tc \tLeVVz.
྆i-DLcDbRS, /DᰠiᰎwhGThgDଠVLhihKRDଠ
hEgeGKᬈRv haeиTT邁‗ckeabDoDhi ᬗcK
R脠VeEaRsomRcȠᖆDhȠ贛ab4ⰠCDhE造VhKഛL
GRioaoᔋ“EUoဠLcVeDomRဠtLeVV造ᆆCDhE造
ghhE鴛TRဠ/DhȠtLeVV造TᬠRtThLRLhioaRᔋ
iࠛITRwR shaጛtowR. 9DLesDe᜘ ToeCThN
tLeVV造VhKLhETᰠRggacജioaoᔋ‚)aRDcLo
DeLᬠ[ᔄ.㪆ЛoDeL, 2013].
OgVcIࠜgDb₭eTᶍᄜTRLhioTRv \boeCࠜN
tLeVV造hVLcഛavcDgဠᔁhghEThgDb耠Lesh
ihKRDcav LᄚacᴘDb₭ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑc \rav
izVhaࠛTRv ᄕgጛKhioTRN. no輈h, Dh
E造/Dᰠ(RToTᔑLhioTRᬠEzaᰠLcteavLTzР
ᆆ᪆hEъcwcⰠജgDoDhCThРKaဠ(eTsmRhTRLh
ioTRv \tLeāz.₠cteaဗThgDb LRiacCcTRv
(RToTᔑLhioTRဠᔚRKcDcabgDiecఠᰠDhЬ Dᰠ
aRഛᜠVhTRwocఠRTDcLcᖐ–RmⰠLoᔁLcഛ
av4UR脠LcgeLᖐⰠᆆᔁhghEcࠠVLRiacCଠLc
geLᖐ‚TcITR脠tLeVĠKaဠhEgeGഛTRဠᆆgh
iᬗ缛ࠕDihioTRv‗ckeabDoDhi‗᠆hDz―ihᬂ
tLeāz.₄VhghEThgDb \tLeāz LchELokh
ioDଠVLRiacsocwzᬠLcgeLᖐ
ᔚhᄠᆆKLetR脠
tLeVV) ᪆RkwcLRwzᬠoᜌc(osD造ToeCThtᰠ
R)Dc脈hጜtRCcgshth Lhmcgᔘ‑)hmcTRiocD
gဠ᪆shTcCThРgCcDᬠVLᄠoToaRkᬠToeshwc
DᜑCcgᴑS hsokoDcacN.
yoVLᄄcL,‛g጑ z‚RKᄄ―DoERጋ࢐N
Lhg\f VeEaRsomRȠVᰠekshȠDcwoDRsᬠ᪆hLto
TRkomRᄬ₌DᰠᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠtLeVVz, \tcTcLR
Le4URᬠToeCTzȠLckeabDoD, ᔄhtaᄠVhaeCRDb
geUcgDicࠈhc₭ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑc.„ToahtRC
Th㨠cgaᄠ᪆hLtoTRkomRᄠeicaRCRiocDgဠജav
ghiЛgDT邁‗᠆hD g)eиTzwR KLetᆁ hLtoTR
komRȠVᰠekshȠDcwoDRsc, DᰠicᔋwᠠicLhvDTh,
CDh‖ic጑CR጑₭ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑc \bo \boeC࢐c
hEwcT逬 ᰠKaဠizvᔈcTRvⰠ᪆soshȠhLtoTR
komᄑ LhRkhIah‖ic጑Ccࠑc₭ᄈoTgᄗh
ioࠑာ \beG࢐ \rhVhገRDcጋ࢐c \roࠈzc.
%hihLv“ \boeCࠜN \tLeVVc, \beGࠜ hTR
woDb, CDᰠwhGTᰠVhizᔑDଠ/((csDRiThgDଠ
cᬠLoEhD逬 ghsLoDRᨠRkKcLGsᄠtLeVV造Tᠠ
hEgeGKᬈᄛ haeиTT邁‛4‗ckeabDoDhi.
ЭDᰠwhGTᰠLᬘaRkhioDbⰠᔝhT贛TDLRLhioᨠ
᪆hKThРwcgDᬠToeCTzᬠtLeVV逬‗oEhDo4URᬠ
ꀑᔮ‶⸠謘Kᬗ輝ᄠᨗᬄᬈᄠĜaᘃᬈᄐ oᘃࠜtᰠ᜛ถጋD᠌ᠠ
1
Рисунок
6
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ᄠᔚဎᄠЛ輍ᘠ᠗Dc괘ᴌ᠄ᄠ࠘ᘃࠜtᰠᄠDc脈hጜऑиᔝᰉᰠė᲍cggᰚ
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ToK―ihᄄR LhEacwoБ‚)LoНoS hጋIhN
Dcwz⸠Э((csఠhఠshT贛TDLomRᄠToeCTz脠
tLeVĠᆆctᰠVLRCRT造LogᔄhDLcT造᪆aRDc
LoDeLᬠ[ᔄ.㨠ЯEahTᔝR, 2001Ⱐg. 228–229].
Л4E᠐ \boeCT᠐―DLesDe᜘,”hDh᜘v―ěmR
oaRkRLecDgဠTᠠekshȠToeCThȠDcwoDRsc,
hLtoTRkecఠഛvDcabThgDଠToeCTz脠tLeVĠ
iTeDLᄠgcEvⰠEeഛఠ/((csDRiTcᬠᆆLckeabDo
DRiࠛc, ᬄ‗okLhkࠛTT逛 \boeCT逛 \tLeVVz.
yoREhacc‑kicgD࢐N LᄄcL”hࢍcTDLomᄑ
ToeCTz脠tLeVĠKaဠLcIcTRဠgahGThȠVLh
Eacw邆騠/DᰠPoTS/DDcTᔝRȠVLhcsD.
9ěmRoaRkRLhioTT᠐ \boeCT᠐―DLesDe᜘,
ToVLᄄcL \boeCTh-RggacKhioDcጋgsᄂ‑T
gDRDeDⰠcgaᄠcᬠge鴛gDihioTRᬠTᬠᔚvkoTᰠ
g)eࠑᴘጋ࢐w“EhLeKhioࠑcw, eKcD‚逝ᎀ
CcTᠠRภVLh贛ggᠠihᔁLhRkihകDiᠠToeCTz脠
soKLhi, Dh‎oDLeKTရD‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTᄛ
kToTRȬ”hDhLzᬠ᪆TcȠtcTcLRLe4DgvⰠᆆVh
izI᠛D‗ᄕs‎᠕Dhv.₠᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ \boeC
Tz脠tLeVĠVᰠeTRicLᔑDcDoРVᰎihavcఠVLc
hജacDଠVhജEThᬠhtLoTRCcTRc, \bᰠ贛ThȠ
kowcKacTRဠVLh贛gghᨠhEgeGKcTRv, \foᴠsoᴠ
shaactR hteD \boShKRDbgv \fcLᜑDhᜑoab
TᰠKoacsh⸠舘ᴠ/((csDRiTᰠhLtoTRkhioDଠ
hEgeGKᬈᄛ‚)᜘gVLcKcጛTT邁”haጛsDR
ioS? ycgwhDLv To‗okiRDhgDb ghiLᬄᬈT邁
ᔗcകDᨠshwweTRsomRᄬ‌LcEecDgဠaRCThᬠ
VLRgeDgDiRᬠTᠠDosR脠hEgeGഛTRvS, \foᴠsoᴠ
/DᰠVᰎihavc\f \toLoTDRLhioDଠshT贛TDLomR耠
eCogDTRshᨠKoTThtᰠVLh贛ggᠠTᠠhEgeGKoc
whȠkoKoCc, ᢆ(RsᔑLhioTTzᬠKoD造hEgeG
ഛTRȠhEcᔁcCRio4\f LcteavLThgDଠVhKth
జisR“DCcజi“ LhKcaoTThN‗oEᰌᬮ
dLᄠh贛TsᬠiaRvTRဠToeCTz脠LckeabDoDhᨠ
TᠠVLosDRsᘠTeGTᰠVhTRwoDbⰠCDᰠVoDcTD造
Tᬠviav4Dgဠoᜌc(osDowᄠVLosDRCcᔝhȠ
ഛvDcabThgDᄬ‘)iᰎTRso4ఠ᪆LckeabDoDᬠLo
EhDz oK₉༔2f.‒oDcTDz LcK࠘k࠘CcTz
Kaဠ(RsgomRᄠVLoᨠghEgDicTThgDᄠᆆKaဠ
hVhic鴛TRဠᰠiaoഛTRᄠDcSThahtRcȬ ᰠ
TᬠKaဠTcVhᔗcകDicTThȠR脠LᬘaRkomRᄠ
TᠠVLosDRsc⸠rDwcDRЬ DᰠKaဠwThtR脠hE
aogDcȠVLosDRCcᔝhȠഛvDcabThgDᄠVoDcT
D造TᬠRtLo4ఠge鴛gDicTThȠLhaᄬ‘)VLoiᠠ
ghEgDiᬈThgDR₌((ᬝDRiࠛN“S᜘Tv4Dgv
gcᴗcఘwR LhRบhKgDio.₄seKࠜgDb‑T(hL
womRR“ \rcఘaႁ \fc脈hጜtRCcgshth Lhmcgᔘ
hEъvᔈvcDgဠDcЬ DᰠLckeabDoD造VLosDRsᄠ
i)hgࠜᨈhw \tcTcᜑLe4Dgv \bo LcKVᜑvDR
vS, shDhLzᬠVLhDRivDgဠLoᔝLzDR耠ഛDoacȠ
ᔚhcȠLoEhD造⠗Rg⺆5)⸠PhGTᰠVLcKahGRDଠ
DLᄠVoLowcDLᠠh贛TsᄠLckeabDoDRiThgDᄠ
DcSThahtRCcᔝhȠഛvDcabThgDR: 1⦆hEъcw造
ജthihLhᨠTᠠRggacജioTRဠgᰠgDhLhT造Sh
kvнDie肝RS geEъcsDhi; 2))ihgDLcEhioT
ThgDଠizVeᔝTRshᨬ”hDhLzᬠeCogDihioaᄠ
᪆ToeCThРVLh贛ggᬠiᰠiLcwဠeCcEz; 3⦆shT
DcTD-oTo጑k eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚)GeLToaoS, eE጑
se4UR脠LckeabDoD造VLRsaoKTz脠LoEhD⸠yᄠ
hKRࠠRภVoLowcDLhᨬ LRicഛTTz脠izIc, \bᬠ
VᰎihavcఠVLhicgDᄠജgDhicLTe耠shaRCc
gDicTTe耠h贛TseⰠᔝhLcᬠw造VhaeCRРsoCc
gDiᬈT逛₁o᜘sDᬗᄕDRsR.
n soCcgDic igVhМघDcabࠜth‑TgDLewcT
DᠠVLᄠVLhicഛTRᄠVLRsaoKTz脠Toeshwc
DLRCcᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠwhGTᰠRᔁhabkh
ioDଠgScweⰠVLcകDoiacTTe耠TᠠLRg⺆㚆(ᔄ⺆Tᠠ
VLcKzKe鴛ȠgDLoTR贛)⸠yᠠgScwᬠRkhELo
Gᬈz‗okiᬗTeD逛‚h‚LᬄᬈR‘LDc(osDz,
VhaeCocwzᬠ᪆VLh贛ggᬠLᬘaRkomRᄠyMr2f.
9DLcasᄠesokzio4\f \bᠠᔚvkଠ/acwcTDhᨠVLh
贛ggᠠᖆVhLhGKocwzwᄠoᜌc(osDowR⸠uᜌc
(osD造Toഠhᔋ耠VLh贛ggᠠVLosDRCcᔝᄠTᬠ
VhKKo4Dgဠh贛Tsc, \foᴠsoᴠCo鴛‚gctᰠTc
ജgDeVTz⸠uᜌc(osD造Vhഠhᔋ耠hEaoKo4\f
LokThȠgDcVcTb耠ജgDeVThgDR, \bhⰠsoᴠVLo
iRah,“EToLeGᄚo而gv‚)Lok࢐S‑gDhCࠑᴘS
R)i)ᴘshN-Dh―DcVcࠑ‐iav而gv‑kwcLᄄ逄R.
yoVLRwcL, \roTTzᬠᰠCogDᄠhEhLeജioTRv,
egఘࠜiacTࠜth‚)aoEhLoDhᜑႁ ᨗhVz, \rh
gDeVT造TᠠVhᜌoaᬠMERIL
ⰠᢆVLᄠVhRᔝᬠVᰠ
Vhገ逄 \fcsgDow eE጑ᴘmᄂ hGTh \boNDR
http://portal.meril.eu/
RT(hLwomR耠ᰠDhЬ‚)sosR脠LoEhDo脠KoTThᬠ
hEhLeജioTRᬠEzaᰠkoഛNgDihioTh.
rDaRCRc LcKጜGcTࠜN―Scwz \boeCࠜth
VLh贛ggᠠh\f \fLoKRmRhTTz脠gScР(ToVLR
wcL, [How science works, 2014]⤠᪆DhЬ Dh
kഛᔋ LcകDoiacTᠠᔚvkଠwcGKᘠᔝLzDzwR
/acwcTDowᄠToeCThtᰠVLh贛ggᠠᆆoᜌc(os
ఘwR \boeCࠜth‑)Dc脈hጜtRCcgshth Lh
贛gghi. rghEhᬠiTRwoTRᬠeഛacTᰠoᔁcsDe
RkwcLRwhgDᄠᆆkoഛLGsoР᪆VhaeCcTRᄠLc
keabDoDhi⸠BoTToဠgScwᠠos贛TDRLecఠiTR
woTRᬠTᠠDhЬ CDᰠhఠwhwcTDᠠVhviacTRv
Rഛᄠജ eEaRsomRᄠVcLiz脠LckeabDoDhi
МGcD LᰂDR ࠜth‚LcwcTR (Vh‗oจzw
h贛TsoР᪆ᔗcKTcРh\f thKᠠജ DLc脠acD).
n)Dᬃᬈᄛ₌Dhth‚LᬄᬈR‚逕sokoTT᠐‑Kcv
Tc―Dhጋsh“(hLwavcDgာ―shጋsh LhSh
KRఠVLhicLsᘠ᪆VLh贛ggᬠ/sᔁcLRwcTDhᨬ
iTeDLcࠈRS hEgeGKcࠑN R)hEgeGKcࠑN
g)VLRiጛиTᄛw”haጛt (ToVLRЛL, \bo”hT
(cLcTmRvS⤠ᆆD⺆K⸠舘ᴠgacകDiRcⰠᶆwhwcT
De VeE጑ᴘmᄑ‑ഛv \bc Dhጋsh h(hLwacTo
ജaGTzРhELokhЬ TᰠᆆiVacDcTᠠ᪆ᔑgDc
we LcKgDoiጛTRN”haጛt“E‑ggጛഖᬄhN
hEaogDR⸠foTTcᬠᰎToshwacTRᬠᖆRKcvwR
LcKemRLecఠhDDhLGcTRᬠThihtᰠ᪆ToeC
ThРghhE鴛gDic, \boVLRwcLⰠhEgeGKocwzN
᪆Lokഛaᬠ3.㌠/((csఠPoD(cဠᔝhLcᬠᔚR
ഛDcabgDiecఠᰠDhwⰠCDᰠcgaᄠeCcTzᬠVLcK
gDoiav4ఠᔚhᄠRഛᄠTᠠeLhiTᬠgDLoT逬 c
ihiጛs᠐‑ThgD᜘TT邁”haጛt‚)hEgeGKc
TRᬠᔚhR脠Thiz脠LckeabDoDhᨬ‌ᰠജicLRc
s)/DRw‗ckeabDoDow ᬈb缛.‒hပࠛTRv
wThtR脠VhTvDRȬ LcകDoiacTTz脠TᠠKRo
t᜘wЛ, eഖD \roTz‚)gጛഖ4Uᆁ \taoio脮
fogᔄhDLcTTzᬠ᪆taoiᬠKiᠠ«VhavLTzS묠
VhKShKᠠᶆh贛TsᬠToeCThȠLckeabDoDRi
ThgDᄬ‘)RwcTTᰠ/sᔁcᜌThᬠh贛TRioTRᬠ
ᆆhVhLᠠTᠠToeshwcDLR4, \bᬠviav4Dgဠiko
ᄄhRgsᎀCo4UᄄR.₂oGK适‑k RS“E
aoKocD―ihᄄR LcᄄeUcgDioБ.ₛhጋsh
hEъcKRTRᨠhEᠠVhKShKᠠ᪆Lowso脠VLh贛ggᠠ
VLRTvDRဠLcIcTRဠᆆihiacsoဠ᪆VLh贛gᔠ
igᬠkoRTDcLcghioTTzᬠgDhLhTzⰠVLᄠegah
iRᄠwosᔑwoabThȠVLᰎLoCThgDᄠwcDhജᨬ
shDhLzwᄠVhaeCcT造h贛Tsᄬ hGTᰠജgDRCଠ
LckeabDoDoⰠᔁhghEgDie4鴛tᰠLokiRDR耠To
eᴑ‑)Dc脈hጜtRR \rav“EUcgDicTࠜth aoघ.
9ahGRiIRcgဠ᪆gDLoTo脠ᖆLokiRDhȠToeshȠ
wcSoTRkw造shTseLᔈhtᰠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠLc
geLghᨠTᠠToeCTzᬠRggacജioTRဠhEaoKo4\f
ജgDoDhCThȠgDcVcTb耠ᔚhEhK造KaဠVhRᔝᠠ
ThihthⰠᢆᔚvkଠᖆVLosDRshȠCcLcภhVLcഛ
acTRᬠVLRhLRDcDhᨠTogDLoRiocఠVLh贛gᔠTᠠ
ജgDRGcTRᬠVhackTz脠LckeabDoDhᨠKaဠigc
th“EUcgDio.₉oeshЛDLRиgsᄛ‑ࠕDLeЛT
D造viav4Dgဠ᪆KoTThРgaeCoᬠᔗcകDihРVh
iz缛TRv”oиgDio LRTRw᠛w邁‗᭿ᬈRN,
TᰠTᬠwhteఠgDoDଠcKRTgDicTTzРhVLcഛ
av4URw”LRDᬗᄛw.‏Toи‚ЛgDh―ᄕDᬄz
LokiRDRဠToeCThtᰠkToTRဠw造VhaeCRРᔑ
gDcweⰠ᪆shDhLhȠ«eCcTzc묠VLcgacKe4ఠ贛aᄠ
KhgDᆏᬈRv‑kЛLRw邁 hsokoDcጛN,‘)ࠛ
ghkKoࠑv \bhizS‎ToࠑN.
Рыэьчнпыц Н, Н,
don_beave爠阠yu9ḠTᬠmcTRఠRT-
KcsᔠХRLIo. 2014. URL: http://don-beaver.livejournal.
com/137590.html (K᠌o“ؗᢝcTRv: 11.06.2014).
Сэптоьыэу Т,* uхн С, в,
— cРthihLvఠmR(Lz⸠2oᴠ
VhTRwoDଠᄠRgVhabkhioDଠKoTTzc⸠P.㨠PoTTⰠMioThᨠ
ᆆФcLEcL, 2014. 22㐠g.
Тфхнып Н, Н,
ₗ጑D࢐c \tLeāz,‑S‚hkࠑsThicࠑc
ᆆ/iha4mRဠ/⼠5ToTRᬠ阠gRao. 1988⸠ꒆ1⸠9. 56–64.
MtLᠠᨠmz(RLbⰠRaᄠsoᴠDcVcLଠhmcTRio4\f \fLe\r
eCcThtᰠ(gEhLTRᴠgDoDcȠᰠEREaRhwcDLRsc)⸠P.㨠MkK-iᰠ
P1yPr, 2011. 7㈠g.
MࠕDLeЛTDz McKinsey.ₜeCI᠐ ᜘sDRso‗᭿ᬈRv
ERkTcg-VLhEacР⼠M⸠P⸠fogRcaⰠd⸠y⸠ФLRto⸠P.㨠PoTT,
MioThᨠᄠФcLEcL, 2009. 22㐠g.
uызтпохчып П, Л,* Пышячып Т, П,
₄LoiࠑఛጋTov₌((cs
DRiThgDଠToeCThtᰠDLeKᠠᨠTcshDhLz脠TomRhToabTz脠oso
KcwRv脠Toeᴠ/⼠ncgDTRᴠOLᐠfuy. 2010. ¤ 4(34)⸠9. 3阸.
Лнууэ О,
₉oesᠠᨠKcNgDiRR㨠dLotwoDRCcgsRȠVhihLhD.
9dE.㨠MkK-iᰠliLhV⸠eT-Dᠠᨠ9oTsD-dcDcLEeLtc, 2013.
41㘠g. (Latour B. Science in Action: How to Follow Scien-
tists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1988. 288 p.)
Лhie缝R 避acࠑv.₂os LᄈᄄoDb‗cIcࠑာ
ᲆshDhLz脠i造TᬠVhGoaccDᬠ⼠B⸠ХRkⰠЧ⸠ХRk⸠P.㨠PoTT,
MioThᨠᄠФcLEcL, 2014. 33㘠g.
Нтеыуи С, в,
„kEeᴘ―RgఛЈhth 避acࠑv.‟.:
MyrP⸠ЛoEhLoDhLRဠkToTRN, 2010. 34㐠g.
Нычхэ Сз,
 oថ„(RTz.‏gDhᜑCcgᴑc‑gDhᴑ₌sh
ThwRsR⸠P.㨠MkK-iᰠMTgDRDeDᠠ%oNKoLo, 2012. 40㢆g.
(Mokyr J. The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the
Knowledge Economy. Princeton N.J.: Princeton University
Press, 2004. 384 p.)
yoë适 hఛࢍRoa‚ekhi‑ \boëzS“Ltoࠑkomᄂ
PRTRgDcLgDiᠠhELokhioTRဠᄠToesᄠfhggRNgshȠ
ФcKcLomRR. 2013 / hഠLcK⸠r⸠u⸠ЛoKThth⸠9dE.:
9dE%ЭТO, 2014. 21〠g.
Нтцдтонуээ О,
ₛhCTzᬠToesᄠᨠKLciThgDR⸠P.㨠yoeso,
1968. 22㐠g.
fogCc\f \bᠠhKThtᰠeCcThtᰠ⼠n⸠ФRtTcLⰠP⺆ushci,
l⺆OabvThio. 2012. ¤ 27 (518). URL: http:// expert.ru/
ural/2012/27/raschet-na-odnogo-uchenogo/ (K᠌o“E
LoUcࠑv: 10.06.2014).
Рыиыпючх Р,
\nTRicLgRDcD⸠dhghERᬠKaဠiaoKcabmᠠP.:
McLegoaRРPhgD造2eabDeLzⰠ%cIoLRw, 1995. 41㐠g.
Сычышып Н,
₂os‖ėoiaႀD \boëhN LhKesDᄚThgDb4:
acsmRv⸠dLhCRDoTᠠ25 \bhvELဠ2010 \t⸠ᨠLowso脠VLh-
csDᠠ«deEaRCTzᬠacsmRᄠdhaRD.Le». 2011. URL: http://
polit.ru/article/2011/03/05/sokolov/ (K᠌o“ؗᢝcTRv:
10.06.2014).
9hhEUcTRᬠidelsong 13 \bhvELဠ2009. URL:
http://ivanov-petrov.livejournal.com/1314669.
html?thread=63853933 (KoDᠠhELoUcTRv: 24.06.2014).
вноонэе С,
₂oᴠRkwcLRDଠigcⰠCDᰠethKTh⸠rmcTsᠠ
gDhᄄhgDR \bcwoఛLRoጋThth‚ RkTcgc‟.:—጑Ё-
.RkTcg, 2009. 32〠g.
аошыоючхц Н, Х,
‟hKcaᄠᄠwcDhK造RggacKhioTRဠTo-
esR㨠ФRahgh(造fhggRᄠ
XX
‚cso⸠P.㨠lKRDhLRoጠOf99,
2001. 40〠g.
Cmjjgls P,
The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory
of Intellectual Change Belknap Press of Harvard Univer-
sity Press, 2000. 1098 p. (feggsRȠVcLcihK㨠2haaRTຆf.
9᲍ᄜጜtRv₭Rጜgh(RN: \tጜEoabTov \fchᜑv‑TDca
acsDeoጋThth‑kwcTcࠑv.₉hihgREᄗgs:₄REᄗgsᄂ
脗hࠜtLo(, 2002. 1280―.)
How science works: The Žowchart / University of Califor-
nia Museum of Paleontology. 2014. URL: http://undsci.
berkeley.edu/article/ science蹯wchart (KoDᠠhELoUcTRv:
24.06.2014).
Institutional memory and reverse smuggling
[oThࠑЈ适‌csgD]. URL: http://wrttn.in/04af1a
04.12.2011 (VcLcih\r \bᠠLeggsRȠvkzs: URL: http://ahi-
tech.livejournal. com/171492.html)
Kainic acid // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2014.
URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kainic_acid
Ij_ppcgaf C,
Unheralded Mathematician Bridges the Prime
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VcLihtᰠRkKoTRဠ1963 \thKᠠTᠠLeggsRȠvkzs㨠dLoNᖆB.
yoesᠠᰠToesᬠ/⼠yoesᠠᰠToesc⸠P.㨠dLhtLcgg, 1966.
9⺆236–254 ; ࠠGc⸠PoaoဠToesoⰠEhabIoဠToesᠠ//
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pedia. 2014. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Techno
logy_readiness_level (K᠌o“ؗᢝcTRv: 13.06.2014).
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DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0005
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wcTD造TᠠDc脠GᬠVLRTmRVo脠(TᰠDosGᬠEck
LoคcUcTRv haࠜth \fcsgఘ).
n okoS \boeCThth₍RDᄗhioࠑv”oGK适
GeLToጠRwccఠ«DcwoDRCcᔝe耠VLRivkse»,
hࠠhDTcgcࠠᶆDhȠRaᄠRThȠToeCThȠKRg
mRVaRࠛ (whGcD zDb“Dࠛgᬈ hጛc ᬄ
ᶆhKThN)⸠dLᄠ/DhРVLᄠLogCcDᬠVLosDRCc
ᔝᄠigc脠RTKRsoDhLhᨬ ᰠshDhLz脠VhNഛD
LcCଠ᪆TogDhv鴛Ƞtaoic, \fcwoDRCcᔝoဠLe
ELᄝo
юунуьх
“VLcKcavcDgဠ᪆EokᬠKoTTzS
mRDRLhioTRဠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠDcwoDRCcᔝhN
LeEᜑᴑ
зуэоншн
, ᪆shDhLhРhTᠠhVeEaR
shioTo⸠ngᬠgDoDbᄠhKThtᰠGeLToaᠠRwc4D
hKTᘠᆆDᘠGᬠLeELRsᘠ⠗eELRsR)⸠P造Eeഛw
thihᜑDb, Dh―ఘDbv/Geᜈoa“DࠜgvDgv
ᶆDhȠRaᄠRThȠKRᖍRVaRTᬠRaᄠToeCThN
hEaogDR⸠ԚᠠVhgacKTR脠VhTvDRဠRᔁhabke
而gv \boБ”os―ᄈhࠑҐ.
dhБwh \rRgmᄁ጑࢐,”oGKhN eE጑ᴘ
mRᄠ᪆EREaRhwcDLRCcᔝR脠Eoko脠KoTTz脠
VLRᔚoRiocDgဠ
ухь еычунтоун
⸠ЭDᰠwhGc\f
EzDଠToeCToဠgDoDbဠ(Article), \boeCTzȠh؎hᜠ
(Review)ⰠkowcDsᠠLcKosDhLᠠ(Editorial)ⰠVRᔋ
wᰠ(Letter)ⰠsTRGToဠLc贛TkRဠ(Book Review)
ᆆKL⸠dLᄠLogCcDᬠLvKᠠEREaRhwcDLRCcᔝR脠
RTKRsoDhLhᨠwhteఠeCRDzioDbgဠTᬠigc,
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鴛‚gctᰠ/DᰠArticl攠ᆆReview⸠2LhwᬠDhth,
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hEzCTᰠVhaeCo4ఠLokThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahs. Тos,
ജsewcTD造DRVᠠReviewⰠ«ToeCTzȠh؎hL»,
᪆ᔗcKTcРmRDRLe4DgဠEhacᬠosDRiThⰠCcР
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Toጋ࢐S‘KLcghi,”hDhLzc‖ᴘko࢐‘iDhLo
wᄠ᪆gDoDbᬠᄬ―hhDicDgDicTThⰠVcLcTcgcTz
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DhLⰠshTcCThⰠwhGcఠesokoDଠ᪆gDoDbᬠᔗoke
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/DᠠRT(hLwomRဠEeഛఠVcLcTcgcTᠠ᪆Eokz
mRDᄗhioࠑv.
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hLtoTRkomRvРᆆgDLoToРgacKecఠVhvᔈRDଠ
c鴛“KRࠠwhwcTDⰠᔚvkoTTzȠᖆghoiDhL
gDihw⸠9e鴛gDiec\f \bcᔝhabsᰠᔁhghEhᨠgCcDᠠ
gDoDcN, \boVRgoࠈzS \bcgshጋsᄄR‘iDhLoБ.
9owzȠVLhgDhȠRภTR脠騠«VhaTzȠgCcD»,
whole (Raᄠtotal) countingⰠshDhLzȠVLcKVh
aotocDⰠCDᰠsoGജwᘠRภghoiDhLhᨠkogCR
DziocDgဠVᰠhKThȠgDoDbc⸠yoVRgoጠoiDhᜠ
gDoDb耠᪆hKRThCsᘠRaᄠ᪆ghDLeKTRCcgDiᬠ
ᖆ2〠shaactowᄠ騠/DᰠigᬠLoiTᰠVa4ᔠhKTᠠ
VeEaRsomRဠ᪆ctᰠgDoDRgDRsc. ТᰠGᬠgowhᬠ
KaဠhLtoTRkomRȠᆆgDLoT㨠cgaᄠhLtoTRkomRဠ
(gDLoTo⤠ShDဠE造hKRࠠLoภesokoTᠠ᪆ᔁRᔝᬠ
wcgఠLoEhD造oiDhLhᨠgDoDbᄬ₌DᠠVeEaRsomRဠ
gCRDocDgဠsoᴠ贛aRshРVLRToKac輘UoဠcȠ
(R‚gcw“gDoጋ࢐w“LtoࠑkomRvw/gDLoTow
gh᠚DhLhi \b᠗᠚Tc).
dhwRwᰠ/DhtᰠcgDଠTcᔝhabsᰠᔁhghEhᨠ
«KLhEThtᰠgCcDo», fractional counting⸠lgaᄠ
oiDhLhᨠ᪆gDoDbᬠ
, \fᰠgCRDocDgvⰠCDᰠsoGKzȠ
ToVRgoa 1/
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sR脠ജacȠToShKRDgဠgewwoLToဠVeEaRsomR
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Dow. ТᰠGᬠgowhᬠKaဠhLtoTRkomRN: soGKoဠ
gDoDbဠLoᔁLcKcavcDgဠVᰠigcРhLtoTRkomR
vР᪆LoiTz脠ജav脠Raᄠ᪆KhavSⰠVLhVhLmRh
ToabTz脠CRgaᘠoiDhLhᨠRภghhDicDgDie4鴛Ƞ
hLtoࠑkomᄑ. BLhE࢐N gCcD LᄄcTvcDgv
soᴠKaဠVeEaRsomRȬ‌oᴠᆆKaဠmRDRLhioTRN,
shDhថc“TR haeCRaR.
nᰠigc脠RTKRsoDhLoSⰠshDhLzᬠEeKeఠLog
ᔄhDLcT造᪆TogDhv鴛ȠtaoicⰠEeഛఠRᔁhab
khioDbgဠDhabsᰠwcDh\r whole counting. lth
hDaRCocఠVLhgDhDoⰠhKTosᰠgacKecఠVhw
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hLtoࠑkomᄑ. g጑ \rio‑጑ hacc‖Cc࢐S
Rk \roTࠜth‑TgDRDeఘ \boVRᔘaR―ఘDb4
᪆ghoiDhLgDic, \fᰠsoGKzȠRภTR脠VhaeCRD
VᰠhKThȠgDoDbᬠ᪆ᔚh耠VeEaRsomRhTTe4
gDoDRgDRse⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ LhgDoဠgewwo
Vh‑TKᄚRKeoጋ࢐w hᴘkoDcavw‘iDhLhi
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gఘDRgDRᴑ“ᜉoTRkomRR”os₍cጜth₌Dh,
hCciRKThⰠhKTᠠgDoDbv⸠2LhwᬠDhth, \roGc
cgaᄠoiDhᜠhKR\b, \bᰠhࠠesokoጬ oVLRwcL,
KiᠠwcgDᠠLoEhD造᪆Kie脠LokTz脠gDLoToS
(/DᰠiVhaTᬠiᰎwhGTh), \fᰠDosoဠVeEaR
somRဠVLᄠRᔁhabkhioTRᄠwhole counting
hKThiLcwcࠈh hKࠑwcD \bo‛Kᄈᆍe―DoDR
gDRsᘠKie脠LokTz脠aoEhLoDhLRȬ‍ie脠Lok
Tz脠hLtoTRkomRȠᆆKie脠LokTz脠gDLoT.
0,C,0, Wcb md Sagclac Cmpc Cmjjcargml
MDos, Web of Science C䌠viavcDgဠEokhȠ
KoࠈzS₍RDᄗhioࠑာ₫ERE጑hwcDLRCc
ᔝhN묠EokhȠKoTTzS⸠rTᠠghഛLGRఠgcwଠ
Eahshᨠ(Raᄠ«RkKoTRN», editions⤠ᆆ᪆gewwᬠ
hSioDziocఠEhacᬠ12 000 \boeCTz脠GeLToahᨬ
12 00〠gcLRȠDLeജᨠshT(cLcTmRȠᆆEhacᬠ
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Thomson ReutersⰠR脠taoiThȠCogDb4⸠.ahsᄬ
RภshDhLz脠ghgDhR\f Web of Scienc斆CCⰠgh
ഛL輘ఠLokaRCTzᬠDRV造ജsewcTDhᨠVᰠLok
aRCTzРLokഛaoРToesᄠ(ᨠgowhРIRLhshР
gwzgac₌జज―ahio):
Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE⦆騠
GeLToa造VᰠcgDcgDicTTzЬ‌cSTRCcᔝRЬ
wcKᆍᄈgsᄄ \boeᴘw ((Rkᄝo,₁ᄄRာ o
DcwoDᄝo, RhahtRာ‑T(hLwoDᄝo‑)iz
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oLSRᨠᖆ1898 \t.
Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI⦆騠GeL
To᎐ h“EUcgDicࠈ逄 \boeᴘw (/shThБ
so, ᬈcK輄ᬈD,―hmRhahtRv, ᜘ih, h
aRDhahtRvⰠRgDhLRဠᆆD. \r.)㬠oLSRᨠᖆ189㢆t.
Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI⦆騠
GeLTo᎐ h \tewoࠑDoL࢐w \boeᴘw (RgDh
LRvⰠaRDcLoDeLhicഛTRcⰠRᔝeggDihicഛ
TRcⰠLcaRtRhicഛTRᬠᆆD⺆K.)㬠oLSRᨠᖆ1975 \t.
Conference Proceedings Citation Inde碆阠
Scienc斆騠DLeK造shT(cLcTmRȬ hᔚv鴛T
࢐S‛gDcgDicࠈ逄, \fcSࠑCcgsᄄ, cKR
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Conference Proceedings Citation Inde碆阠
Social Science & Humanitie玆騠DLeK造shT
(cLcࢍᄂ, hgivUcࠈzS“EUcgDicࠈ逄
ᆆtewoTRDoLTzРToesow㬠oLSRᨠᖆ199ゆt.
Book Citation Inde碆阠Scienc斆騠sTRtᄬ h
ᔚv鴛TTzᬠcgDcgDicTTzЬ‌cSTRCcᔝRЬ
wcKRmRTᔝRРToesow㬠oLSRᨠᖆ2005 \t.
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Humanitie猠騠sTRtᄬ hᔚv鴛TTzᬠhE鴛
gDicࠈ逄‑)tewoࠑDoL࢐w \boeᴘw;‘LSᄚ
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ELRsᬠ«Information Science & Library Science묠
᪆SSC䤠ᆆᴠ«Computer Science Multidisciplinary
Applications묠᪆SCIE.
ᤠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠWeb of Science C䌠RT
ഛsᔑLecఠhshaᰠ15〠LhgᔑNᔝR脠RkKoTRȠ
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sh, Vh/DhwᘠWeb of Science C䌠ജVhaTv4D
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зуэоншып чнч чтшыды
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TᰠᆆwcDhജahtRCcᔝhȠhᔈhi造Rᔁhabkec
wz脠RTKRsoDhLhᨬ 造EeഛРhEᰎToCoDଠKiᬠ
icLᔑᄠsoᴠInCitesㄠᆆInCites2.
dhKCcLsTcРc鴛‗okⰠCDᰠigᬠKoTTzcⰠVLR
icഛTTzᬠ᪆JCR, ES䤠ᆆInCitesⰠLoggCRDoT造Vᰠ
Web of Science C䌠ᄬ―DLhtᰠthihLv, ghഛL
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GeLToaoЬ‘iDhLoЬ“LtoTRkomRvРᆆgDLo
ToРVLRihKv\f \raဠeജEThtᰠRᔁhabkhioTRဠ
᪆ᔁcmRoabTz脠oToaRDRCcᔝR脠«ToകDLhN
soS묠JCR, ES䤠ᆆInCites.
2.2⸠dTKwvObMtꀠklw缋BlETMD଄‌bObB괠
(ЁGOvb-ЈKАObMtf)
2₌Dhwe \boREhጛc‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTThwe
saogge‑TKᄝoDhLhi₍RDᄗecwhgDR“DTh
gvDgဠVhsokoDcaᄬ“贛TRio4URᬠCRgaᰠgᖐ
ahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠᪆ᔗcKTcРhKThȠgDoDbcȬ
᪁hKv鴛Ƞ᪆TcshDhLhᬠkoKoTThᬠwThGcgDiᰠ
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ.ₗDh hteD zDb―DoD଑‑k”osh
th-aREᰠGeLToaᠠRaᄠLoEhD造hVLcഛacTTh
tᰠoiDhLoⰠRggacജioDcabᔝhtᰠshaacsDRio,
hLtoTRkomRᄬ₍cahȠgDLoT造ᆆD. \r.
Чo鴛‚gctᰠRggacKecDgဠwThGcgDiᰠgDo
DcN,“VeE጑shioࠈzS‎o“VLcKcacࠈ适
(ᄝgᄗhioࠈ适 LhwcGeDhs‚Lcwcࠑ.₉o
VLRwcLⰠ/DᰠwhteఠEzDଠgDoDbᄬ oVRgoTTzᬠ
i)ࠛshDhLhw‑ggጛKeᬄhw‖TRiᬗgRDcDc
‎ᠠ
VvDRacDTRȠVLhwcGeDhᴠ2009–2013 \tt⸠ЭDh\f
RTDᬗioa,‚)Dᬃᬈᄛ”hDhLhth‚邁hKRaR
hmcࠑiocҐc―DoD଑, \bok通ocDgv₫VeE጑
somᄜTTzw“ᴈhw» (publication window).₉c
Лࠛc‚oGᬈ‚LᬄᬈThN‑TDᬗioa,‚)Dᬃc
TRc”ᰌhLhज
пыхыехшх ут юунуьх* ююышчх
хи чыуыэых ны учхуыпнтн
 LᄠVhകCcDᬠRw
VosD-RTKRsoDhLo. yoVLRwcL, /Dᰠwhte\f EzDଠ
gDoDbᄬ‚zIcKIRᬠ᪆2013 \t⸠ЭDhఠVLhwcGeDhᴠ
ᨗcwcTR \boຐiocDgv₫hᴈhw₍RDRLhioTRv»
(citation window).
dLR hKgCcDc‑ЁosD-ᄈKᄝoDhLhi (R)Ehጋ
IRTgDio RE጑hwcDLRCcgsRS‑TKᄝoDhLhi
᪆VLRTmRVc) \bchEShKRwᰠCcDshᬠhEᰎToCc
TRc”os eEaRsomᄜTࠜth“ᴈo,‌os‑)hᴈo
mRDRLhioTRvⰠ騠᪆VLhDRiThРgaeCoᬠwcDh
Kᄝo,“VLcKcav4Uov‑kwcLvcҐN‑TKᄝo
DhLⰠEeഛ\f \bcVhaToⰠᠠshLLcsDTzȠᆆhKTh
kToCTzȠVhകCcఠVhsokoDcaဠEeഛ\f \bciᰎ
whGcT⸠MDosⰠ᪆VLRicഛTThРTowᄠVLRwcLᬠ
w造E造gCRDoaᄠᔗcKTcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahsⰠVLR
geDgDie4UR脠᪆gDoDbv脠201㎆t⸠izShKo, \bᠠ
LoEhDz,“VeE጑shioࠈzc‚)2009–2013)tt.
eCc࢐Б,‗oEhDo4UᄄR‚)iekc
.₫萗cK
Tcc묠hEᰎToCocఠkഛᔋ‖ᔗcKTcTRᬠVᰠCRgaᘠ
hmᬈRi᠛w邁―DoDᬂ: \boNKᬈThc‘Egha4D
ThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahᴠKhaGTᰠEzDଠVhഛacTᰠTᠠ
CRgጜ―ఘDcN‚)VeEaRsomᄜTࠜw“ᴈc (D.)c.
To Rgah―DoDcN,“VeE጑shioࠈzS‖Cc࢐Б
iekᠠ
‚蘲009–201㎆tt.).
ꀘggwhDLcࠑc‑ЁosD-ᄈKᄝoDhLhi z
ToCTcРᖆGeLToabTz脠VhsokoDcacȬ h
gshabse‚ěLi逛“TR zaR‚icKᬈz‑ЛT
ࠜ \rav₏eᜈoጜi‑)To₏eᜈoabࠜN–RDc
᜘DeLc–ᬉи‚gᬉh LhRaa4gDLRLhioDb
RS‎oshࠜwcᜈhgDR.
0,0,C, Иапакт+иактод жзднала
2os―ᴘkoTh‚避c,‑ЁosD-ᄈKᄝoDhLz
viav4Dgv ToREhጛc ᜘gVLhgD᜘ࠛTTzwR
ᔗcKᄠVhsokoDcacȠmRDRLecwhgDR⸠ḠgowzР
RkicgD࢐w R)缑Lhsh‑gVhጋkecҐw gLc
KᄠTR脠viavcDgဠRwVosD-(osDhᜠGeLToaᠠ
(journal impact factor)⸠dLᄠctᰠVhകCcDᬠRg
VhጋkecDgv \rieSacDTcc eE጑ᴘmRhࠈhc“s
ࠜ‑)hKࠜacDTcc“ᴈh₍RDRLhioTRv.
MwVosD-(osDhᜠGeLToaᠠRkwcTvcDgဠRภ
thKᠠ᪆thKⰠVh/DhwᘠLoggCRDziocDgဠKaဠ
shTsLcDThtᰠ(hDCcDThth) \thKo⸠BaဠthK Y
RwVosD-(osDhL₏eL࠘ጘ‗oicT“DThIc
TR耠CRgaᠠigc脠gᖐahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠᪆thKᘠ
ꀑᔮ‹⸠Жᘗ࠘᎐ ᰠ᠝eᔌᄝᬬ‚ ᰗဍsᬠeڐ-
ᨘࠑဠᄄĘᴌ-괘ᴌᰗᠮ₄ᴗᄈ缜ఠᄈDᬗ괛нᠠ
ؘຐ‍᠈࢐脠䩃删(Thomson Reuters)
Y gDoDbvБ Koࠈhth GeLToao, i避cK缑Б
᪆thKo脠Y–ㄠᆆY–2, ᶆCRgaᘠ/DR脠gDoDcȠ(D⺆c.
ᶆCRgaᘠgDoDcȠGeLToaoⰠizIcKIR脠᪆thKo脠
Y–ㄠᆆY–2)⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ eEaRsomRhT
ThᬠhsTᰠ騠KiᠠthKᠠ[Y–1; Y–2] (h贛TRiocDgဠ
ᔗcKTvဠmRDRLecwhgDଠ/DhtᰠwThGcgDiᠠgDo
DcȠGeLToao), hsTᰠmRDRLhioTRဠ騠hKR\b th\r
[Y] (eCRD通o而gv₍RDᄗhioࠑာ―Kcaoࠈzc
i)谌hw hKe).
BLetᄄR―ahioБ,‑ЁosD-(osDhL₁oLos
DcLRkecఠᔗcKTcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠
᪆hDCcDThРthKᘠgDoDbvwᄠGeLToao, hVeEaR
shioTTzwR‚)Dᬃᬈᄛ \rieS LcKzഖUᆁ–cD.
dLhRaᎀgDLᄗecw₌Dh”hࠝLcD࢐w Lᄄc
Lhw. ᦆ2013 t. iᰠigc脠GeLToaoS, hSioCcTTz脠
Web of Science CCⰠEzaᰠgഛaoTᰠ12㔠gᖐahᴠ
TᠠgDoDbᄠGeLToaᠠ«OᔁcSᄠSRwRR»ⰠhVeEaR
shioTTzᬠ᪆2012 t., ᆆ154 gᖐasᄠTᠠctᰠgDo
Dbᄬ“VeEaRshioTTzᬠ᪆2011 \t⸠MDhtᰠgDoDbᄠ
«OᔁcSh᪻ⰠizIcKIRᬠ᪆2011–2012 \tt.ⰠVhae
CRaᄠ᪆2013 \t. 125 + 154 = 27㤠mRDRLhioTRN.
dLᄠ/DhР᪆2012 \t⸠GeLToጠhVeEaRshioጠ54
gDoDbᄬ‚)2011 \t. \fhGᬠ54ⰠRDhtᰠkᠠVLhwc
GeDhs 2011–2012 \tt. (VeEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh)
izIaᰠ10㠠gDoDcN⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ‑wVosD-
(osDhᜠGeLToaᠠ«OᔁcSᄠSRwRR묠᪆201㎆t.
LoicࠠhDThIcTR€ 279 : 108 = 2,58.
ngc₌DR \roࠈzc (ᴘs‑Dhthi适‑ЁosD-(os
DhL, \foᴠᆆgaotocwzᬠctᰠCRgaRDcaဠᆆkTowc
ToDcav⤠whGTᰠToNDᄠ᪆EokᬠKoTTz脠JCR⸠ТoР
hࠑ eE጑se而gv‛GcthKTh, \roࠈzc‎o“Cc
LcKThȠthഠhEzCTᰠVhviav4Dgဠ᪆R4Tc-R4
aᬠgacKe4鴛tᰠthKᠠ(D⸠c⸠RwVosD-(osDhL造
201㒆t⸠whGTᰠekToDଠacDhР201㖆t⸠ᆆD⺆K.)⸠yᠠ
LRg. 9 LRicഛࠠᔝLRTIhఠEok造KoTTz脠JCR
ᖆGeLToaowᄠVᰠosegDRscⰠshDhLzᬠeVhLvജ
Cc࢐ h‖E通oࠑ4‑ЁosD-(osDhLo.₂Lhwc
Dhth, ᬝhDhL逛‑kKoDcabgDio‗okЛUo4D
DcseURᬠkToCcTRဠRwVosD-(osDhLhᨠᔚhR脠
GeLToahᨠTᠠR脠icE-gDLoTRmoSⰠ᪆hDsLzDhР
ജgDeVc⸠ycLcKsᰠhTᄠghVLhihGKo4DgဠLoT
thizwᄠVhsokoDcavwᄠ(ᔄ. \roaccⰠV. 2.3.4).
yᠠKoTTzȠwhwcT\f (shTc贠2014 \t.ⰠVh
gጛKࠛc iz缛K缛c RkKoTᄛₚ JCR-2013)
wosgᄄoጋ࢐N‑ЁosD-(osDhL‑wccD₏eL
ToጠC䆆š A Cancer Journal for Clinicians,
I䚆㶆162,5⸠ЭDᰠghicLIcTTᰠTcicLhvDTzȠVh
sokoDcaଠ(GeLToጠVeEaRsecఠwoahᬠCRgaᰠ
gDoDcN, \bᰠVhaeCocఠwThtᰠgᖐahs)ⰠᆆEaR
輘NIRȠ«shTseLcTD»ⰠGeLToጠNew England
Journal of MedicineⰠhDgDocఠh\f \bctᰠLhiTᰠ
᪆DLᄠLoko, I䚆㶆54,4. 舘ᴠᆆwThtRᬠKLetRᬠ
LoᔁLcഛacTRဠ᪆EREaRhwcDLRᄬ‗oᔁLcഛ
acTRᬠGeLToahᨠVᰠRwVosD-(osDhLᘠᔑab
ࠜ―KᨑTeDh“DࠜgRDcabࠜ hᜄoabࠜth:
ge鴛gDiec\f \bcᔝhabsᰠGeLToahi-aRഛLhᨠ
R)hE缑LThc ThGcgDih‑kKoࠑN―)ࠑksᄄ
RwVosDhw⸠ᦆRDhtᬠwcKRoTᠠLoᔁLcഛac
TRဠRwVosD-(osDhLhᨠ᪆GeLToaoSⰠ᪁hKv
UR脠᪆SCIE (D⸠c⸠GeLToahᨠVᰠcgDcgDicTTzЬ
DcSTRCcᔝRЬ cKRmRTᔝRРToesow)ⰠLoiTᠠ
1,41⸠ТᰠcgDଠᔗcKᄠigc脠847㐠GeLToahᨠVh
ahiᄈo ᄄccD ᄄVosD-(osDhL‚避c 1,41,
ᢆVhahiRTᢆ騠TRGc.
rELoDᄄ‚ࠑwoࠑc: JCR \bc eE጑secD‑w
VosD-(osDhថ tewoTRఘᜈzS Geᜈoጜi (D.)c.
DcSⰠshDhLzᬠ᪁hKv\f
уышьчы
‚)Eok A&HCI).
ФosDhLhᨬ hEegahiaRio4UR脠/Dh, Tcᔝhab
sh⸠dLcGഛ‚gcthⰠ᪆tewoTRDoLTz脠Toeso脠
TRksRȠeLhicTଠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDcNⰠ᪆DhР
CRgaᬠRk-kᠠDhthⰠCDᰠEhabIe耠LhaଠRtLoc\f
sTᆏT᠐–RDᬗoDe᜘,‛c“DThgRDcabT᠐‗hab
izIcⰠCcР᪆hE鴛gDicTTz脠ᄬ)DcРEhacc,
cgDcgDiᬈT邁/Dc脈RиgᴑS/wcKRmRTgᴑS
ToesoS⸠2LhwᬠDhthⰠ᪆EhabIcȠwcLᬠmRDRLe-
而gv₫gDoLzc» oDcLRo᎐,“VeE጑shioࠈzc
iࠛ ᜘whs KieSጛDࠛth hsTo mRDRLhioTRv,
RᔁhabkecwhtᰠVLᄠVhകCcDᬠRwVosD-(os
DhLo. ngᬠ/Dᰠഛaoc\f VLosDRCcᔝᄠTciᰎwhG
Tzw g᜘iࠛTᄛ ToeCThth eLhiTv tewoTRDoL
TzS₏eᜈoጜi ᜑ hМUR‑wVosఘ.ₕDhEz
ࠛ‚ihKRDb‖иT邁‑蘑kKoDcጛN‚蘎᠆aeGKc
TRc, Thomson Reuter猠gacKecఠVhaRDRsᬠih
hE鴛 ᬠVeEaRshioDଠRwVosD-(osDhL造Kaဠ
RkKoࠑN h \tewoࠑDoL࢐w \boeᴘw.
0,0,0, Путилетний иапакт+иактод
жзднала* индеке опедативноети
2htKᠠthihLvఠᰠ«saogᔑCcᔝhw묠RwVosD-
(osDhLcⰠRaᄠ«toL(Raജiᔝhw묠RwVosD-
(osDhLcⰠRaᄠVLhgDᰠhؠRwVosD-(osDhLᬠEcภ
eDhCTcTRȬ‌ᰠRwc4ఠ᪆iRKᘠVhsokoDcabⰠiic
ഛTTzȠ᪆V. 2.2.1⸠rࠠeCRDziocఠmRDRLhio
TRvⰠshDhLzᬠgDoDbᄠGeLToaᠠVhaeCo4ఠ᪆Dc
CcTRᬠKie脠acఠVhgaᬠᔚhctᰠizShKo⸠rKTosᰠ
᪆Lvഛ ToeCTz脠KRᖍRVaR\b, hghEcTTᰠ᪆gh
mRoጋ࢐S‑)tewoࠑDoL࢐S \boeᴘS, Lh(cg
ᔑhToabThᬠghhE鴛gDiᰠTᬠeᔁciocఠ᪆Vha
ThȠwcLᬠihᔁLRTvDଠThihᬠkToTRᬠkᠠgDhaଠ
shLhDsRȠᔗhsⰠsoᴠKiᠠthKoⰠᆆ贛acghhELok
TᰠRᔁhabkhioDଠVhsokoDcaଠᖆEhacᬠIRLh
ᴑw eEaRsomᄜTTzw“ᴈhw.‒h/Dhwe‚)Eokc
KoࠈzS JCR \fosGc eE጑se而gv‎ToCcࠑv
VvDRጛDࠛth‑wVosD-(osDh᜘₏eLToahi.
Bav \tᰍo Y ဌRacఈRN‑wVosD-괘sDhL
GeLToaᠠLoicࠠhDThIcTR耠CRgaᠠigc脠gᖐ
ahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠᪆thKᘠ夠ctᰠgDoDbvwᄬ iz
IcKIRwᄠ᪆thKo脠ᖆY–ㄠVᰠY–5ⰠᶆCRgaᘠ/DR脠
gDoDcȠ(D⸠c⸠ᶆCRgaᘠgDoDcȠGeLToaoⰠiz
IcKIR脠᪆thKo脠ᖆY–1 VᰠY–5). ТosRРhELo
khЬ‑wVosD-(osDhᜠSoLosDcLRkecఠᔗcKTcᬠ
CRgaᰠgᖐahsⰠgKcaoTTz脠᪆hDCcDThРthKᘠTᠠ
gDoD଑ GeLToao, hVeE጑shioࠈzc i)DcCcࠑc
VvDR LcKzKeUᆁ–cD.
lg጑‖VhLvKhCRDb₏eLTo᎐ h‖E通oࠑ4
VvDRጛDࠛth‑wVosD-(osDh᜘,‗ckeabDoD e
ഛఠhDaRCoDbgဠhఠLoTGRLhioTRဠVᰠhEzC
Thwe‑ЁosDᘺ₏eLTo᎐, ଑ oDcLRo᎐
egDoLcio4ఠwcKacTTcc, \f⸠c. \fᬠRkKoTRv, \bo
gDoDbᄠshDhLz脠ഛaocDgဠkToCRDcabThᬠCRg
aᰠgᖐahᴠKoGᬠCcLcภVvDଠacఠVhgaᬠR脠Ve
E጑ᴘmᄑ, EeKeD ᄄcDb VLcᄄeUcgDih VcLcK
GeᜈoaowR, haeCo肝RwR“gࠜᨈhc Rgጜ
ggzahs \bo oDᬗRoaz ᬈcc ᬄ \fLcSጛDࠛN
KoiThgDR⸠MkicgDThⰠCDᰠᔝhLhgDଠ«gDoLc
TRv» eEaRsecМth Geᜈoጜw‎ToTRv‚)VcL
ie耠hCcLcKଠkoiRᔑఠhఠctᰠKRᖍRVaRToLThN
hEaogDᄠ(VhKLhETcᬠᔄ. \roaccⰠLokഛጠ2.7).
Posgᄄoጋ࢐N vDRacDࠑN‑ЁosD-(os
DhᜠKaဠGeLToahᨠRภSCI䔠Loic\b 107,7Ⱐwc
KRoTᠠ騠1,50. rTᠠTcᔝhabsᰠizIᬠwcKRoT造
KieSacDTctᰠRwVosD-(osDhLᠠ(1,41)Ⱐ/DᰠᔚR
ഛDcabgDiecఠᰠDhЬ DᰠVvDRacDTRȠVhsoko
Dcጋ hacc hገh“SioD通ocD₍RDᄗhioࠑာ
VhaeCcࠈzc₏eLToaoБ.
5oЛDRw Dᬁᬗb, CDh VLR izCᄕጛTRR sos
ᄄVosD-(osDhLo, \fos‑)VvDRacDTcth‑ЁosD-
(osDhLᠠTᬠeCRDzio4Dgဠgᖐasᄬ gഛaoTTzᬠ
TᠠDᬠgDoDbᄠGeLToaoⰠshDhLzᬠizIaᄠTcVh
ᔗcകDicTTᰠ᪆hDCcDThРthKe. rTᄠ«VLhVo
Ko4D묠KaဠGeLToaoⰠcgaᄠw造RᔁhabkecР
Dhabsᰠ/DᄠKiᠠVhsokoDcav⸠ТcРTᬠwcTcᬠ
DosRᬠmRDRLhioTRဠigDLcCo4Dgဠᄬ hacᬠ
DhthⰠR脠CRgaᰠRwccఠgcNCoᔠDcTഛTmR耠
ᶆeicaRCcTR耠VᰠVLRCRTᬠigᬠEhacᬠCogDh
th‗okЛUᬈRv LᬁLRTDhi‚)MTDᬗࠛDc,
hDsLzDRဠᔁcmRoabTz脠LokഛahᨠTᠠgoNDo脠
RkKoDcabgDᨬ ഛ eEaRse4DgဠVLcKioLR
DcabTzᬠicLᔑᄠgDoDcȬ VLRTvDz脠᪆VcCoDb,
ᠠDosGᬠhE鴛tᰠeᔝhLcTRဠVLhRkihKgDicT
Thth₍ᄝao \boeC࢐S‑kKoDcጋgDi.‒hᴘko
Dcጋ,₭ᄝgᄗe4Uᄂ₍RDᄗhioࠑv₫Dhth₏c
thKo», \fosGᬠVeEaRsecDgဠ᪆EokᬠKoTTz脠JCR
ᆆTokziocDgဠimmediacy index⸠.eഛРTokz
ioDଠctᰠ«RTഛsghРhVcLoDRiThgDR묠(KLethȠ
i᠗R᠈D cLcihKo, \f᠝Gc LcKa᠉᠚IRN
gv‚)aRDᬗoDeLc,ₚ₫RTKᬝg ᬄcKጛTThth
mRDᄗhioࠑv»).
MTKᬝg“ě᜘DRiThgDR LcKVhaot᠛D“K
ࠜacDTcc eEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh‑)hKࠜacD
Tcc“ᴈh₍RDRLhioTRv, ᜑCcw“TR―hᨁo
Ko4\f 騠/DᰠhDCcDTzȠth\r Y. BaဠizCRgac
TRဠRTഛsgᠠTchEShKRwᰠLokഛaRDଠCRgaᰠ
igc脠gᖐahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠᪆thKᘠ夠gDoDbvwᄠ
GeLToaoⰠizIcKIRwᄠ᪆DhРGᬠthKᘠY, \bᠠ
Cᄕah₌Dᆁ―DoDᬂ.‏TKᬝg“ě᜘DRiThgDR
Vhᴘk通ocD, \bogshጋsh zgDLh‖Cc࢐N ᄗ
LᬘtRLec\f \bᠠgDoDbᄠGeLToaoⰠsoᴠᔝhLᰠihg
VLRTRwocఠctᰠDcsgD造ᆆRᔁhabkecఠR脠VLᄠ
ihgVLhRบhKgDic \boeCࠜth‎ToTRv.
9oҐN hጋIhN‑TKcsg“VcLoDᄚThgDR
᪆JCR-2013 (ᘠDhtᰠGᬠGeLToaᠠCA š A Cancer
Journal for Clinicians) š 27,76⸠PcKRoTᠠVᰠ
GeLToaoРRภSCI䔠VLcകsokecwᰠwoaᢆ騠
0,27⸠dLosDRCcᔝᄠKaဠsoGജtᰠGeLToaᠠRT
Kcsg“VcLoDRᨈhgDRₚ―owzN \bRฝRN hso
koDcጋ‑k \fLcS‗oggwhDLcࠈzS‑ЁosD-ᄈKR
soDhLhᨠ(hKTosᰠigDLcCo4DgဠᆆRᔝa4CcTRv,
ToVLRwcᜠPhysics of Life Review猠RaᄠAnnals
of Family Medicine, \tKᬠRTഛsᔠhVcLoDRi
ThgDᄬ TohEhLhD, izIᬠKieS- ᆆVvDRacDTctᰠ
ᄄVosDhi).
0,0,1, Сдеднуу цитидзеаоеть
yoLvKᘠᖆRwVosD-(osDhLhЬ LoggCRDzioc
wzw \rav₏eᜈoጜi, hGࠜ‚icgDR‘ToጜtRC
TzȠVᰠgeDᄠVhsokoDcaଠKaဠh贛TsᄠᔗcKTcȠ
iaRvDcabࠜgDR―ఘDcN“DKcabࠜth‖Ccࠜth,
R጑–oEhLoDhLᄑ/(oseጋDcDo,‑጑“Ltoࠑ
komRRⰠRaᄠ贛ahȠgDLoTz⸠ychEShKRwᰠaRIଠ
ko(ᄝgᄗhioDb, ᴘs R)Kav ᎀEhth ᄄVosD-
RTKRsoDhLo, eEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh‑)hᴈh
mRDRLhioTRဠRgShKဠRภgacKe4鴛ȠahtRsR.
lgaᄠRkeCoDଠDhabsᰠgowzᬠᔚcGRᬠgDoDbᄬ
DᰠwThtRᬠRภTR脠c鴛 ᬠToEcLeఠജgDoDhC
ThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahsⰠ᪆VhaThȠwcLᬠhDLo輘4
鴛ᬠR脠ToeCTzȠeLhicTb⸠蒆KLethȠgDhLhTz,
cgaᄠgKcaoDଠos贛T\f \bᠠgDoDbvSⰠizIcKIR脠
KoiTh, \fᰠTᬠeKogDgဠh贛TRDଠDcse鴛ᬠghgDh
vࠑc‑ggacKhioࠑN‘iDhLo/hLtoࠑkomᄑ.
2os V᜘iRah, Lᄛwጛwzw‗᭿ᬈᄛw‐iav
cDgv‑gVhጋkhioࠑc vDRacDTcth eE጑ᴘ
mᄜTࠜth“ᴈo‑)ghᨁoKo肝cth―)TRw“ᴈo
mRDRLhioTRv⸠ᦆ/DhРgaeCoᬠgCRDocDgဠᔗcK
TcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahs, VhaeCcTTz脠kᠠVhgacK
TRᬠVhaTzᬠVvDଠac\f \fcwᄠgDoDbvwᄬ”hDhLzᬠ
izIaᄠ᪆DcCcTRᬠDc脠GᬠVhgacKTR脠VvDᄠac\f
(ᨠLogCcDᬠTᠠhKTᘠgDoDb4).
ᤠES䤠RT(hLwomRဠKocDgဠVᰠVhgacKTRР
ഛgvDᄠthKoЬ a4ᔠVLhIcKIoဠCogDଠDcse
鴛tᰠthKᠠ(ᔠkoഛLGshȠ᪆2 wcgvmo), Tᰠge
鴛gDiecఠiᰎwhGThgDଠVLhᔄhDLᠠhDKcabTᰠ
soGജtᰠVvDRacDTctᰠRTDcLioaoⰠ᪁hKv鴛tᰠ
᪆ഛgvDRacDse.
5owcDRЬ DᰠKaဠEeLTᰠLokiRio4URS
gဠhEaogDcȬ ഛ‎ToTRᬠEzgDLᰠegDoLcio
cD (ఘᴑS”os \boࠜDc脈hጜtRR,“TshጜtRv,
VLRsaoKT᠐₭RkRso), h輈h‚zE᜘Db‚Lc
ЛTThN‑TDᬗioa ᬈb缛 vDR–cD; \rav“E
aogDcN, \tഛ―DoLcTRᬠkToTRဠVLhRgShKR\f
hghEcࠈh \rhጉh (woDcwoDᄝo,‎hhahtRာ―h
mRhahtRv)ⰠRwccఠᔄzgጠeicaRCRDଠhEᠠhs
To. ᦆInCites cgDଠiᰎwhGThgDଠVhgCRDoDଠ
Kav“Ltoࠑkomᄑ‑጑‘iDhLo hᴘkoDcጋ
«cites per document묠(mRDRLecwhgDଠ᪆Log
CcDᬠTᠠhKTᘠgDoDb4) \bᠠa4EhРiLcwcTThР
VLhwcGeDᴛ.
0,0,2, Совокзпный и едедневзвешенный
иапакт+иактод
舘ᴠgacKecఠRภhVLcഛacTRvⰠRwVosD-(os
DhᜠviavcDgဠTᬠSoLosDcLRgDRshȠGeLToaᠠ
soᴠ贛ahthⰠᠠVhsokoDcacРᔗcKTcȠiaRv
DcabThgDᄬ―LcKTctᰠeLhiTဠ
ыеоыц юунуьх
᪆GeLToac⸠dLᄠ/DhРLᬘabTzȠeLhicTଠgDo
DcN,‑kwcLcࠈ适‚)VhaeCcࠈzS‑Б―gzጝoS,
hEzCTᰠᔑabTᰠLokTRDgဠhఠgDoDbᄠᶆgDoDbᬠ
KoGᬠ᪆Lowso脠hKThtᰠGeLToao⸠ᦆGeLToaᬠ
ᖆRwVosD-(osDhLh 2,〠whteఠigDLcDRDbgဠ
soᴠDᬠgDoDbᄬ shDhLzᬠ᪆DcCcTRᬠKie脠ac\f
VhgaᬠᔚhctᰠizShKᠠTᬠVhaeCRaᄠTᄠhKThȠ
gᖐasᄬ‌oᴠᆆDcⰠCDᰠVhaeCRaᄠ2〠gᖐahᴠ
(ToVhЈᄄ:‑k“VLcKcacࠑv‑ЁosDo―ac
KecDⰠCDᰠ᪆ᔗcKTcР᪆DoshРGeLToaᬠgDoDbဠ
VhaeCoc\f 4 ᖐasᄠkᠠKiᠠthKoⰠgacKe4UR脠
ko thKhw VeE጑ᴘmᄑ). MЁosD-(osDhL“D
Lo輘cఠᔗcKT4耠mRDRLecwhgDb, \bᰠTᬠwhGc\f
eCcgDଠshacEoTRဠihsLeठᔗcKTcth.
MwcTTᰠRgDRTThcⰠLᬘabThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐ
ahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠gDoDbcNⰠhDLo輘cఠcᬠVhK
጑ࠈe4‚጑vDcጋThgDb,‘‑ЁosD-(osDhL‑k
KoTRvⰠ᪆shDhLhРhTᠠhVeEaRshioToⰠഛaoc\f
/DᰠaRIଠshᔚcTTᰠᆆTcജgDhicLTh⸠dh/Dhwᘠ
᪆V. 2.2.㌠w造gCRDoaᄠRwcTTᰠLᬘabTe耠mR
DRLecwhgDb⸠rKTosᰠᚆwcDhKRsⰠVhgDLhcTTz脠
To‑kЛLᬈRR‑gDRTThth,₫T᠆a4K᠛whth»
CRgaᠠgᖐahsⰠcgDଠgcLbckTzȠTcജgDoDhs:
Kav‘KᬝioDThN“mᬈsR‑ggጛഖᬄ邁‗᠆hD
TchEShKRwhⰠCDhE造VhgaᬠR脠hVeEaRshioTRဠ
VLh缛a kToCRDcabTzN VLhЛGeDhs iLᬄc
TR⸠9DoDbᄠജaGT造eᔁcDଠVhaeCRDଠDᰠCRgaᰠ
gᖐahsⰠshDhLhᬠhDLo輘cఠR脠LᬘabTzȠeLh
icTbⲆ騠᪆V. 2.2.㌠w造LcshwcTജioaᄠᖆ/DhȠ
mcጋ4 vDRacDࠑN‑TDcLioa.
niRഖ₌Dhth sos ᬝhDh᜘v hmᬈso‑ЛTTh
hVcLoDRᨈhth ghgDhvTRv ToeCࠜN KcvDcab
ThgDᄠhLtoTRkomRᄠᆆ騠LcGᬠ騠eCcThtᰠRg
VhabkecDgv ᰝokoDcab, oฑLe肝Rнv \bo
RwVosD-(osDhLᬠDc脠GeLToahᨬ ഛ‚zShKvD
R脠gDoDbR⸠ТoshȠRTKRsoDhᜠwhGcఠEzDଠVh
gCRDo\b ᔗokᘠVhgaᬠizShKᠠghhDicDgDie4
鴛ȠVeEaRsomRᄠ(ᠠ᪆RkicgDThРᔄzgaᬠKo
GᬠLoTbIcⰠ᪆whwcTఠVLRTvDRဠgDoDbᄠ᪆Vc
CoDb).₂hLLcsDࠜc haࠜc \boบoTRc \roTࠜth
ᄈKᄝoDhLoₚ₫ghihseV࢐N‑ЁosD-(osDhL
Geᜈoጜi, i)shDhថS hVeEaRshioTz gఘDbR
hᜉoTRkomRR/eCcࠜth».₠oggCRDziocDgv“T
ko ᬝhDhLzN LhЛGeDhs‚LᬄᬈR, \rav
hVcLoDRᨈhth“mcTRioTRv–htRCࠜ LoDb
hKᄈ (koicL缑i缑Ngv) \thK.‒hᴘkoDcጋ‗o
icࠠgewwᬠRwVosD-(osDhLhᨠDc脠GeLToahᨬ
i)shDhLzS VeE጑shio጑gb gDoD଑ hLtoࠑko
mRR/eCcThth㬠cgaᄠcgDଠTcᔝhabsᰠgDoDcȠRk
hKThtᰠᆆDhtᰠGᬠGeLToaᠠ騠ghhDicDgDie4
鴛ᬠgaotocwhᬠewTh輘cDgဠTᠠCRgaᰠgDo
DcȬ‚zIcKIR脠᪆KoTThРGeLToac.
9hihseV࢐N‑ЁosD-(osDhL₁oLosDcLRke
c\f (soᴠᆆgacKecఠRภctᰠTokioTRv⤠ഛvDcab
ࠜgDb“ᜉoTRkomRR/eCcࠜth₫RTDctLoabࠜ».
lgaᄠTchEShKRwᰠiicgDᄠh贛Tsᘠ᪆LogCcDᬠ
To“KTe“VeE጑shioࠈe4―DoD஀,‑gVhጋ
ke而 \fcLБT₫gLcKTcikicIcࠈ适‑ЁosD-
(osDhᜠGeLToahᨬ‚)shDhLz脠hVeEaRshioT造
gDoD଑“Ltoࠑkomᄑ/eCcThth».‒hgacKࠑN
LoicT“DࠜIcTR4 ghihseVࠜth RwVosఘ,”h
DhLzȠiicഛࠠizIcⰠᶆhE鴛wᘠCRgaᘠhVeEaR
shioTT邁‎o‗᠕gwoDLRi᠛wzN LhЛGeDhs
iLᬄᬈR―DoDᬂ.
9LcKTcikicIcࠈ适‑ЁosD-(osDhL h
sokziocఠᔗcKTRȠeLhicTଠgDoDcȠ᪆Dc脠GeL
ToaoSⰠ᪆shDhLz脠VeEaRsecDgဠhLtoTRkomRv/
oiDhLⰠᆆ᪆soshN-DᰠwcLᬠVᰎihavcఠVLcK
gᴘkoDb \roጋTcɿe4₍RDᄗecwhgDb‗oEhD
hLt᠈RkᢍRR/᠚DhLo.
9acKecఠRwcDଠ᪆iRKe, CDᰠghihseVTzN
R)gLcKTcikicIcࠈ适‑ЁosD-(osDhLz―Rጋ
TᰠkoiRgvఠhఠhEaogDᄠkToTRvⰠ᪆shDhLhȠLo
EhDocD‖Cc࢐N /₭eࠝmRhࠑLecD“Ltoࠑko
mRv⸠dLᰠThLwoaRkomR耠VᰠhEaogDvРToesR
LcCଠVhNഛఠ᪆LokKcaᬠ2.3⸠lgaᄠGᬠhtLoTR
CRDbgv‗oНoБ“KThN \rRgmᄁ጑࢐ (ToVLR
wcLⰠRggacജioDଠഛvDcabThgDଠhDഛabThth
eиThth‑aR‖kshDᬄoDRиgshN–᠆h᜘Dh
LRR), \fh haeиTThc‎ToиTᄛ―LcKࠛikic
IcTThtᰠRwVosDᠠRTDcLcᔈᰠᔗoiTRDଠᖆVh
sokoDcacРVᰠigcРGeLToaoРKoTThȠKRᖍR
V጑࢐.ₛos hGTh“VLcKc጑Db,‚)«gRጋ࢐S»
Raᄠ«gaoEzS묠GeLToao脠VeEaRsecDgဠ᪆ᔗcK
ࠛw‖иTzN/a᠆h᜘DhLRv. av‑aa4gD᜘mRR
МGࠜ LcKgఘᨑDb, Dh“ᜉoTRkomRv/oiDhL
VeEaRse4DgဠigᬠiLcwဠ᪆hKThРᆆDhРGc
«ᔗcKTcw묠KaဠgcEဠGeLToac, \fhtKᠠRwcTTh
gLcKࠛiki᭿ᬈTzN‑wVosD-(osDhL“D᜘Go
cఠwcgDᰠ/Dhtᰠ«ᔗcKTcth묠GeLToaᠠ᪆RcLoL
SRᄠToeCTz脠VcLRhKRCcᔝR脠RkKoTRȠghhD
icDgDie4UcN \rRgmᄁ጑࢐
0,
0,3, Роль еааоцитидованиу,
Индикатоды* хадактедиззюние
еааоцитидование
5owcDRЬ DᰠTᠠigᬠVhsokoDcaᄬ‗okh
ELoTTzᬠ᪆TogDhv鴛РLokഛacⰠhsokzio4\f
i጑vࠑc‑)mRDᄗhioࠑာ―Kcaoࠈzc―oББ
«ᄕgጛഖᬄzwR“EъᬝDowR» \bo―cEv.’)᜘g
CcఠCRgaRDcaဠRwVosD-(osDhLᠠGeLToaᠠ
isa4Co4Dgဠ᪆DhРCRgaᬠgᖐasᄬ VhaeCcT
TzᬠRРRภctᰠGᬠgDoDcN⸠dLᄠh贛TsᬠᔗcK
TcȠmRDRLecwhgDᄠoiDhLᠠRaᄠhLtoTRkomRᄠ
eCDc࢐‑)mRDᄗhioࠑv‘iDhLhw/hLtoࠑko
mRcȠᔚhR脠VeEaRsomRȠᆆD. \r⸠ᦆᔚhcРgDoT
KoᜌThРhVLcഛacTRᄠigᬠLogᔄhDLcTTzᬠ
᪆TogDhv鴛РLokഛaᬠVhsokoDcaᄠ
пчшючн
юу юннычхухэыпнохт
ycabkဠᔝokoDbⰠCDᰠeCcఠgowhmRDRLhio
TRႆ騠/DᰠTcജgDoDhᴠLokhELoTTz脠wcDLRᴠ
Raᄬ ohEhLhDⰠR脠ᔑabToဠgDhLhTo⸠ychESh
KRwᰠkToDଠhؠ/DhȠhghEcTThgDᄠwcDhKRsᄠ
ᆆRwcDଠcᬠ᪆iRKe⸠dhackTᰠᔗoiTRioDଠVh
ᴘkoDc጑, hgCRDoࠈzc―)isᎀCcࠈ逄―owh
mRDᄗhioࠑcw‑)g‑gsᎀCcࠈ逄.₉oVLᄄcL,
2oᴠeVhwRToahgଠ᪆V. 2.2.1, LogVLcKcacTRᬠRwVosD-
(osDhLhi―RጋTh‘gᄄwcDLR̈h,―)TcEhጋ缑w Rgahw
GeLToahi―)izghsᄄR‎ToCcࠑငR‑ЁosDo‑)ЈhGc
gDihw‑kKoࠑN―)ࠑksᄄR hᴘkoఛaငR.ₗDh‚cLTh
᪆DhȠRaᄠRThȠwcLᬠKaဠa4EhȠKRgmRVaRTz⸠ЧogDᰠ
᪆DosR脠gaeCov脠EhacᬠshLLcsDTzРVhsokoDcacРviav
cDgဠwcKRoTTzȠRwVosD-(osDhᜠGeLToahi, ᪆shDhLz脠
VeEaRsecDgv‖иTzN/a᠆h᜘DhLRv,‚ЛgDh―LcKࠛth
(gLcKࠛiki᭿ᬈThth)‑wVosDo.₄hhDicDgDiᬈTh,―᜘i
TRioDb ᬉh gጛഖcD g)ЛKRoTTzw kToиTᄛw Vh‚gᬂ
KRgmᄁ጑Tc.
᪆JCR \raဠGeLToahᨠVLRihKRDgဠᆆRwVosD-
(osDhᜠ(saogᔑCcᔝRȬ‍ieSacDTRN), RภCRg
aRDcaဠshDhLhtᰠeELoT造gᖐasᄠGeLToaᠠTᠠ
gowhtᰠgcEႆ騠Impact Factor Without Journal
Self Cites.
Bav“mcTᴑ‖Lhᨈv―oМmRDRLhioTRv
Geᜈoጜi“EzCࠜ‑gVhabke4D \rio hsokoDc
av⸠ᦆCRgaRDcaᬠhEhR脠RTKRsoDhLh᪆騠CRg
aᰠgᖐahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠GeLToahРRภgDoDcȬ
hVeEaRshioTTzS‚)Tcw―oМw.ₕRgጜ₫ᔘ
МmRDRLhioTRN».’)จowcToDcac c᜚hth
VhsokoDcaဠCRgaᰠigc脠gᖐahs,
ьышучтооых
Geᜈoጜw.ₗDhD hsokoDcab \boຐiocDgv
эффхчхтоуын юннычхухэутныюух
ⰠhࠠVh
sokziocఠജa耠iᰠigc脠gᖐasoSⰠVhaeCcTTz脠
GeLToahЬ―ᖐahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠RРRภTctᰠ
ᔘМth. 5TowcToDcab iDhLhth VhsokoDcav
LoicࠠCRgaᘠigc脠gᖐahs,
юетшнооых
₏eL࠘
ahw⸠r\b \bokziocDgဠ
чыэффхчхтоуын юнны
чхухэыпнохя
‑)Vhsokziocఠജa耠iᰠigc脠
mRDRLhioTRvSⰠgഛaoTTz脠GeLToahЬ―ᖐ
ጜs,‚cKeURS \bo \bcth―oМth.
nzghᴑN”h/((RmRcTD―oМmRDRLecМgDR
thihLRఠᰠDhЬ DᰠGeLToጠVhCDᄠTRsDᰠTᬠmR
DRLecD, sLhwᬠTctᰠgowhth, ᆆ/Dh, Vᰠkosa4
CcTR4, ToVLRwcL, f⺆feggᰠ[Rousseau, 2002],
ᔚRഛDcabgDiecఠᰠwoahȠkowcDThgDᄠGeLTo
ao.’zghᴑN”h/((RmRcTD―oМmRDRLhioTRv
whGcఠᰎToCoDଠTcᔝhabsᰠKLethᬺ₏eLToae
Tcshth₍RDRLhioDb,”Lhwc―oМth―cEv.ₛh
cgDଠGeLToጠhDThᔑDgဠᶆkowsTeDhȬ‑khaR
LhioTThȠToeCThȠKRᖍRVaRTc⸠yᰠcgaᄠVLR
/Dhw ఘsGc ᪐ghs sh/((RmRcTD ᔘМmRDRLe
cwhgDRⰠwhGTᰠVLcKVhahGRDଠToaRCRᬠTc
/DRCࠜN‖gఘࠜ᨝R‚)VhaRDRsc‗cKoᶍRR \bo
mRDᄗhioࠑc \fhጋsh―hEgDicࠈzS―DoDcN.
Bav₏eᜈoጜi“EzCࠜ―CRఘcDgv \rhVe
gDRwzЬ c鴛 ᬠᔚRഛDcabgDie4URРᰠVLh
EacЈhgDR‑kKoࠑာ”h/((ᆍRcTD―owhmR
DRLecwhgDᄠ᪆30–35 %⸠dLᄠ/DhЬ”oᴠVLoiR
ahⰠhࠠizghᴠᚆgaoEz脠RkKoTRȬ haeCo4UR脠
woaᰠgᖐahsⰠᆆTRkhᴠᚆGeLToahi-aRഛLhi.
yoVLRwcL, \raဠKie脠LhgᔑNᔝR脠RkKoTRȬ
KoTTzᬠVᰠshDhLzРcgDଠTᠠDcseURȠwhwcTD
᪆hE鴛gDicTTh-ToeCThȠCogDᄠJCR-2013Ⱐsh
/((RmRcTD―oМmRDRLecМgDR―hgఘiavcD
71
% («9hmᄜጜtRCcgᴑc RggacKhioTRv»)
ᆆ75
% («nhVLhᖐ ᔑShahtRR»)⸠ЭDᄠGeLToaz
ToShKvDgv‚ࠑke‑ЁosD-LcNDᄈthi‚)gihRS
KRgmᄁ጑ToS. g጑‚kvDb₏eLTo᎐-጑KcLz
᪆ghhDicDgDie4UR脠LeELRso脠JCR-2013, \fᰠKav
TR脠sh/((RmRcTఠgowhmRDRLecwhgDᄠEeKcD
1,9
% (American Sociological Review⤠ᆆ2,9
%
(Educational Psychologist)―hhDicDgDicTTh.
ᦆCogDThgDᄠ/Dh\f /((cs\f VLRihKR\f ᶆDhwe,
CDh‑gsa考cTRc―oМmRDRLhioTRv ᜑ‚z
CRgacࠑR ᄄVosD-(osDhLhi GeLToahi (D.
c.
eCcD Dhabsh ggzጜs, VhaeCcTTzS₏eᜈoጜw
RภKLetR脠RkKoTRN), soᴠVLoiRah, gaoEᰠiaRv
c\f \bᠠLcNDRTठicKeUR脠GeLToahᨠᖆizghsRwR
VhsokoDcavwRⰠhKTosᰠᔑabTᰠwcTvcఠikoRw
TzᬠVᰎRmRᄠ«TᠠKTc묠LcNDRTtoⰠᔗcKᄠwoah
mRDᄗecҐS‑kKoࠑN [gL. McVeigh, 2004].
ЧDh”oᔘcDgv―oМmRDRLhioTRv‘iDhLhi,
Kaဠctᰠh贛TsᄠVLRwcTv4DgဠoToahtRCTzᬠ
sh/((RmᄛTDz,‚)ěLie4“иLcKb”h/(
(RmRcTఠgowhmRDRLecwhgDR⸠rKTosᰠ᪆/DhР
gaeCoᬠcgDଠKiᠠLokaRCTz脠VhKShKᠠᶆDhwe,
CDh‑wcTࠜ―CRఘDb―oМmRDRLhioTRcw.
«dLvwhᬠgowhmRDRLhioTRc묠騠/Dᰠgᖐasᠠ
TᠠVeEaRsomR4ⰠᔗcKᄠghoiDhLhᨠshDhLhȠ
cgDb‑ggጛഖᬄzN‖иTzN, hviRiI᠐gv
᪆gDoDbcⰠᔗcKᄠghoiDhLhᨠshDhLhȠcgDଠDh\f
GᬠgowzȠeCcTzN⸠rKTosᰠcgDଠc鴛‑)gowh
mRDRLhioTRᬠghoiDhLhᨠ騠gᖐasᠠTᠠVeEaR
somR4ⰠᔗcKᄠghoiDhLhᨠshDhLhȠcgDଠRg
gጛഖᬄzN‖иTzN, hviRiI᠐gv‚)gDoDbc,
ᔗcKᄠghoiDhLhᨠshDhLhȠcgDଠghoiDhL(z)
RgShKࠜN―ఘDbR (Vᜑ₌Dhw―oМth‑ggacKec
whtᰠeCcThtᰠ᪆oiDhLo脠mRDRLe4鴛ȠVeEaR
somRᄠwhGc\f \bᬠEzDb)⸠dhvᔈRРVhKLhETcᬺ
VegDଠeCcTz S \boVRgoጠ(goРRaᄠ᪆ghoiDhL
gDic⤠gDoDb耠P1ⰠshDhLe耠mRDRLecఠgDoDbဠP2.
Эజ―CRDocకv:
VLvwzРgowhmRDRLhioTRcЬ‛gaᄠ历騠oi
DhᜠP2;
gowhmRDRLhioTRcРghoiDhLhᨬ‛gaᄠᔗc
KᄠoiDhLhᨠP㈠cgDଠShDဠE造hKRࠠRภoi
జLhi P1.
9hhDicDgDicTࠜ,”h/((RmRcTD―oМmRDR
LecwhgDᄠeCcThtᰠwhGcఠgCRDoDbgဠRaᄠsoᴠ
ജaဠ«VLvwhtᰠgowhmRDRLhioTRv묠iᰠigc脠
ggzጝoS,”hDhLzc VhaeCR጑‛th eE጑ᴘmᄑ,
Raᄠsoᴠജaဠ«gowhmRDRLhioTRဠghoiDh
Lh᪻‚ᰠigc脠gᖐasoSⰠVhaeCcTTz脠ctᰠLoEh
DoБ
⸠rCciRKThⰠCDᰠiDhLhȠsh/((RmRcT\f
EeഛఠigctKᠠEhabIᬠRaᄠLoicࠠVcLihwe⸠nh
hE鴛 thihLvⰠRᔝa4CcTRᬠVLᄠoToaRkᬠLo
EhఠeCcThtᰠigc脠gᖐahsⰠviav4URSgဠ«go
МmRDRLhioTRcw―hoiDhLhi», LcKaoघcD
icᔋwᠠLRthLRgDRCTzȠVhKShK: VhgCRDocР
Dhጋsh \fc₍RDᄗhioࠑာ”hDhLzc haeCc࢐
Rภ«ghigcРCeGRS묠LoEh\f 騠wThGcgDiᰠoi
DhLhᨠshDhLz脠TRsoᴠTᬠVcLcgcsocDgဠᖆwTh
GcgDihw‘iDhLhi₍RDᄗecwhN eE጑ᴘmᄑ.
ᤠkosa4CcTRᬠkowcDRЬ DᰠgowᰠVᰠgcEᬠ
ᔘМmRDRLhioTRc,”hTcCࠜ, \bc \fhabsh \bc
VhLhCT᠐ ᜘sDRso, \bh \roGc chDъᬄጛ
wov―hgDoiav4Uov \boeCThN”hЄeࠑᴘmᄑ.
ЖeLToጠTᬠwhGc\f \bᬠgᖐaoDbgဠTᠠᔚhᄠVe
EaRsomRᄬ₌DᰠᰎToCoaᰠE造hDgeDgDiRᬠigv
shN LccwgDicTࠜgDR‚)cth₭eTᶍᄜTRLh
ioTRR⸠9ahGTᰠVLcകDoiRDଠgcEᬠoiDhLo,
shDhLzȠE造TᬠgᖐaoagဠTᠠᔚhᄠVLcKzKe
URᬠLoEhD逬ₚ₌DᰠEzጠE造eCcTzȠaREᰠVh
gDhvTTᰠwcTv4URȠhEaogDଠഛvDcabThgDᄬ
aREᰠgDzKvURNgvⰠhDLcso4URNgဠhఠᔚhR脠
VLcGࠑS eE጑ᴘmᄂ.₉h \bcጋkv‑)Tc hw
TRDଠᲆiᰎwhGTz脠kaheVhDLcEacTRvSⰠshtKᠠ
gowhmRDᄗhioࠑc \tᄁcLDLh(ᄗecDgv‑)Rg
ᴘGocD RE጑hwcDLRCcgsᄂ‘To጑ฬ‛g጑
i)ࠛw c“Dgጛ輑ioDb \roTTzN‘gěsD.
5owcDRwⰠCDᰠ᪆gaeCoᬠᖆGeLToaowᄠDoshȠioLRo
DRiThgDᄠTcఠVᰠDhȠVLRCRTcⰠCDᰠhKTᠠᆆDᠠGᬠLoEhDᠠ
TᬠwhGcఠEzDଠhVeEaRshioTᠠgLokᘠ᪆Kie脠GeLToaoS,
D⺆c. \bᬠEziocఠ«GeLToahi-ghoiDhLhi».
2.3⸠dTKwvObMtꀠMଈMDЋBlETM괠
klw缋BlETMD଄‌bObB괠(MଈMDЋBlETfB,
TMtVO܄4MkOࠈfB VGOvb-
ЈKАObMtf)
Bᰠᔑ脠Vhᜠw造LogᔄoDLRioaᄠ«oEgha4D
࢐c»‑TKᄝoDhLz,”hDhLzc‎oiRgvD \fhጋsh
hD hsokoDcacN―oМth‑ggacKecМth₏eL
Toao/eCcThth/hLtoࠑkomᄑ‑)Tc‖CRD通o而
shTDcsgDⰠ᪆shDhLhРDᬠhge鴛gDiav4ఠᔚh4
RggacKhioDcጋgse4/VeE጑ᴘmRhࠈe4 \rcv
DcabࠜgDb. 萘wzN gcᜋcจzN TcKhgఘDhs ᜑ
/DhРDhⰠCDᰠw造TᬠeCRDzioaᄬ”)soshȠToeC
ThȠhEaogDᄠhDThgvDgဠh贛TRiocwzᬠgDoDbR.
9᜘iࠛTᄛ₌((ᬝDRiThgDR‘soKᬄRиgshN
KcvDcabThgDR LcKgDoiRDcጛN‗okaRCT邁
Toes \bcihคhGࠜ“geUcgDᨑDb―)VhМUb4
oEghᎀD࢐S,₫VLhgDzS»‑TKᄝoDhLhi.
гто
уэншьоын фнчуын* чыуыэыц отыохыехны
хнтуь п пхеу ьэх ычточт эффтчухпоыюух ет
яутшьоыюух учтоых хшх ыэднохинчхц* н унч
зт ьэх ычточт чнчтюупн зуэоншып япшятуюя
юхшьоня инпхюхныюуь ноюышюуоых охошхы
нтуэхчтючхх ьычнинутштц ыу онучоыц ехю
чхьшхоы* п чыуыэыц ьуошхчуюуюя хиучнтныц
нпуыэ-ыэднохинчхя хшх пыхыеху зуэонш,
dLhRaa4gDLRLecР/DᰠTᠠGeLToaoS⸠訑
DRLecМgDb₏eᜈoጜi―cᜋcจzw“ELokhw
koiRᔑఠhఠR脠KRᖍRVaRToLThȠVLRToKacG
ThgDᄬ h/DhwᘠwcKRoTᠠRwVosD-(osDhLhᨠ
ᔑabTᰠioLbRLecDgဠhఠLeELRsᄠᶆLeELRsc.
yoVᜑwcL, Kav sacDhCࠜN ᄜጜtRR i)JCR-
201㌠hTᠠghgDoiavc\f 3,33,  \raဠwoDcwoDR
sᆆ騠0,58⸠ЭDᰠᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠVhahiRTᠠGeL
Toጜi h”acDhCࠜN ᄜጜtRR‑wccD‑wVosD
izIᬠ3,33Ⱐ᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠVhahiRTᠠGeLTo
ahᨠVᰠwoDcwoDRsᬠVhaeCRaᠠRwVos\f \bRGᬠ
0,58. .hacᬠDhth, ᪆soDcthLRᄠ«woDcwoDRso묠
ihhE鴛 c\f \bᄠhKThtᰠGeLToaᠠᖆRwVosD-
(osDhLhw‚zIc 3,33 (Dᜑ‌oᴑS₏eᜈoao
VhvivDgvⰠcgaᄠജEoiRDଠsoDcthLRᄠ«VLR
sጘK࠘v oDcИDRso»‑)«ИDcИDRso, cG
KRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐c LRahGcࠑv»).
dhCcwᘠDoᴠVLhRgShKRD㼠9acKecఠaᄠthih
LRDଠᰠDhЬ DᰠwoDcwoDRsᠠRwccఠsosRc-Dᰠ
«TcKhgఘDᴑ»“DࠜgRDcabࠜ ᄜጜtRCcgᴑS
Toes, ᴘshN-Dh iTeDLcࠈᄂ RkъvT? ꀘkewc
cDgv, \bcD⸠yᠠgowhРഛaᬠwhGTᰠesokoDଠsoᴠ
Бࠑwew \fLR LRCᄈz‖ᴘkoࠈhth₌((csDo:
ꀘk጑CTov LosDᄝo₍RDᄗhioࠑာ―ah
輑iI᠐gv‚)GeLToaoS‗okaRCT邁 \boeCT邁
hEaogDcN㬠whGTᰠᔝokoDbⰠioLbRLe4Uovgဠ
᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠh\f \rRᖍRVaRT造«VahDThgDଠ
ggzጜCࠜth hav».₉oVᜑwcL,‑บcgDࠜ,
CDh i)hKࠜN―ఘDbc h”acDhCࠜN Eᄜጜ
tRᄠ᪆ᔗcKTcР5㔠gᖐahᴠ᪆VLRgDoDcNThР
ᔁRᔝᬠaRDcLoDeL逬 ᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠ᪆woDc
woDRsᬠ騠aRIଠ21 (JCR-2013). dh/Dhwᘠ«ic
LhvDThgDb묠VhaeCRDଠgᖐasᘠᚆGeLToaᠠVᰠ
woDᬄoDRsc ᬈb缛
.ₗDh‑TKᄚRKeoጋ
࢐c“ghEcࠈhgDR”hЄeࠑᴘmᄑ,‖shLc
ࠑi缑cgv‚)Lok጑C࢐S \boeᴘS‑)ࠑᴘs \bc
ᔚvkoTTzᬠᔠR脠«soCcgDihw묠hDThᔑDcabTᰠ
K᜖t \r᜖to.
ꀘk࢐N―LcKࠑN₫ihkLogD»₍RDᄗecҐS
RgDhCࠑshi. n)hKࠑS KRgmᄁ጑ToS hgThi
ThȠwogᔑᨠmRDRLhioTRȠicഛ\f \bᠠᔚcGe耠
aRDcLoDeLᘠ(VhVoKo4Ue耠᪆KieSacDTRȠ
VcᜑhK,”hDhថN‖CRDziocDgv ᜑ hK
gCcDᬠRwVosD-(osDhLo)Ⱐ᪆KLetR脠hEao
gDv脠ToesᄠCo鴛 mRDRLe4DgဠRgDhCTRsR,
i避cK缑c \roiTh (Ґ‖VhБTo጑“E₌Dhw
᪆V⺆2.2.㈠ᆆVhthihLRРVhKLhETcᬠ᪆Lokഛ
aᬠ2.7)⸠ЧcРEhabIᬠജaဠgᖐahsⰠicKeUR脠
TᠠജsewcTD造gDoLIᬠKie脠acD, \fcРwcTb
Ic“ࠑ hKࠑwo而‑ЁosD-(osDhLz₏eL
ToahᨠghhDicDgDie4鴛ȠhEaogDᄠToesR.
n ᬝhDhL邁 \rᄕmRVaRToS₍RDRLeᬄ᠐
aRDcLoDeLᠠShLhIᰠVLcകDoiacTᠠ᪆GeL
ToabTz脠Eahso脠Web of Science CCⰠᠠ᪆Tc
shDhLz脠igDLcCocDgဠwThtᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠ
woDᬗRoaz, c“SioиTT逛 okhN \roTT邁.
ꀘkewccDgာ kKcgb Ґ RgVhጋkecw ėRE጑Gcࠈ适
ĜKShK,“gఘiavv‚)gDhLᰈc cGKRgmRVaRToᜈhgDb
R)ihkwhGThgDb haeCcࠑv―gzጝR₫RkiTc» \rRgmᄁ጑࢐.
yoVLRwcLⰠ᪆Dc脠hEaogDvS, \tഛ habIᬠ
gᖐahᴠTᠠsTRGTzc,  \bᬠGeLToabTzᬠRg
DhCTRsR; \bᠠDLeK造shT(cLcTmRȬ‍RggcL
DomRRⰠshഛsᖐⰠRTDcLTcD-gDLoTRm造ᆆD⺆K.
[ᔄ. Lariviиre et al., 2006]⸠ngᬠ/Dᄠgᖐasᄠ
«VLhVoKo4D묠KaဠRwVosD-(osDhLo, \roGᬠ
cgaᄠVᰠᔚhcwᘠiᰎLogDᘠmRDRLecwoဠaR
DᬗoDe᜘ hVoK᠛D‚)KieSጛDࠛc eEaR
somᄜTࠜc hᴈh, — hTR ఘsGc Tc eicaRCoD
ᄄVosD ᄝoshth₏eLToao.
ЭDR \rRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐c“ghEcࠈhgDR \bc‖CR
D通o而gv‚)oEghᎀDThw‎ToCcࠑR‑ЁosD-
(osDhLoⰠCDᰠഛaoc\f \bciᰎwhGTzРctᰠRg
VhabkhioTRc‚)shwVacsgࠜw REaᄜwcDᜑ
иgshw‑ggጛKhioTRR.‒h/Dhwe \rav‗᭿ᬈRဠ
KieS‚o輈邁‎oKoC:‘)―᜘iࠛTᄛ cGഖ―h
EhȠRggacജioDcabᔝR脠cKRTRmⰠLoEhDo4
Uᆁ i)᜘kT邁 hEa᠕DvS \boesR; )”hwVጛsgT᠐
hmcࠝo \rcvDcጋThgDR“Ltoࠑkomᄑ,‎oࠑwo
4鴛NgဠRggacജioTRvwᄠᔗokᘠ᪆TcᔝhabsRS
ToeCTz脠hEaogDv脠騠iihKvDgဠ
ыуоыюхутшь
оыт
 RE጑hwcDLRCcgsRc ᄈKᄝoDhLz. 1cጋ
R脠騠h贛TRDଠToeCTe耠ഛvDcabThgDଠRkeCo
ᬄ邁“EъᬝDhi
п юэнпотохх
―)ഗeऑwR“KTh
DRVTzwᄠhEъcsDowᄠ᪆DhȠGᬠToeCThȠhEao
gDR.ₗDh―᜘iࠛTᄛ₫To₭hࠛ”haጛt»‑aR,
i)hELoDࠜN₭hᜄeaRLh᨝c,₫hDࠜgRDcabࠜ
shࠝeLcTDhi».—DThgRDcጋ࢐c‑TKᄝoDhLz
VhDLcEe4Dgဠ᪆DhРgaeCoc, cgaᄠTchEShKRwh
gLoiࠑDb KhgDRGcࠑv₁ᄄᄝo R)woDcwoDᄝo
R጑ haeCRDb‑TDctLoጋ࢐N hᴘkoDcጋ‚e
ko, ଑―hDLeKࠑsR eE጑se而―DoD଑‚)缑
LhshРᔁcsDLᬠToeCTz脠KRᖍRVaRT.
0,1,C, Отноеительный иапакт+иактод*
отноеительнау цитидзеаоеть
yoCTcРᖆhDThᔑDcabThtᰠVhsokoDcaဠKav
GeLToao⸠9owzȠVLhgDhȠRภTR脠騠hDThIc
TRᬠRwVosD-(osDhLᠠRkKoTRဠᶆᔗcKTcwᘠRw
VosD-(osDhLᘠKRᖍRVaRT逬 ᶆshDhLhȠGeLToa
hDThᔑDgv⸠dLᄠ/DhРᔗcKTcᬠVᰠKRᖍRVaRTc
hEzCTᰠEcLcDgဠTᬠsoᴠhDThIcTRᬠgeww造igcS
RwVosD-(osDhLhi₏eᜈoጜi \roTࠜN \rRgmR
VaRT造ᶆCRgaᘠDosR脠GeLToahᨬ‘ cᔝhabsh
ᄈoCc:‑gVhጋkecDgv \f. \b.₫otLctᄗhioࠈ适
RwV᠝D-(᠝DhL» (aggregate impact factor).
ԑᖍRVaRTᠠ᪆贛ahР(D⸠c⸠ghihseVThgDଠgDo
DcȬ“VeEaRshioTTz脠iᰠigc脠GeLToaoSⰠhD
ࠛgᬈT邁”)KoTThN \rᄕmRVaRࠛ)‗᠕gwoDLR
iocDgv”os \bcsᄂ‛Kᄈ适₫wcDoGeLToa», \rav
shDhLhth‚zCRgavcDgv \fLoKᆍRhࠈ适‑w
VosD-(osDhL: hDThIcTRᬠCRgaᠠigc脠gᖐahs,
VhaeCcTTz脠᪆thKᘠ夠gDoDbvwᄠKoTThȠKRᖍR
VaRTzⰠizIcKIRwᄠ᪆thKo脠Y–ㄠᆆY–㈬”)CRgae
gDoDcN \roࠈhN \rRgmᄁ጑࢐,‚避cK缑S‚)th
Ko脠Y–ㄠᆆY–2⸠ЭDhఠVhsokoDcaଠKaဠKRᖍRVaRT
soᴠ贛ahtᰠDosGᬠVeEaRsecDgဠ᪆JCR⸠MwcTTh
hT)—₫otLctᄗhioࠈ适» («ghELoࠈ适»)‑w
VosD-(osDhᜠKRᖍRVaRT造騠EcLcDgဠ᪆soCc
gDiᬠkTowcToDcavⰠRwcTTᰠTᠠTctᰠഛaRDgv
RwVosఠsoGജtᰠGeLToaoⰠCDhE造VhaeCRagv
hDThgRDcጋ࢐N‑ЁosD-(osDhL.
ᤠ贛ahРwhGTᰠᔝokoDbⰠCDᰠcgaᄠhDThᔑ
Dcጋ࢐N‑ЁosD-(osDhL₏eLToao hጋIc)1,
/DᰠkToCRDⰠCDᰠ᪆ᔗcKTcРgDoDbᄠGeLToaᠠ
mRDRLe4DgဠCo鴛ⰠCcРᔗcKTvဠgDoDbvⰠhVe
E጑shioࠈov i)KoࠈhN \rRgmᄁ጑Tc, R)To
hEhLhD⸠9acKec\f \fosGᬠRwcDଠ᪆iRKeⰠCDᰠ
hKRࠠᆆDhఠGᬠGeLToጠwhGcఠEzDଠVLRVRgo\b
ᔗokᘠᶆ2–3 \rRᖍRVaRToРᆆᘠTcthⰠghhDicD
gDicTThⰠwhGcఠEzDଠVhgCRDoTᰠTcᔝhabsᰠ
hDThgRDcጋ࢐S‑ЁosD-(osDhLhi)—“DThgR
DcጋTh‘tLctᄗhioࠈhth‎ToCcࠑv‚)ᴘGKhN
RภKRᖍRVaRT⸠ᦆDoshРgaeCoᬠᔠVhwhUb耠
hVRᔘTࠜth cDhKo hGࠜ‖จoDb,‚)soshN
RภToeCTz脠hEaogDcȠ/DᰠRkKoTRᬠkoTRwoc\f
EhacᬠVLcgDRGTe耠VᰎRmR4: ᪆DhȠRภKRᖍR
V጑T,‖)shDhLhN RGc‘tLctᄗhioࠈ适‑w
VosD-(osDhL,“DThgRDcጋ࢐N‑ЁosD \foshth
GeLToao,“иiRKTh, eKcD‚z缛.
uToጜtRCTzN hsokoDcab hGࠜ―CRఘDb
ᆆKaဠoiDhLhi⸠yokhicРctᰠKaဠeജEgDiᠠ
«ᰌThgRDcabTov₍RDRLecwhgDb»
Sᰌv₌జ
g጑缝hw“EUcc \bokioࠑc).—DThgRDcጋTov
mRDRLeᬄhgDb‖иThth‗oiTo“DTh缛TR4
ᔗcKTcȠmRDRLecwhgDᄠctᰠgDoDcȠ(ᔗcKTcᬠ
CRgaᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠhKTᘠgDoDb4⤠ᶆᔗcKTcȠmR
DRLeᬄhgDR―DoDᬂ ᬝhᬂ₫Lc(ᬗᬈDThN
tLeVVz», \bᠠ(hTᬠshDhLhȠw造LogᔄoDLRio
cРഛvDcabThgDଠeCcThth.
rKRࠠRภToREhacᬠioGTz脠ihVLhghᨠVLᄠ
EREaRhwcDLRCcᔝhРoToaRkᬠ騠CDᰠizELoDଠ
᪆soCcgDiᬠLc(cLcTDThȠtLeVVz? ЭDᰠwhte\f
EzDଠgDoDbᄠhLtoTRkomRᄬ‚)shDhLhȠLoEh
DocఠeCcTzȬ‑aᄠEhacᬠeksᰠ騠gDoDbᄠctᰠ
a᠆h᜘DhLRR/(oseabDcDo.’)ěLihw―aeC᠛,
hKToshⰠgacKecఠVhwTRDbⰠCDᰠcgaᄠhLtoTR
komRဠVeEaRsecDgဠᔗokᘠ᪆TcᔝhabsR脠hE
aogDv脠Toesᄠ(vLsRȠVLRwcL㨠saogᔑCcᔝRȠ
eTRicLᔑDcD), \fᰠghVhgDoiacTRᬠᔝhLcᬠigc
th eKcD ᬝhLLᬝDTzw:‛gaR‖иTzN‗᠆h
Doc\f ᪆izghshmRDRLecwhȠToesc, DᰠᚆTctᰠ
Eeഛ\f TckogaeGcTThᬠVLcRwe鴛gDiᰠVcLc\r
shaactowᄬ‛gaᄠ᪆woahmRDRLecwhȠ騠h\b
hsoGcDgဠ᪆TcᔁLoicKaRiᰠTcizthKThРVh
ahGcTRR⸠fc(cLcTDToဠtLeVVᠠജaGToⰠVᰠ
sLoNTcȠwcLcⰠVeEaRshioDbgဠ᪆DhȠGᬠTo
eCThȠhEaogDᄬ Dᰠᆆh贛TRiocwzȠoiDhL.
2LhwᬠDhthⰠsoᴠigctKo, \bchEShKRwᰠCcDsᰠ
koKoioDb eEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh \rav“mcTR
iocwz脠gDoDcȠᆆhsTᰠmRDRLhioTRဠ騠Kaဠ
gDoDcȬ bᄠgᖐasᄠeCRDzio4DgဠVLᄠVhK
gCcDc‑TKᄝoDhLo
dᜑ‚zEhLc eEaRsomᄜTࠜth“ᴈo habIc“K
ThtᰠthKᠠVLhviavcDgv, hKTosh, \bcshDhLoဠgaoEhgDଠ
VLcKahGcTThtᰠwcDhKo⸠dLcKVhahGRwⰠCDᰠoiDhᜠVe
EaRshioጠgihᄠgDoDbᄠTᬠLoiThwcLTᰠRภthKᠠ᪆thKⰠo,
ToVLRwcL, VᰠToLogDo4UcȠ騠igᬠEhabIᬠᆆEhabIc, 騠
᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠiᰠigcȠctᰠKRgmRVaRTᬠizShKRaᰠVLR
wcLTᰠhKRToshihᬠCRgaᰠgDoDcȠcGcthKTh. ТhtKᠠoiDhᜠ
Vh጖CocD \bckog጖GcTࠖ4“DTᰕRDcabࠖ4 \bcKᰜmcTse
gihR脠LoEhD, VhgshabsᘠIoTg造TᠠVhaeCcTRᬠggzahᴠ
e)gDoDᬂ,‚zVeUᬈT邁 hkGc, ᬈb缛, ᬄ‖)gDoDᬂ,
izIcKIR脠LoTcc⸠ТᰠGᬠgowhᬠicLTᰠKaဠhDThgRDcab
ThtᰠRwVosD-(osDhLo㨠cgaᄠGeLToጠhUeDRwᰠeicaRCRጠ
CRgaᰠVeEaRsecwz脠gDoDcȠ᪆Dh\f \thKⰠshDhLzȠVLcKIc
gDiᰚoa“DCcDࠜwe,“T eKcD LᰑtថioDb₏eᜈoae,
ࠛ LRTRwoi缛we \fosᆁ‗cKosDhLgsᆁ‗᭿ᬈRN (cg
ТhఠGᬠwcDhഠactsᰠhEhEUocDgဠTᠠ贛
ae耠hLtoTRkomR耠VLᄠegahiRᄬ DᰠeCc
T逛 i)ࠛN eEaRse4Dgv‚)Ehጛc-Лࠛc hK
ThȠDcwoDRCcᔝhȠhEaogDR⸠PhGTᰠhVLc
ഛaRDଠᔗcKT4耠mRDRLecwhgDଠgDoDbR
KoTࠜth ieko/RTgDRDeఘ hDࠜgRDcabࠜ
ᔗcKTcȠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDbᄬ eEaRse
cwhȠ᪆DhȠGᬠgowhȠKRᖍRVaRTᬠigcwR
LhggᄂgsᄄR‖Cc࢐Б‑጑‚gcБ‖Cc࢐
Б БLo. 9aeCoN,”htKo eE጑ᴘmRhࠈ适
VLh(Rጋ“Ltoࠑkomᄑ haccⁿᄗhs‑)ko
D᜘tRi᠛D cgshabsh \fᬄoDRиgsᆁ“Eao
gDcȬ eഛఠLogᔄhDLcࠠ᪆V. 2.3.2.
rDwcDRЬ Dᰠ᪆soCcgDiᬠLc(cLcTDThN
tLeVV造DosGᬠwhteఠEzDଠikvD造igᬠgDoDbR
DhtᰠGᬠGeLToao, \tഛ eEaRsecDgဠeCc
TzȬ)騠᪆/DhРgaeCoᬠw造VhaeCRРh贛T
se, \b᠕shabsh‑ЛTTh‛th‗᠆hDz‚z缛
RaᄠTRGᬠVᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄬ cРᔗcKTRN
eLhicࠋ‑kKoࠑv.‒LcᄄeUcgDih \roࠈhth
wcDhKᢆ騠᪆TcРVLosDRCcᔝᄠhDgeDgDie
c\f \bchEShKRwhgDଠgacKRDଠkᠠhEaogDb4
ToesR㨠igᬠgDoDbᄠ᪆GeLToaᬠCo鴛‚gcth
VLRToKac輘ఠᶆhKThȠᆆDhȠGᬠKRᖍRVaR
Tc (RgsᎀCcࠑc: eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐c
RkKoTRဠ騠Nature, Science, Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, «ncgD
ࠑs₠uy»‑)D. \r.). g጑‖Cc࢐N eE጑se
cDgဠᔗokᘠ᪆TcᔝhabsR脠GeLToaoSⰠCDh
Ehጛc ᬄ‛gDcgDiᬈTh, chEShKRw hጛc
shЁacsg࢐N hKShK,”hDhL适 z \fosGc
LogᔄhDLRР᪆V. 2.3.2.
2hLLcsDࠖ4‗c괛LcTDࠖ4 \tLᘁĖ hG
TᰠizELoDଠTcᔝhabsRwᄠᔁhghEowᄬ
᪆shT贛 shT贜ᨠ/DhఠizEhᜠkoiRᔑ\f h\f ko
KoCⰠshDhLzᬠgDoiRఠVcLcഠghEhȠᔁcmR
oaRgD, LhihKvURN REaᄜwcDᜑCcgshc
ᄕgጛKhioTᄛ.
aᄠVLcKVhahGRDbⰠCDᰠToeCTzȠeLhicTଠigc脠gDoDcȠ
᪆hEhR脠GeLToao脠hKRToshi)⸠ЭDᄠTcKhgDoDsᄠVLchKh
acio4Dgv LR‑gVhጋkhioࠑR hacc \fUoఛጋThth hK
ShKoⰠhVRgoTThtᰠ᪆V. 2.3.2.
0,1,0, Отноеительнау цитидзеаоеть
дазнододного потока пзбликаций
(«lmpm_jgzcb agr_rgml gmn_ar»* «apmul
glbga_rmp»)
dLcകDoiRРgcEᬠDcVcLଠᔑDeomR4Ⱐwosᔑ
woጋTh VLRE጑Gcࠈe4 s)LcoጋThN: TchESh
KRwᰠh贛TRDଠToeCTzȠeLhicTଠgDoDcȬ“Ve
E጑shioࠈzS“LtoࠑkomRcNⁿᄗhshth \bo
ëhth Lh(Rav, \boėRwcL‖TRicLgRఛDhw.
9ToCoaoⰠshTcCTh, \bchEShKRwᰠkoKoDଠ
VeEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh‑)hᴈh₍RDRLhioTRv,
CDhEz“VLcKc጑Db,”osRc‑wcࠈh eE጑ᴘ
mRᄠᆆTᠠsoshРiLcwcTThРRTDcLioaᬠw造
h贛TRiocР騠DosⰠsoᴠ/Dᰠഛaoahᔋ‚)V. 2.3.1.
5ഛᔋ“ghEcTTz脠gahGThgDcȠTᬠiᰎTRsocD.
rKTosh‚zKcacࠈ适 eE጑ᴘmRhࠈ适 h
DhᴠEeഛఠsLoNTᬠTchKThLhKTzw㨠hࠠEeഛ\f
ghഛL輘DଠVeEaRsomRᄠRภLokTz脠GeLToahᨠ
R)᜘kT邁 DᬄoDRиgsᆁ“Ea᠕Dᬂ,”LhЛ Dh
th₌Dh EeKeD eE጑ᴘmᄑ Lok࢐S \fᄁhi (Rg
gacജioDcabᔝRᬠgDoDbR, \boeCTzᬠh؎hLz,
VRᔋwᠠᆆD. \r.)Ⱐ/DᰠVLRihKRఠᶆജVhaTRDcab
࢐w―ahGThgDvw.
ᤠKoTThРgaeCoᬠTchEShKRwᰠRgShKRDଠRภ
Kie脠hᔈhiTz脠VhahGcTRNⰠshDhLzᬠeGᬠ(R
teLRLhioaᄠ᪆V. 2.3.1:
騠hVLcഛavDଠ«ToeCTzȠeLhicTb묠whGTᰠ
DhabsᰠTᠠTcshDhLhР(hTcⰠ᪆TcshDhLhРshT
ఛsgఛ,
ыуоыюхутшьоы
 ᬉh-Dh; chEShKRwh
koKoఋ
этфтэтоуоую дэуььу
—―LoiࠑioDb \boeC࢐N‖Lhicࠋ eE጑ᴘ
mRȠhDThᔑDcabTᰠKLe\t \rLetᠠwhGTh, \fhabsᰠ
cg጑“ࠑ
ыеоыухьоы
, \f⸠c.
пют хх хнэнчут
эхюухчх* от хнтющхт ьэяныды ыуоыштохя
ч онучоыну уэыпою* ыехончыпы
lg጑ z oTo጑kᄗecw Vhkᆍᄑ₭oseጋ
DcDᠠiTeDLᄠieko, \fᰠLc(cLcTDThȠtLeVVhȠ
Eeഛఠicᔋ‚ek⸠lgaᄠRggacKecDgဠeTRicLᔑ
Dcఠsoᴠ贛ahc, \fᰠ᪆soCcgDiᬠLc(cLcTDThȠ
tLeVV造ahtRCTᰠizELoDଠigᬠLhgᔑNᔝRᬠie
khigsRc eE጑ᴘmᄑ (kowcDᄄ:‚sᎀCov e
E጑ᴘmᄑ‑)gowhth‘To጑kᄗecwhth‖ࠑicL
ᔑDcDo) 騠cgaᄠw造ShDRРh贛TRDଠ/((csDRi
ThgDଠToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠ
Tᠠ(hTᬠKLetR脠iekhᨠfhgᔑR⸠PhGTᰠDosGᬠ
ikvDଠihhE鴛‚gᬠhDcCcgDicTTzᬠLoEhD造騠
Doᴠw造ekTocЬ”oᴠiztavKRఠeTRicLᔑDc\f \bᠠ
(hTᬠigcȠLhgᔑNᔝhȠToesR.
rKTosᰠKaဠeTR(RsomRᄠVLh贛KeL造h贛T
sᄠw造᪆KoabTcNIcРEeഛРgCRDoDଠLc(c
LcTDThȠtLeVVhȠicᔋ RL, \f⸠c⸠igᬠwRLhizᬠ
VeEaRsomRR⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ eഛఠh贛TR
ioDbgv―hhDicDgDiᄛ‑ggጛഖᬄhth \boeCThth
shaጛsDRio“EUᬄRLhihwe‖LhiT4.‏ЛTTh
DoᴠVhgDLhcTᠠLoEhDᠠ᪆VLhKesDᬠInCites:
whGTᰠToNDᄠVhsokoDcaᄠoiDhLo, eTRicLᔑ
DcDᠠRaᄠ贛ahȠgDLoT造hDThᔑDcabTᰠᔗcK
TcwRLhihth‖Lhᨈv
yo
₍RDᄗecwhgDb eE጑ᴘmᄑ‚጑vcD‗vK
(osDhLhᨬ ᬠRwc4UR脠TcVhᔗcകDicTThtᰠ
hDThIcTRဠᶆcᬠToeCThwᘠeLhiT4:
騠hEaogDଠToesᄠ(soᴠw造iRKcaᄬ―LcKTvဠ
mRDRLecwhgDଠᔑabTᰠkoiRᔑ\f h\f \boeCThȠ
KRgmᄁ጑࢐);
騠thഠRkKoTRဠ(CcРLoTbIᬠRkKoTᠠgDo
Dbv, \fcРEhabIᬠgᖐahᴠhTᠠwhtaᠠVhaeCRDଠ
s)whЛTDe‑kЛLᬈRv);
騠DRĠVeEaRsomRᄠ(soᴠeGᬠthihLRahᔋ
᪆V. 2.1.1Ⱐ᪆ᔗcKTcЬ oVLRwcL, \boeCTzᬠhE
khLz₍RDᄗe而gv oUc, cw“Lᄉᄈoጋ࢐c
RggacജioDcabᔝRᬠgDoDbR
5owcDRwⰠCDᰠ/DhఠVhKSh\r \bᬠkowcUocఠghEhȠhmcT
sᘠEhacᬠshwVosDTz脠tLeVĠhDThgRDcabTᰠKLe\t KLeto.
yoėᄄcL,‛g጑ hg̑Do࢐ hᴘkoఛ጑“KThN“Ltoࠑ
komRᄠᆆmcahȠgDLoT造hDThgRDcabTᰠigctᰠwRLo, \fᰠRT
KᄝoDhL, Vhᴘk通o4Uᄂ /((csDᄚThgDb KcvఛጋTh
gDᄠ/DhȠhLtoTRkomRᄠTᠠ(hTᬠ/DhȠgDLoTz, \bᬠLoic\b
hDThIcTR耠Kie脠ToNKcTTz脠VhsokoDcacȠKLeठᶆKLete.
ЭDhఠ(os\f \roacᴠhఠCRgDhȠDchLRR⸠yoVLRwcL, \rh
sewcTD造DRVᠠArticleⰠhVeEaRshioTTzᬠ᪆GeLToaᬠ
Tetrahedro渠᪆2010 \t.ⰠVhaeCRaᄠkᠠ2010–2013 \tt. (gh
taogTᰠWeb of Science CC⤠᪆gLcKTcРVᰠ9,〠ggzahs.
Тh\f GᬠVhsokoDcaଠKaဠVeEaRsomRȠDRVᠠReview Loic\b
35,㊆騠LokTRmᠠVhCDᄠ᪆㐠Loko! \nCc\f \fRVᠠKhsewcTDᠠTᬠ
Лࠛc‚oGᬈ, ᬄ”hLLᬝmRv \bo“Ea᠕Db \boesR,”蘝hDh
Lᰂ“T“DࠜgRDgv.
BaဠeCcDᠠigc脠/DR脠(osDhLhᨠᆆshLLcsD
ࠜth“VLcKcacTRv“DࠜgRDcabࠜN₍RDRLec
МgDR‚gcth eEaRsomᄜTࠜth hDhso“ᜉo
ࠑkomᄑ/oiDhLo iihKRDgv VhᴘkoDcጋ «hGR
KocwhᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahs묠(expected citation
rateⰠRaᄠbaseline): \raဠsoGജȠhDഛabThȠ
gDoDbR‑ggጛഖᬄ邁“LtoTRkomRR/oiDh᜘
/DᰠᔗcKTcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahs, shDhLhᬠVhaeCR
጑‚gc ᄗhizc eE጑ᴘmᄑ,‑wc4URc
уу
зт ехючхьшхонэоую ьэхонештзоыюуь* уыу
зт дые пыхыен
уыу зт ухь еычунтоун
CDh‑)᜘ggwoDLRi᠛w᠐―DoDbv. gaR‗᠕
gw᠌LRiocwov―D᠌bv“Lt᠈RkᢍRR/᠚DhLo
᪆ഛNgDiRDcabThgDᄠVhaeCRaᠠEhabIᬠgᖐ
ahsⰠCcРhGRKocwhᬠKaဠTcᬠR脠CRgah, \fᰠ
hTᠠVLcihgShKRఠᔗcKTRȠwRLhihȠeLhicTଠ
«DoshȠGcⰠsoᴠhTo묠VeEaRsomRᄠ(D⸠c⸠Rwc
4鴛ȠDᬠGᬠSoLosDcLRgDRsᄠKRᖍRVaRTᢆ/
thഠizShKᢆ⾆DRĠജsewcTDo)ⰠcgaᄠwcTbIᮆ騠
egDeV᠛D‛we.
rDThᔑDcabToဠmRDRLecwhgDଠhKThȠVeE-
጑ᴘmᄑ, \fosᄄ“ELokhw,‗oiTo“DThIcࠑ4
Lcoabࠜth («ToEa4KocМth») Rgao hae
иTT邁 ᮀ ggzahs s)ᆁ h輑K᠛whwe Cᄕae.
BaဠDhtᰠCDhE造VhgCRDoDଠhDThᔑDcabTe耠
mRDᄗecwhgDb―hihseVThgDR‚gcS eE጑ᴘ
mRȠhLtoTRkomRR/oiDhLoⰠEcLcDgဠᔗcKTcᬠ
oLR(wcDRCcᔝhᬠkToCcTRȠhDThᔑDcabThȠ
mRDRLecwhgDᄠKaဠsoGKhȠhDഛabThȠVe
E጑ᴘmᄑ, \boVRgoࠈhN“LtoࠑkomRcN/oi
DhLhw.₄acKev \fcᜄRࠜጜtRR InCites2,“Eh
kToCRР/DhఠVhsokoDcaଠ«Normalized Citation
Impact» (NCI)
10
10
n‎oVoKThN–RఛLoDeLc \roࠈ适‑጑‘ToahtR̈适
VhsokoDcaଠcUᬠTokzio4ఠ«mean normalized citation
score»Ⱐ«normalized mean citation rate»Ⱐ«normalized
impact묠ᆆKoGᬠ«crown indicator묠(VhKCcLsRioဠctᰠ
ioGThgDb).‏ThtKo‑gVhጋkecDgv‘ጋఛLToDᄚ࢐N―Vh
ghؠegLcKTcTRဠVᰠigcwᘠwoggRiᘠggzahsⰠVhaeCcTTz脠
VeE጑ᴘmRငR“Ltoࠑkomᄑ/oiDhLo.₄ToCoao―̑Do
cDgဠhGRKocwhᬠCRgaᰠggzahᴠgLokᘠKaဠigc脠gDoDcȠ
(gewwRLhioTRcРVᰠsoGKhN)ⰠVhDhРTᠠ/DᘠgewwᘠKc
aRDgv―ewwoᜈhc \boEa4KocМc Rgጜ―gzጜs, hae
ᤠwcDhKRsᘠLogCcDᠠVhsokoDcaဠNC䤠koah
GcTᠠCLckizCoNTᰠtLowhDToဠgScwo, Vᰎih
av4UoဠwosᔑwoabTᰠshLLcsDTᰠh贛TRDଠ
hDThgRDcጋTe4₍RDᄗecwhgDb–4Ehth \bo
EhLᠠgDoDcN⸠rKTosᰠᆆ/DhఠRTKRsoDhᜠ騠soᴠ
oEgha4Dࠜ a4EhN EREaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑN Vh
sokoDcabⰠikvDzȠgoРVᰠgcEcⰠ騠Rwccఠᔚhᄠ
htLoTRCcTRv⸠dhᔝhabsᘠh\b \foᴠRaᄠRToCᬠ
gCRDocఠᔗcKTRᬠicaRCRT逬 ᠠTctᰠwhte\f
hᴘk通oDb“Ccࠋ hጋIhc‚጑vࠑc“DKcጋ
࢐c‚zghshmRDᄗecҐc―DoD଑“Ltoࠑko
mRR/oiDhLo⸠BoGᬠKaဠ贛az脠gDLoࠬ”oᴠVh
sokoaᄠAksnes & Sivertsen [Aksnes, Sivertsen,
2004],“DKcጋ࢐c‗oEhDz, haeCᄚ缑c
hCcTb ࠜth―gzጜs, МteD จoCRDcabࠜ
VhiaRvDb \bo―LcKTRc―DLoࠜ᪐c hsokoDc
aR.₄)ࠛ ᬈb缛N“gDhLh輈hgDb4―ጛഖcD
VLRЛTvDb NCI \bo”hLhDsᆁ‚LᬄᬈT邁 Lh
ЛGeDsoS, \boVLRЛL \rav―DoDᬂ 1–2-ጛDࠛN
KoiThgDR⸠niRKᘠDhtᰠCDᰠicᔋ ogᔑᨠwRLh
iz脠VeEaRsomRȠVhaeCRጠc鴛 cജgDoDhCTᰠ
wࠜth―gzጜs”)/Dhwe hwcTDe, hsokoDcaR
hGRKocМN₍RDRLecМgDR hteD zDb oጜ
VLcകsokecw造ᆆTᬠKoioDଠToഛGThthⰠജ
gDhicᜈhth oฑᔘ hᜄoaRkomRR.
yoshTcmⰠsoᴠeGᬠthihLRahᔋ‗oTcᬠ᪆ᔈh
gsc, NCI, haeCcࠈ适“DThgRDcጋTh ᄗhih
tᰠeLhiTv, \bᬠigctKᠠKocఠiᰎwhGThgDଠᔗoi
TRioDb‑ggጛഖᬄ逛‛KRTRmz cGഖ―hEhN.
舘ᴠLcabc(TzȠVLRwcᜠ騠cgaᄠᚆhLtoTR
komRᄠNCI = 0,5ⰠᠠᚆigcȠfhgᔑᄠNC䦆㶆0,67
(VhgacKTvဠmR(Lᠠ騠LᬘabThᬠkToCcTRᬠRภ
InCites2 \raဠgDoDcȠ2010–2014 \tt⸠izShKo,
ᖆDcРGᬠhsThРmRDRLhioTRv)Ⱐ/DᰠTᬠhEv
koDcabTᰠᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠhLtoTRkomRဠLoEh
Doc\f gaoEᰠhDThᔑDcabTᰠigcȠLhgᔑNᔝhȠ
ToesR⸠nᰎwhGThⰠ/DᰠSRwRCcᔝRȠRTgDRDeD,
Ccࠈhc eE጑ᴘmRငR“Ltoࠑkomᄑ.ₗDhD―VhghE‑g
VhabkecDgဠ᪆InCites1 (Vh\r \bokioTRcР«Category Actual/
Expected Citations»)ⰠᆆRwcTTᰠDoᴠhVLcKcavcDgဠVhso
koఛጋ₫mRDᄗecwhgDb, \bhLwo጑khioࠈov h“EaogDင
ToesR묠[dRgavshi, 2014].
VeE጑se4Uᄂ―DoD଑–ᅿb‚)Kio‗oko―ao
EcᬠᔗcKTcwRLhihtᰠeLhiTvⰠ᪆DᰠiLcwဠ
soᴠVᰎRmRဠfhgᔑᄠ᪆SRwRᄠhUeDRwᰠTRGᬠ
(0,4〠hఠᔗcKTcwRLhihtᰠeLhiTဠmRDRLec
whgDR)⸠dLᄠ/DhРkToCcTRᬠNCI = 0,67 \raဠ
igcȠgDLoT造VhaeCocDgဠRk-kᠠEhacᬠsoCc
gDicࠈzS eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚)(Rkᄝc
11
0,
1,1, Нодаализациу по жздналаа
и коабинидованный анализ
отноеительной цитидзеаоети
dhKShK,‘ToጜtRCTzN LcKgఘiacTࠜwe
᪆V. 2.3.2, \fosGᬠiᰎwhGcࠬ‛gaᄠ᪆soCcgDiᬠ
Lc(cLcTDThȠtLeVV造ELoDଠVeEaRsomRᄠTᬠ
᪆Lowso脠hKThȠᆆDhȠGᬠToeCThȠhEaogDᄬ
ᠠ᪆hKTR脠ᆆDc脠GᬠGeLToaoS⸠ТhtKᠠ«hGR
KocwhᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahs묠KaဠsoGജȠVeEaR
somRR‑ggጛഖᬄ邁“LtoTRkomRR/oiDh᜘
EeഛఠLoiTᰠᔗcKTcwᘠCRgaᘠmRDRLhioTRȬ
VhaeCcࠈzS eE጑ᴘmRvБ \roࠈhth₏eL
ToaoⰠshDhLzᬠizIaᄠ᪆DhРGᬠthKᘠᆆhDTh
gvDgဠᶆDhwᘠGᬠDRVᘠജsewcTDo⸠yoEa4Koc
whᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahᴠKaဠgDoDbᄬ‛gDcgDicTTh,
hgDocDgဠEcภRkwcTcTRN⸠ychEShKRwᰠikvDଠ
ᬉh“DTh缛Tᄛ”)h輑K᠛whwe hsokoDca4
ᆆeᔗcKTRDଠLckeabDoఠVᰠigcРgDoDbvРhL
toࠑkomᄑ/oiDhLo.‒haeCcࠈ适‑TKᄝoDhL,
iThiଠRᔁhabkeဠDcLwRT造InCites2, \bokhicР
Journal Normalized Citation Impact (JNCI)
Boࠈ适 LᄄcL‑aᎀgDLoDᄚcT, \bh“SioD通ocD
጑缋 CogDb eᴘkoࠈhN ėhEacҐ: Dos, ToNKv kToCc
TRᬠNCI \raဠfhggRᄠᖆhtLoTRCcTRcРVᰠSRwRCcgsRР
Toesow,‚gc‗oiTh ᬝhLLᬝDTh―᜘iTRioDb‛th―)NCI
hDKcabࠜN“ᜉoTRkomRR,―VcmRoaRฑLe肝cнv \bo₁R
wRR: \bchEShKRРshwVacsgTzȠVhKShഠᖆeCcDhРᆆthKhᨠ
᪐ShKo gఘDcN, R)DRĜi KᰝewcTఘ. Тosᰂ ĜsokoDcab
VLcKegwhDLcࠠ᪆VaoTᬠLokiRDRဠVaoD(hLw造InCites.
5Kcgb‚ࠜᨋ‚hคhGTo‑Tov hᜄoaRkomRv,―)ĜK
gCcDhРgLokᘠigc脠hGRKocwz脠ggzahsⰠgewwhȠVᰠigcw
gDoDbင,‘‎oఛw \rcacࠑc \bo haeCcࠈ适‗ckeጋDoD
geww造igc脠VhaeCcTTz脠᪆LcoabThgDᄠggzahs⸠ЭDᰠghhD
icDgDiecఠwcDLRsᬠ«Journal Actual/Expected Citations»
i)ᄈఛL(cNgc InCites1‑)Vhᴘkoఛᎀ₫mRDᄗecwhgDb,
ࠜᜄoaRkᰚoTTov h₏eᜈoaow» [dRgavsᰚ, 2014].
ЭDhD‑TKᄝoDhL₁oLosDcLRkecD \fh,”os₫iz
ഛavaRᔋ묠gDoDbᄠKoTThȠhLtoTRkomRᄠTᠠ
(hTᬠigc脠gDoDcȠDc脠GeLToahᨬ ഛ eEaR
shio጑gb‛c―hDLeKࠑsR.₃z጑ eE጑ᴘmᄑ
cc eиT邁 i)gLcKࠛw iz缛 gLcKࠛth eLhiTv
VeEaRse4UR脠R脠GeLToahᨠ阠RaᄠTRGᬠTc
th⸠ТhఠGᬠgowzȠᔄzgጠRwcc\f JNCIⰠcgaᄠw造
RggacKecw VeE጑ᴘmᄑ hDKcጋThth eCcThth
Raᄬ ohEhLhDⰠ贛ahȠgDLoTz⸠dhsokoDcab,
VhgCRDoTTzȠKaဠ贛az脠gDLo\b, \bokzio4\f
DosGᬠVh-KLethwᘠ騠«RTഛsᔠPoD(cv»⸠ltᰠ
VhകCc\f Koc\f Vhih\r LoggeGKoDଠᰠDhЬ «KRg
sLᄄᄈᄗe而gv»–R‚)VaoTc₍RDᄗecwhgDR
gDoDbᄠeCcTz脠RภLokTz脠gDLoࠠ᪆Lowso脠hK
ThtᰠᆆDhtᰠGᬠGeLToaᠠ[dRgavshᨬ bvCcT
sh, 2009; Pislyakov, Dyachenko, 2010].
yhᜄoaRkomRv h₏eᜈoaow‚)RบcgDࠜw
ᔄzgaᬠactCᬠᆆDhCTcᬺ”oᴠw造eGᬠthihLR
aᄬ‎ഛᔋ hCDᄠTᬠigDocఠihVLhᔠhؠhVLc
ഛacTRᄠDcwoDRCcᔝhȠhEaogDᄬ”)shDhLhȠ
hDThᔑDgဠVeEaRsomRv⸠ᦆLowso脠hKThtᰠ
GeLToao, ko TcshDhL逄R RgsᎀCcࠑvБ
(Science, Natur攠ᆆD. \r.)ⰠigᬠgDoDbᄠVLRToK
ac輘ఠᶆhKThȠᆆDhȠGᬠKRᖍRVaRTc⸠MaRⰠVᰠ
sLoNTcȠwcLcⰠ/DᄠhDaRCRဠEeKeఠ᪆ᔗcKTcР
ЛTb缛, ᬄ htL᭿ThgDb LR–4Ehw \rLe
thРoiDhwoDRCcᔝhРhVLcഛacTRᄠDcwoDRsᄠ
VeE጑ᴘmᄑ.₃hacc \fhth,‛g጑―oБ \rRgmR
VaRT造VLRVRᖐio4DgဠgDoDbvРTᠠhᔈhiᬠ
DcwoDRCcᔝhȠLeELRsomRᄠGeLToahᨬ‚)sh
DhLz脠hTᄠhVeEaRshioT造(soᴠhEzCTᰠഛao
cDgဠ᪆EREaRhwcDLRCcᔝR脠Eoko脠KoTTzS), \fᰠ
VhaeCocDgv, Dh hᜄoaRkomRv h₏eᜈo
aoРKocఠEhacᬠDhCTzȬ‍cDoabTzȠiktav\r
To―hVhgDoiacࠑc eE጑ᴘmᄂ, cw \bhLwo
aRkomRဠVᰠhEaogDvРToesR.
5ഛᔋⰠhKToshⰠcgDଠsa4CcihȠwhwcTD.
dLcKVhahGRЬ DᰠTcshDhLzȠeTRicLᔑDc\f
VhaeCocD‚zghᴑN hsokoDcab hᜄoaRkh
ioTThȠVᰠGeLToaoРmRDRLecwhgD, JNCI.
yᰠVLᄠ/DhЬ‛gaᄠw造VhgCRDocРctᰠmRDR
LecМgDb, hᜄoaRkhioTTe4 h“EaogDvw
JNC�I 1
JNCI 1
NC�I 1
n―LcKTcw eE጑ᴘmᄑ―hDLeKࠑshi \fosRS
hLtoࠑkomᄂ₍RDᄗe而gv‚避c―LcKTc
tᰠeLhiTဠmRDRLecwhgDᄠsoᴠGeL࠘ahi,
᪆shDhLz脠hTᄠizShKvD, \foᴠᆆhEጘgDcȠ
࠘esRⰠᴠshDhLzРhTᄠhDThgvDgv
n―LcKTcw eE጑ᴘmᄑ―hDLeKࠑshi
ఘᴑS“ᜉoTRkomRN₍RDRLe4Dgv \bᆏc
g᜛KTcth‖᜜iTv₍RDRLecwᰕDR₏ᘗTo
ahiⰠᨠshDhLz脠hTᄠizShKvD, \bᰠVLᄠ/DhР
izIᬠeLhiTဠhEጘgDcȠ࠘esRⰠᴠshDhLzР
hTᄠhDThgvDgv⸠ЭDᰠwhGcఠEzDଠgivko-
Th―‚zEhLhw―hDLeKࠑᴘБ―Rጋ࢐S
GeL࠘ahᨠKaဠgihR脠VeEaRsomRN
NCI 1
n―LcKTcw eE጑ᴘmᄑ―hDLeKࠑshi
ఘᴑS“ᜉoTRkomRN₍RDRLe4Dgv‚zIc
g᜛KTcth‖᜜iTv₍RDRLecwᰕDR₏ᘗ
࠘ahiⰠᨠshDhLz脠hTᄠizShKvDⰠhK࠘sᰠ
TRGᬠeLhiTဠhEጘgDcȠ࠘esRⰠᴠshDhLzР
hTᄠhDThgvDgv⸠ЭDᰠwhGcఠEzDଠgivko-
TᰠᔠizEhLhРghDLeKTRsowᄠgጘEz脠
GeL࠘ahᨠKaဠgihR脠VeEaRsomRN
n―LcKTcw eE጑ᴘmᄑ―hDLeKࠑshi \fosRS
hLtoࠑkomᄂ₍RDᄗe而gv RGc―LcKTc
tᰠeLhiTဠmRDRLecwhgDᄠsoᴠGeL࠘ahi,
ᨠshDhLz脠hTᄠizShKvD, \foᴠᆆhEጘgDcȠ
࠘esRⰠᴠshDhLzРhTᄠhDThgvDgv
2ᬋጒI 3
ᔈਇҀ ༉Ċ܄耏ชࠈꂃ₏༐઀਋B܅괠脄଄ऑԁ༌଄‍ݿ‏ंਈҀઁЄ
rgDhLhGToဠ(hLweaRLhisᠠ«whGcఠEzDଠgivkoTh묠izkioTᠠDcwⰠCDᰠVLᄠThLwoaRkomRRⰠRgVhabkecwhȠ
i)InCites2,―ጜGࠜ“VLcKcaRDb ᰈvDRc₫gLcKTcth‖LᰚTv₍RDRLecМgDR―ᰚᰝeVࠜgDR₏eᜈoጜi,‚”hDhថS e
EaRse4DgဠeCcTzᬠhLtoTRkomRRⰠhDThgRDcabTᰠgLcKTctᰠeLhiTဠmRDRLecwhgDᄠhEaogDcȠToesRⰠᴠshDhLzРhDTh
gvDgဠ/DᄠGeLToaz»⸠ТhCTccⰠSoLosDcLRgDRsᠠ«gRaz묠(ToeCThtᰠeLhiTv⤠ghihseVThgDᄠGeLToahiⰠᨠshDhLz脠Ve
EaRse4DgဠghDLeKTRsR, \bᬠhVLcKcavcDgဠhKThkToCTzРhELokhРkToCcTRvwᄠNCI  JNCI \raဠhLtoTRkomRR⸠dLᄠ
RgĜabkᰚoTRR \rLetᰉh―ĜghEo hᜄoaRkomRR [dRgavsᰚ, 2014] ᰈvDRc₫gLcKTcth‖LᰚTv―hiᰝeVࠜgDR₏eL
Toጜi“DࠜgRDcabࠜ \rRgmRVaRT» hGcD zDb₭hᜄoaRkᰚoࠜ hacc cDsh.
Toes, NCIⰠwhGcఠhsokoDbgvⰠCDᰠhTᠠwcTb
IᬠcKRTRmz⸠ЭDᰠVLhRgShKRఠ᪆DhРgaeCoc,
cg጑
нпуыэы енооыды пуин пыохэнюу ешя
ьуошхчнчхх юпыхх юунутц юшноыт зуэоншы
ᦆLowso脠/DR脠gaoEz脠GeLToahᨠhTᄠwhte\f
VLcikhNDᄠeLhicTଠhgDoabTz脠gDoDcȬ‌oᴠ
CDᰠmRDRLecwhgDଠR脠VeEaRsomRȠVLcizᔑ\f
gLcKTᄛ hsokoDcaR₌Dᆁ ᬁLcgDᆏT邁‑k
KoTRȠ(ᄠJNC䤠EeഛఠEhabIᬠ1)⸠yᰠRk-kᠠDhtᰠ
CDᰠgowᄠGeLToa造woaᰠmRDRLe4DgဠTᠠ(h
TᬠKLetR脠RkKoTRȠ᪆DhȠGᬠhEaogDᄠToesᄬ
mRDRLecwhgDଠgDoDcȠoiDhLhᨠiekᠠTᬠജ
gDRtTcఠᔗcKTctᰠeLhiTဠVᰠKRᖍRVaRTc.
2hTcCThⰠiᰎwhGTᠠᆆhELoDToဠᔑDeomRv,
shtKo‘iDhថ hᜉoTRkomRR VhKo4D―ihR―ఘ
Dbᄠ᪆icKeURᬠGeLToa逬‖ᔁcITᰠVLhShKv\f
VLh贛KeLᘠLc贛TkRLhioTRဠᆆhDEhLoⰠhKTo
shⰠVhVoᨠDeKoⰠR脠VeEaRsomRᄠTᬠKhgDRto4\f
ᔗcKTctᰠeLhiTဠmRDRLecwhgDᄠ/DR脠RkKo
TRN⸠ᦆDoshРgaeCoᬠw造whGcРVhaeCRDଠiz
ghse耠mRDRLecwhgDଠhDThᔑDcabTᰠhEaogDcȠ
ToesᄠᆆTRkse耠騠VLᄠThLwoaRkomRᄠVᰠ
GeL࠘ጘw.
ТoᴠRaᄠRToCᬠhCciRKThⰠCDᰠKaဠigcgDh
LhTTctᰠRggacജioTRဠToeCThȠKcvDcabTh
gDᄠhLtoTRkomRᄠRaᄠoiDhLᠠ(ᠠDosGᬠToeC
Tz脠VhKLokഛacTRNⰠ贛az脠LctRhThᨬ―DLoT
ᆆD. \r.⤠gacKecఠRᔁhabkhioDଠhEᠠVhsokoDc
aႆ騠ᆆNCIⰠᆆJNCI⸠9ewwRLecРizihKzⰠsh
DhLzᬠwhGTᰠgഛaoDଠVLᄠR脠ghiwc鴛TThw
oToaRkcⰠ᪆DoEaR贛″⸠ᦆsoCcgDiᬠVLRwcLo
EeKcw‗oggwoDLᄚoDb eE጑ᴘmᄑ“Ltoࠑko
mRRⰠShDဠoToahtRCTzᬠLckeabDoD造whGTᰠVh
aeCRDb,‑ggጛഖv \rLetᄛ \boeCT逛‛KRTRmz.
ᤠKhVhaTcTRᬠᶆSoLosDcLRgDRsoЬ LcK
gDoiacTTzР᪆DoEaR贛″ⰠhDwcDRЬ DᰠVhso
koDcaଠJNCI 1 hGTᰠDLosDhioDଠᆆ᪆VhahGR
DcabThРᔄzgaᬠKaဠhLtoTRkomRR㨠cᬠghDLeK
ࠑsR―ewc጑“VeE጑shioDbgv‚)GeLToaoS,
eLhiᬈb”hDhL邁‚z缛, ᬄ‑S”hTsLcDT逛
gDoDbR⸠ᦆDᰠGᬠiLcwဠJNC䦆㺆ㄠwhGcఠᰎToCoDb,
CDh eиT逛 LᬉeavLTh «ࠛKhhmᬈRio4D»
ᔚhᄠLoEhD造ᄬ zDଠwhGcDⰠRРgDhRఠkoKe
woDbgဠᰠVhKoCᬠLeshVRgcȠ᪆GeLToa造Ehacc
i逕hshth‖LhiTv (VhgጛKࠛwe \b᠆a4KᬈR4
ႆhEvkoࠠr⸠n⸠PhᔝoacihȠ(CogDToဠEcgcKo).
MggacജioTRᬠNC䤠ᆆJNC䤠RᔁhabkecDgဠ
KaဠoToaRkᠠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDcȠᆆVe
E጑ᴘmRhࠈhN―DLoDctᄑ“Ltoࠑkomᄂ”os
᪆(RsᔑLhioTTzȠwhwcTఠiLcwcTᄬ‌oᴠ
ᆆ᪆KRTowRsc⸠ᦆVhgacKTcРgaeCoᬠRkwc
ࠛTᄛ hsokoDcጛN“LtoTRkomRN“D᜘G᠛D
ToVLoiacTRᬠᆆDcwĠ/iha4mRᄠToeCThȠഛ
vDcabThgDR‖иT邁―hhDicDgDie4Uᆁ‚ekhi/
RTgDRDeDhi/aoEhLoDhLRȠᆆD. \r.
0,1,2, Ранговые индикатоды
fogᔄhDLRРc鴛“KRࠠVhKShKⰠRg
VhጋkecҐN LR LhicKcࠑR”Lhgg-
KRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐S―hVhgDoiacࠑN₏eLTo
ahi.‟hGTh LᄈmᄁRoጋTh“DᴘkoDbgv
hD‑ggacKhioࠑv‘EghᎀD࢐S‎ToCcࠑN
EREaRhwcDLRCcᔝR脠VhsokoDcacȬ‘―Loi
ࠑioDb–ᅿb cgDo, hkᆍᄑ†i)LcNDᄈtc,
shDhLzᬠkoTRwo4ఠRkKoTRဠ᪆ᔚhR脠KRg
mRVaRToS⸠dhgaᬠghᜌRLhisᄠᔁRᔝhᨠGeL
Toahᨠ᪆Kie脠LokaRCTz脠KRᖍRVaRTo脠᪆Vh
Lvഝc‖ڐi᠈Rv”᠝hth-aREh‚zؗ᠈Thth
EREaᄜwcDᜑCcgshth‑TKRsoDhLo (ToVᜑ
ЛL,‑wVosD-(osDh᜘, VvDRጛDࠛth‑wVosD-
(osDhLo;‑጑‑TKcsgo‚጑vࠑာ”hDhL适
Eeഛఠiicഛࠠ᪆Lokഛaᬠ2.5⤠VLhihKRDgv
oToaRภDhabsᰠkoTvDz脠᪆/DhȠRcLoLSRᄠRk
KoTRvwR hLvKshi邁 cgD.
9eDb‗oTthihth cDhKoₚ‗okEᄛTᄛ hae
CcTThtᰠeVhLvKhCcTThtᰠᔁRᔝo-LcNDRTtᠠ

‗oiT邁 ᠕Dᬂ‑)hVLcKcጛTᄛ,‚)sose4
Rภ/DR脠CogDcȠVhVoKo4ఠGeLToaz⸠yoVLR
wcLⰠcgaᄠ
 LᄈᄄocDgv‗oi࢐w 4, \fhtKo
thihLv\f ᰠsioᜌRav脠騠GeLToa造VcLihtᰠ
sioᜌRaဠ(VhVoKo4URᬠ᪆icLST4耠CcDicᜌଠ
ᔁRᔝᠠVᰠLogᔄoDLRiocwhwᘠVoLowcDLe),
iDhLhtᰠsioᜌRav, \fLcDbctᰠsioᜌRavⰠCcD
icᜌhtᰠsioᜌRav⸠ᦆᔑgDcwᬠLoTthiz脠RT
KRsoDhLhᨠgCRDocDgvⰠCDᰠGeLToa逬 hVoi
IRᬠ᪆VcLizȠsioᜌRabⰠizIᬠGeLToahᨬ
VhVoiIR脠(TᬠDhabsᰠ᪆/DhN, \bᰠᆆ᪆a4EhȠ
KLethȠKRᖍRVaRTc) iᰠiDhLhȠsioᜌRaଠ
ᆆD⺆K⸠dLᄠ/DhРGeLToazⰠVhVoiIRᬠᨠhKR\b
ᆆDhఠGᬠsioᜌRaଠᨠLokaRCTz脠KRᖍRVaR
ToSⰠgCRDo4DgဠᨠLowso脠/DhtᰠwcDhKᠠhKR
ToshizwR h \boeCࠜwe‖Lhᨈ4.
舘ᴠizERLoDଠVhsokoDcaଠ
ₚ cVLhgDhȠ
ihVLhgⰠᆆhDic\f \bᠠTctᰠkoiRᔑఠhఠshTsLcD
ThȠkoKoCR⸠ФosDRCcᔝᄬ
‎oKocD₫జC
ThgD஻,₫LokLcIᢀUe4―Vhgh؈hgD஻‗᠈
thihth‑TKᄝoDhLo.ₒeLTo᎐,“ᴘkoi缑cgv
Loi࢐Б LR‚zEhLc
= 4 (VhVoiIRᬠ᪆hKR\b
sioᜌRab)ⰠwhteఠVhaeCRDଠLokTzȠeLhicTଠ
ėR
= 5 («siRTDRab»⤠ᆆD. \r⸠྆ShDဠCcР
EhጋIc
, \fᬄ‚z缛₫᜘kL᭿ᬈᄛ»‗oTthih
tᰠwcDhKoⰠᚆEhacᬠtLeEhtᰠVhKShKoⰠᚆഛac
TRဠTᠠDᬠRaᄠRTzᬠEhacᬠsLeVTzᬠ«VLh贛T
DRaR묠(CogDR)ⰠcgDଠᔚhᬠVLcRwe鴛gDih: \bc
shDhLzᬠtLeVV造GeLToahᨠVhVoKo4ఠ᪆hKR\b
ᆆDh\f GᬠVLh贛TDRab, CDᰠRTDeRDRiTᰠghhD
icDgDiecఠVLcകDoiacTR耠ᰠDhЬ Dᰠge鴛
gDie而 «VLᄄcLTh“Kᄈoshizc» RkKoࠑv.
9e鴛gDiecఠVLcഛabTzȠgaeCoȠ«eDhCTc
TRv묠LoTthihtᰠwcDhKoⰠshtKᠠicᔋ‗vഠko
TvDz脠GeLToaowᄠwcgఠh\f 1 \r N (丠騠CRgaᰠ
GeLToahᨠ᪆LogᔄoDLRiocwhȠKRᖍRVaRTc)
VLhcmRLecDgဠTᠠhDLckhᴠ[0; 1]ⰠᆆsoGKzȠ
GeLToጠhsokziocDgဠTᠠᔚhcȠDhCsᬠ/Dhtᰠ
hDLckso⸠ycgahGTᰠizCRgaRDbⰠCDᰠVLᄠ/DhР
VhsokoDcab₫hDࠜgRDcabࠜN hฑmRR»₏eL
࠘ጘ,‎oTRИ4Ucth
-ᬠwcgDᰠ᪆ᔚhcРKRᖍR
VaRToLThРLcNDRTtc, Loic\b (了隆
⦆⾆(了隆1).
ꀑᔮ‱0⸠萗᠚ࠛࠑᬠ᜘ࠉᰚ₏ᘗ࠘ጜᨠėᰛ贑᜜-
ᨘࠑᬄ ᠠhగcผᴠ[0; 1].
A1£ 䄵ₚ₏ᘗ࠘᎐‍ᄕ贑ēᄈ造A.
B1£ B7 š ᘗ࠘᎐‍ᄕ贑ēᄈ造B
dLR”Lhgg-KᄕmRVaRToLThw―᜘iࠛTRR₫iz
RtLziocD묠DhఠGeLToጬ‖)shDhLhtᰠesokoTToဠ
«hDThᔑDcabToဠVᰎRmRv묠izIc. ЭDᰠVhso
koTᰠTᠠLRg. 10, \tഛ―LoiTRio4DgဠGeLToa造
Kie脠LokaRCTz脠KRᖍRVaRT⸠ᦆhKThȠRภTR脠
(KRᖍRVaRTᠠA) 5 kKoTRȬ―hhDicDgDicTTᰠ
hTᄠkoTRwo4ఠwcgDᠠᖆ1-tᰠVᰠ5-ᬠ᪆LcNDRT
tᬠVᰠᔚhcȠKRᖍRVaRTcⰠiᰠiDhLhȠLeELRsᬠ
(KRᖍRVaRTᠠB) 7 kKoTRȠᖆwcgDowᄠᖆ1-tᰠ
Vᰠ7-c⸠dhgaᬠVLhcmRLhioTRဠTᠠhDLckhᴠ
[0; 1崠RDhthihᬠsLhgg-KRᖍRVaRToLThᬠLoT
GRLhioTRᬠiztavKR\f \foᴠ(ᨠetahizᬠᔝhEsᄠ
kosᎀCc࢐‑kKoࠑာ‎oTvi缑c“Kᄈosh
i逛 cgDo): A
š A
,
š A
uToahtRCTzРhELokhРDᠠRaᄠRToဠwh
KR(RsomRဠLoTthihtᰠwcDhKᠠwhGcఠEzDଠ
VLRwcTcTᠠVLᄠᔗoiTcTRᄠsoᴠoiDhLhᨬ‌oᴠ
ᆆhLtoTRkomRȠwcGKᘠghEhN⸠dLᄠ/DhРioG
TᰠshLLcsDTᰠᆆVhaTᰠghgDoiRDଠDᘠtLeVVe,
hEъcKRTv肝e4‗oEhఘ肝RS‚)hKࠜN \bo
eCThȠhEaogDᄬ‚TeDLᄠshDhLhȠEeഛఠhVLc
Kcacࠜ‚koRwࠜc cgDh‘iDhLhi/hᜉoTR
komRȠ(oToah\t \boeCThȠKRᖍRVaRT造Kaဠ
GeLToahi)⸠ᦆgaeCoᬠᖆoiDhLowᄠRaᄠeksh
gVcmRo጑kᄗhioࠈ逄R“LtoࠑkomRvБ₌Dh
gഛaoDଠVLh鴛Ⱐ᪆gaeCoᬠᖆhLtoTRkomRvwᄠ
IRLhshtᰠVLh(Raဠ騠gahGTccⰠ᪆/DhРgae
CoᬠwhGcఠhsokoDbgvⰠCDᰠLoTthizᬠVhKShK造
TcVLᄄcࠑҐ.
ᤠkosa4CcTRᬠhDwcDRЬ DᰠhKTᰠRภVLc
Rwe鴛gDᨠLoTthiz脠wcDhജᨠ騠koURDᠠh\f
ᔑabThȠoᔑwwcDLRCThgDᄠLoᔁLcഛacTRȠ
mRDᄗhioࠑာ shtKo TcEhጋIhc CRgah GeL
Toጜi (oiDhLhi,“ᜉoTRkomRN) haeCo4D
kToCRDcabThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahᴠᆆgᰎKo4\f \fo
sRᬠᔗcKTRᬠVhsokoDcaᄠVᰠᔚhcȠtLeVVc,
Cజ
пют
“gDoጋ࢐c‖CogDࠑsR \bc hteD‑S
ജgDRCଠ(ᔗ⸠ᔈhᔝᘠV. 2.2.4, \tഛ‗oTthizȠ
VhKShKⰠᠠRwcTTᰠRᔁhabkhioTRᬠwcKRoT逬
VLcKa᠉oagv Kav ᠈oaRko RwV᠝D-(᠝Dh
Lhi)⸠ᦆ/DhРgaeCoᬠhDsoภhఠeCcDᠠoEgha4D
࢐S‎ToCcࠑN‑TKᄝoDhLhi‑)RggacKhioࠑc
጑缋 cgD‚)LcNDᄈtoS hGcD“ᴘkoDbgv h
acc₌((csDᄚ࢐w.
2.4⸠dTKwvObMtꀠ
«8vDଉBVOlETM(묠SЋwtRBVMD଄
l鴛“KRࠠVhKShKⰠshLcTTzРhELokhРhDaR
Co4Uᄂgv“D‗okhELoࠈzS‚避c,‎osᎀCo
cDgဠ᪆DhwⰠCDhE造TᬠLoggCRDzioDଠᔗcKT44
mRDRLecwhgDଠigctᰠwogᔑiᠠgDoDcNⰠᢆko
ࠑwoDbgv «sLoаhgDvБ», ToEᎀKocҐБ
᪆TcЬₚ‌cwᄠgDoDbvwᄬ”hDhLzᬠVhaeCRaR
oࠜwoabࠜ oጜc‑aR‘ࠜwoabࠜ‚zghshc
CRgጜ―gzጜs.‒h/Dhwe \bokhicw hsokoDcaR,
hgThioࠈzc \bo \foshN cDhKᄝc,‑TKᄝoDh
LoБ₫/sgDLcwoጋThN»₍RDᄗecwhgDR,‑wcv
᪆iRKᘠ«/sgDLcwew»ⰠVLcഛጠiᰎwhGThȠmR
DRLecwhgDᄠsoᴠgᰠgDhLhT造wosᔑwewo, \fos
R)gh―DhLh࢐ ᄈᄄewo.₄h―DhLh࢐ ᄈR
wewo“CciRK࢐w“ELokhw₭ᄉeLᄗe而 e
E጑ᴘmᄑ, \bc haeCᄚ缑c R“KThN―gzጝR.
9ᰠgDhLhT造wosᔑwewᢆ騠D⺆T⺆«izghshmRDR
Lecwzc묠gDoDbᄠ(highly cited papers)ⰠhVLcഛ
acTRᬠshDhLz脠KocDgဠ᪆V⺆2.4.1.
rD጑CRDcጋThN cLDhN₫/sgDLcwoጋTh
th묠VhKShKᠠviavcDgဠDhⰠCDᰠhVLcഛavcDgဠ
aRIଠജaဠgDoDcȬ hVoiIR脠᪆Kiᬠ«VLc
ഛabTzc묠soDcthLRᄬ‘ RgaᰠLᬘabTᰠVhae
CcTTz脠RwᄠgᖐahᴠTᬠeCRDziocDgဠ(iVLh
Ccw,‚)gaeCoc ᄈᄄoጋThth₍RDᄗhioࠑv
/DᰠCRgaᰠRkicgDTᰠ騠0)⸠noGcࠠihVLhg,
ᔝhabsᰠ᪆wogᔑiᬠizghshmRDRLecwz脠ᆆTc
mRDRLecwz脠gDoDcȬ soshᨠR脠VLh贛TD⸠rEᠠ
wcDhKᠠwhteఠVLRwcTvDbgဠVᰠhDഛabThgDᄬ
hTᄠTckoiRᔑw造KLeठh\f \rLeto, \bchEvkoDcab
TᰠRᔁhabkhioDଠR脠᪆VoLc.
0,2,C, Выеокоцитидзеаые етатьи
ᤠEREaRhwcDLRᄠRᔁhabkhioaRᔋ‗ok
aRCTzᬠᔁhghE造hVLcഛacTRဠizghshmR
DRLecwz脠gDoDcN⸠ЭDᰠwhtaᄠEzDଠᆆgDoDbᄬ
VhaeCᄚ缑c“VLcKcacࠈhc‘EghᎀDThc
CRgaᰠgᖐahᴠ(KoTTzȠwcDhKⰠcgDcgDicT
Th, \bᬠwhGcఠRᔁhabkhioDbgဠVLᄠoToaRkᬠ
weጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToLThth ThGcgDio eE጑
somRN)ⰠᆆgDoDbᄬ‎oTviIRᬠizghsRᬠwcgDᠠ
VᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄠ᪆Lowso脠hVLcKcacTThȠ
tLeāz (ToėRwcL,₫aeͿRc (Vh Rgae hae
CcࠈzS―gzahs) 10 eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖ࠑicLgRDc
Do»).—KTosh―ᬂC᠕ \boREhጛc‗᠕VLhgD᜘
TcTᰠhVLcഛacTRc, Rᔁhabke4鴛ᬠ«VLh
贛TDRaR뮆騠icLSTRȠᔗcภ᪆
% \boREhacᬠ
mRDRLecwz脠gDoDcN⸠ᦆkoiRᔑwhgDᄠhఠRg
gacജioDcabᔝR脠koKo̠VhsokoDcaଠ
)w᲏cD
ioL଑LhioDbgာ Ґ LokEcLcw VhKShK, Rg
VhጋkecҐN‚)Eokc \roࠈzS ESI.
n‗owsoS ESI‚zghshmRDRLecМN―CRఘ
cDgဠVeEaRsomRv, shDhLoဠVhVoKoc\f ᪆1 %
ToREhacᬠmRDRLecwz脠LoEhఠ᪆wRLᬠᔗcKR
DcSⰠshDhLzᬠizIaᄠ᪆DhРGcⰠCDᰠᆆhTo, \th
Kᘠᆆ᪆DhȠGᬠhEaogDᄠToesR⸠BaဠsoGജth
thKᠠizShKᠠᆆsoGജȠhEaogDᄠToesᄠ᪆ESI
i逕CRDzio4Dgv hLhthi逛‎ToиTRv ᄕao
mRDRLhioTRȬ”hDhLhᬠജaGTᠠVhaeCRDb
ᶆTogDhv鴛wᘠwhwcTDᘠgDoDbvⰠCDhE造Vh
VogDଠ᪆1 % zghshmRDRLecwzS⸠舘ᴠᆆLoTcc
᪆V. 2.3.2, \thഠVeEaRsomRᄠ(RsᔑLecDgဠKav
DhthⰠCDhE造eELoDଠVLcRwe鴛gDiᰠgDoDcȬ
iz缛KIᆁ \roiTh, ᬗcK hጛc―ic輑wR
VeE጑ᴘmRvБ:‖)VhgacKࠑS₭RkRCcgsR
ЛTb缛‚LᬄᬈR \b᠆᜘Db habIhc ᄕah
mRDᄗhioࠑN.—tLoࠑCcࠑc h \boeCThN
KRgmᄁ጑Tc,”os z‎Tocw,₫eLoiࠑiocD»
gDoDbᄬ‚zIcKIRᬠ᪆hEaogDv脠Toesᄠᖆiz
ghsᄄ‑)ࠑksᄄ―LcKࠑw‖LhiTcw₍RDᄗe
cwhgDR⸠yoVLRwcLⰠVᰠKoTTzРTᠠgcTDvELb
2014 \t⸠izghshmRDRLecwhȠgDoDbcȠ200㒆t.
izShKo Vh KRgmᄁ጑Tc «БsLhERhahtRv»
EzaᠠaRIଠDoⰠshDhLoဠVhaeCRaᠠkᠠVLh
IcKIRᬠ1〠ac\f \bᬠwcTcᬠ21㐠mRDRLhioTRȬ
᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠgDoDbᬠVᰠwoDcwoDRsᬠKhgDo
DhCࠜ zጜ haeCRDb 68―gzጜs.„ToጜtRC
࢐c hLhtR \rav eE጑ᴘmᄂ 2009 \t.‚zShKo
Vᰠ/DRРKRᖍRVaRToРghgDoiavaᄠ11㘠ᆆ34
ggzasR―hᰌicకDicTTh
14
9ጛ
ഖcD‑ЛDb‚)iRഖ, Dh₫i逕hshmRDRLe
cwhgDb묠騠KRTowRCcᔝoဠsoDcthLRvⰠᆆgDo
DbvⰠhKToGK造gDoiIoဠizghshmRDRLecwhȬ
whGcఠ᪆KoabTcNIcРVhDcLvDଠ/DhఠgDoDeg.
ЭDᰠVLhRkhNഛD, cgaᄠosDRiThgDଠcᬠmR
DRLhioTRဠ᪆KoabTcNIcРghsLoDRDgဠᆆcᬠ
5owcDRwⰠCDhⰠ᪆hDaRCRᬠhఠwcDhKhiⰠLokhELoTTz脠
᪆V. 2.3.2, \bhLwoaRkomRဠTᬠkoDLotRioc\f \fRĠKhsewcT
Do. dLᄠ/DhР᪆ES䤠hELoEoDzio4DgဠDhabsᰠKhsewcTD造
DRVᠠArticl攠ᆆReview.
hEhNKe\f \rLetRᬠVeEaRsomRᄠDhtᰠGᬠthKᠠ
izShKᠠRภDhȠGᬠhEaogDᄠToesR⸠nᰎLhᕿRȠ
g)Dᬃᬈᄛw iLᬄᬈR VhLht, ࠛhEShKRwzN
KaဠVhVoKoTRဠgDoDbᄠ᪆izghshmRDRLecwzc,
whGcఠVLcikhNDᄠCRgaᰠLᬘabTz脠gᖐahs,
VhaeиTT邁 \roTThN―DoDbᬂ.—иiRKTh, Dh
iᰎwhGcࠠᆆhELoDTzȠVLh贛gᔠ騠gDoDbv,
ࠛ‐iaviI᠐gv‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄhN, hGcD
ToCoDଠVhaeCoDଠwThtᰠgᖐahᴠᆆVhVogDଠ
᪆VLcgDRGTe耠soDcthLR4⸠dh/DhwᘠoToaRภ
izghshmRDRLecwz脠gDoDcȠToജ LhihKRDଠ
i)TcshDhL适₭ᄝgᄗhioࠈ适 hwcTD, \bo
ЈhGcgDic eE጑ᴘmᄂ,‐iav4URSgv‚)To
gDhvUcc iLᬄv i逕hshmRDRLeᬄzwR. Ԙጛc
RggacKhioTRc hGࠜ cᜑhKRCcgᴑ hiDh
LvDb,“DgacGᄚov \rᄈoБse.
dLR‘ToaRkc‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁―DoDᬂ
RggacKecDgဠVLcGഛ‚gctᰠoEgha4DTzȠVh
ᴘkoDcጋₚ―shጋsh \fosRS‗oEhD“VeE጑sh
ioጠeCcTzȬ‑aᄠaoEhLoDhLRvⰠRaᄠRTgDRDeD,
RaᄠKoGᬠ贛aoဠgDLoTo⸠ЭDᰠioGTzȠLckeab
DoDⰠgacഠeCogDRဠTᬠVLhgDᰠ«ᨠToesc», \bᰠ
«i \boesc‚逕hCoN缛th‖LhiTv».ₛosᄛ―Do
D଑ hGTh \bok通oDb \boeC࢐БⁿcKciLoБ
[dRgavᴜi, 2011].
yᰠc鴛 hacᬠioGTzРviavcDgဠhDThᔑ
Dcጋ࢐N‑TKᄝoDhL, hᴘk通o4Uᄂ,”oshio
ജaဠgDoDcȬ ToVRgoTTz脠DhȠRaᄠRThȠRg
gacജioDcabᔝhȠcKRTR贛Ȭ”hDhLzᬠgDo
ThivDgv‚zghshmRDᄗecҐБ.‟hGcD zDb,
ᴘGKov 20-v―DoDbာ \boVRgoࠈov“Ltoࠑko
mᄛN/eиTzw,―DoThiRDgv‚逕hshmRDRLec
whN㼠Maᄬ hGcఠEzDbⰠaRIଠsoGKoဠ200-ဠ
VhVoKoc\f ᪆/DᘠsoDcthLR4㼠dLᄠ/DhРkKcᔋ
geUcgDiecD cDsᄂ“LRcTDᄗ,”hTDLhጋ࢐N
eLhicTb,“DࠜgRDcabࠜ”hDhLhth hGࠜ
gLoiࠑioDb₌((csDᄚThgDb \rcvDcጋThgDR
ToeCThtᰠshaacsDRiᠠTᠠwRLhihР(hTc.
dhᔝhabseⰠghtaoᔈᰠhVLcഛacTR4Ⱐ᪆wRLᬠ
soGK᠐―hD᠐―DoDbv‐iaရDgv‚逕hshmRDR
LecwhȬ‌hⰠcga 1 % eEaRsomRȠToeCThtᰠ
shaacsDRiᠠ(soGKoဠghDoဠgDoDbv) ജgDRto
cఠsoDcthLRᄠizghshmRDRLecwhgDᄬ₌Dᰠth
ihLRఠᰠghhDicDgDiRᄠഛvDcabThgDᄠeCcTz脠
БLhihwe‖Lhiࢀ
15
dL
ᄠLᬘaRkomRᄠTᠠVLosDRsᬠgacKecD
VhЈRDb, Dh izghshmRDᄗecҐБ gDo
ThivDgဠaRI 1 % DoDcȬ―acജioDcabTh,
oToaRk‚zghshmRDRLecМgDR hGࠜ Lhih
KRDb \fhጋsh \bo hጋ缑S eE጑ᴘmRhࠈzS
w᠕gRioS, hSioDzio4Uᆁ D逕vCR‑gShKT邁
ജsewcTDhi⸠ᦆVLhDRiThРgaeCoᬠizihKz
Rggacജioࠑv eKeD―጑缝hw‎oiRgᄄz“D
gaeCoNTzS‚zELhᔜᨮ
0,2,0, Коэииициент нецитидзеаоети
2h/((RmᄛTD ᮍRDRLeᬄhgDR,”os―ጛ
KecఠRภctᰠTokioTRvⰠ/DᰠജaဠToeCTz脠Lo
EhDⰠshDhLzᬠTᄠLokᘠTᬠEzaᄠVLhmRDRLhio
Tz⸠fckeabDoD造ToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠTo
eCThth”haጛsDRio Dᬄ₌((ᬝDRiࠛc, иw
нтоьшт
‎ToиTᄛ \roTThth”h/((RmᄛTDo.
9)ࠛshDhLhN gDᬁᬈb4 htLeEጛTRv wh輈h
thihLRDb, Dh ᬄ \bᆏc”h/((RmᄛTD c
mRDRLeᬄhgDR, \fᬄ ᬈb缛₫EcgVhጛkT邁»,
«EcgVahK࢐S» eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚zShKRD‑k-
VhK ᬗo―hDLeKTRshi‗᠕gwoDLRi᠛whth
shaጛsDRio
16
Тᬁᬗb LcKVhah輑w, Dh ᬝhDh᜘v
gDoDbဠTᬠVhaeCRaᠠTᠠDcseURȠwhwcTD
9DLhtᰠthihLvⰠgRDeomRဠTcgshabsᰠgahGTcc⸠nzgh
shmRDRLecwzᬠgDoDbᄠCogDᰠVRIeDgဠ᪆EhabIR脠ghoi
DhLgsR脠shaacsDRioSⰠᆆKaဠshLLcsDThtᰠghhDTcgcTRဠ
g)wRLhizw‖Lhiࠛw―ጛഖcD‑gVhabkhioDb \rLhETzN
gCc\f (fractional countingⰠgw⸠V. 2.1.1)⸠ТhCTcᬠEeKcఠgso
koDବ Dh‛gaR“LtoTRko贑v RIcD―DoDbR,―DoThᨐ-
URcgဠ
п нтотт C % юшучнтп
‚zghshmRDᄗecҐБ, \fh“To
koicKᰄh LᰑtថiocD \bo“EUcwRLᰚᰄ₭hTc.ₗDh h
LhठgTRkeⰠᠠihఠhELoDThᬠCogDᰠTcicLTh.
5cLᴘጋ࢐N‚ktavK \bo₌Dh‐iacࠑc‗co጑khioT
᪆InCites2, \tKᬠgCRDocDgဠVhsokoDcaଠ%Documents
Cited, \rhaဠVLhmRDRLhioTTz脠ShDဠE造hKRࠠLoภKhse
ЛTDhi. 2h/((RmᄛTD ᮍRDRLeᬄhgDR, iz᜘GᬈTzN
᪆VLhmcTDoSⰠLoic\b 100 % RTeᔠ%Documents Cited.
yᰠgacKecఠRwcDଠ᪆iRKeⰠCDᰠ᪆InCites㈠RgVhabkecDgဠ
TᬠThLwoaRkhioTTzȠVᰠiLcwcTᄠVhsokoDcaଠ(D⸠c. \bᬠ
DoshNⰠsoᴠiihKRDgဠKoacᬠ᪆KoTThРLokKcac).
TᄠhKThȠgᖐasR⸠rCciRKThⰠCDᰠTcabkv
VLcKetoKoDbⰠEeഛఠaᄠhTᠠVLhmRDRLh
ioTo‚)ࠛht᜘TRиTThN ᬗgěsDRic.
dh谌hwe \rav \tLowᰌThज‘ToaRko”h/(
(RmᄛTDo ᮍRDRLeᬄhgDR‚zKcaရDgv
ࠛshDhLzN‚LᬄᬈThN‑TDᬗioa,‚caRCR
Te”hDhLhth₭ᄝgᄗe而 \rav eE጑ᴘmᄂ
a4EhtᰠthKᠠizShKoⰠᖆDcРCDhE造Ehacc
gDoLzᬠgDoDbᄠTᬠRwcaᄠVLcRwe鴛gDio
ěLcK‚z缛KIRwR cKoiTh.₉oVLRЛL,
cgaᄠ᪆soCcgDiᬠDoshtᰠRTDcLioaᠠizELoT
VဌRacఈRN hగckhs, Dh VLhᄎiᰍRDgv
VhRᔝ―DoDcNⰠhVeEaRshioTTz脠᪆200㒆t.
ᆆTᬠVLhmRDRLhioTTz脠ജ′00㢆t⸠isa4
CRDcጋTh,“VeE጑shioࠈzS‚)2005 \t.‑)Tc
VLhmRDᄗhioࠈzS \rh 2009 \t.‚sᎀCR
DcabTᰠᆆD. \r⸠ЭDᰠVᰎihavcఠVLhicgDR
shLLcsD࢐N‘To጑k \rᄈoБsR”h/((R
mᄛTDo ᮍRDRLeᬄhgDR‑)hVLcKcaRDb,
ToVLRwcLⰠCDᰠജaဠTᄠLokᘠTᬠVLhmR
DᄗhioࠈzS eE጑ᴘmᄂ“Ltoࠑkomᄑ/
oiDhLᠠᖆ200㐠Vᰠ2009 \t⸠eicaRCRaoᔋ
RaR‖ЛTbIRa᠕b. av―᜘iࠛTRv‗ok
጑C࢐S“Ltoࠑkomᄂ‑጑‘iDhLhi cGKe
ghEhȠTchEShKRwᰠhgDoioDbgဠ᪆LowsoS
hKThth \rRgmᄁ጑ToLThth \boVLoiacࠑာ
Vhgshጋse―LcKTcБLhihN”h/((ᆍRcTD
ࠛmRDRLeᬄhgDR,”os‑)hgDoabT逛 ᬈhL
wo጑khioࠈzc hᴘkoDc጑₍RDᄗecwh
gDᄬ―RabTᰠkoiRᔑఠhఠLogᔄoDLRiocwhN
hEጘgDR oesR.
ᤠhDaRCRᬠhఠoToaRkᠠizghshmRDRLec
whgDᄬ‑ggacജioTRᬠKLethtᰠVhsokoDcav
«谝gDLcwoabࠜN»₍RDRLecМgDR \bc \fLcEecD
hCcࠋ hጋ缑S oggᄚhi \roࠈzS.₉oVLR
wcLⰠsoᴠEzaᰠVhsokoTᰠ[dRgavsh, 2010],
VvDRጛDTRN”h/((RmᄛTD ᮍRDRLeᬄh
gDᄠigc脠LhgᔑNᔝR脠gDoDcȬ izIcKIRS
᪆200㒆t. (VᰠSCI䔠ᆆSSCI)ⰠghgDoiRጠhshah
40 %⸠ЭDᰠᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠRggacKecwhwᘠwog
ᔑiᘠVeEaRsomRȠജgDoDhCTᰠghഛL輘Db
ghDTᄠRaᄠKoGᬠഛgvDsᄠgDoDcN.
2.5.₫c耎B褅TTꀅ» TKwvObMtf.
nMUD଎BTTꂭ₆OvbM\t (Eigenfactor)
ҐwTKBvఠklwITw缠DbOଆР(Article
In1uence)
ngc‑keCcࠈzc‗oTcc‑TKᄝoDhLz‑wc጑
hKTᘠhEUe耠Ccᜌe㨠gᖐasᄬ”hDhLzᬠVhae
Co጑₏eLToa/oiDhL/hLtoࠑkomRာ z጑ \rav
Tᆁ₫hKRToshiz», hsokoDcaR₫ࠛ‎oЛCo
aR»ⰠhDseKᠠRwcTTᰠVhaeCcTᰠDᰠRaᄠRThᬠ
mRDRLhioTRc⸠5owcTᠠhKThtᰠmRDRLe4鴛tᰠ
GeLToaᠠTᠠKLethȬ”hDhLzȠKocఠgDhabsᰠ
Gᬠgᖐahs, \bᬠVLRicaᰠE造ᶆRkwcTcTR耠Tᄠ
hKThth‑TKᄝoDhLo.
9acKe4URc \rio‑TKᄝoDhLo \bok通o而
gv₫ikicIcࠈ逄R», hgshጋse“ࠑ‖CRDz
io而 haeCcࠈzc₏eLToahw₍RDᄗhioࠑv
ᖆLokaRCTzРicghР騠᪆koiRᔑwhgDᄠh\f \fh
th, \bogshጋsh₫i጑vDcacT» \fhD‑gDhCࠑs,
Rk”hDhLhth haeCcࠜ₍RDRLhioTRc.ₗఘ
iaRvDcabThgDbⰠ᪆ᔚh耠hCcLcKbⰠkoiRᔑఠhD
mRDᄗecwhgDR―owhth‑gDhCࠑᴘ―gzጝR.
ТosRРhELokhЬ―ᖐasᠠRภizghshmRDRLec
whtᰠGeLToao, \boVLRwcᜠNatureⰠ«贛TRDgv»
izIcⰠCcРgᖐasᠠRภwoahRkicgDThtᰠLctRh
ToabThtᰠRkKoTRv. uToahtRCToဠRഛဠacGRD
i)hgࠜic‗ogCcఘ‗oTघ₫oiDhᜑDcDࠜgDR»
icE-gDLoࠑm \bcshDhL逄R hRgshi逄R o
IRTowR, \boVLRwcᜠGoogle (D. \b⸠«PageRank»).
nkicIcࠈ适₏eLToጋ࢐N‑TKᄝoDhL, h
aeCᄚ缑N \bokioࠑc₫ghEgDicࠈ适₭osDhL»
(Eigenfactor), EzጠVLcKahGc\b ᪆2007 \t. ᔁc
mRoaRgDowᄠRภaoEhLoDhLRᄠ舘Laᠠ.cLt
gDLhwo (OࠑicLgRDcD GhLKGo’o缑ࠉ
DhTo).₠oทoEhDCRᴑ \roTࠜth hsokoDcav
Raa4gDᜑLhioaR‛th―)VhМUb4 Lhmcgᔘ
gaeCoNThtᰠVcLcShKᠠVᰠgᖐasow: \bcsRȠCR
DoDcaଠVcLcShKRఠhఠGeLToaᠠVᰠgaeCoNTᰠ
izELoTThȠ᪆TcРEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝhȠgᖐa
sᬠᶆKLethwᘠGeLToae. BaဠghcKRTcTRဠTᬠ
givkoࠈzS cGKe―hEhN―gzጝoБ‑kKoࠑN
KhVhaTRDcabTh‚ihKRDgv ᬝhDh᜘v ᬈeጛ
ioဠicLhvDThgDଠDhthⰠCDᰠCRDoDcaଠizEcLc\f
101
gacKe4URȠGeLToጠgaeCoNTzРhELokhw,
ᢆTᬠVeDcРgacജioTRဠVᰠgᖐasc⸠MDhthizȠ
VhsokoDcaଠ«VLcgDR輘묠RkKoTRဠEeഛఠVLh
VhLmRhToacࠠCRgaᘠkoShജᨠCRDoDcaဠ᪆gh
ᰌicకDie4URN₏eLToa.
BoTTzȠVLh贛gᔠLᬘaRkec\f hVRgoTTe耠
izIᬠRഛ耠ᰠLokThȠ贛TThgDᄠgᖐahᴠRภ
Geᜈoጜi―)LoจhN₍RDRLecМgDb4.’cKb
KaဠDhtᰠCDhE造ihhELo輘cwzȠCRDoDcaଠ
CogDᰠkoShKRጠ᪆TcsRȠGeLToጬ chEShKRwᰠ
TᬠDhabsᰠCDhE造«VeDcN묠(gᖐahs) ᴠ/Dhwᘠ
GeLToaᘠEzaᰠwThth, \bᰠᆆCDhE造VLRShKRaᄠ
/DᄠgᖐasᄠRภCogDᰠVhgcUocwz脠CRDoDcacР
Geᜈoጜi.
l鴛 hKRࠠwcSoTRkЬ”hDhLzРRaa4gDLR
Le4ఠikicIcTTzᬠVhsokoDcaᄬₚ₌Dᰠ«Lok
KoCᠠVLcgDR輘묠GeLToahР᪆LckeabDoDᬠ
RDcLoDRiThȠVLh贛KeLz⸠9ToCoaᠠsoGജwᘠ
GeL࠘ae ok࠘CocDgv“KR࠘shizN oCoab
࢐N₫VLcgDRG»,‗oi࢐N‛Kᄈᆍc.₉o cL
ihР/DoVᬠRDcLomRᄠsoGKzȠGeLToጠ«ഛ
aRD묠ᔚhȠcKRTRCTzȠVLcgDR輠wcGKᘠigcwᄠ
gᖐasowᄬ”hDhLzᬠhࠠ«VhᖐaocD묠KLetRР
GeLToaow⸠ЧcРwcTbIᬠ᪆GeLToaᬠgഛaoTᰠ
gᖐahs, \fcРEhabIᬠ«icg묠soGജȠRภTRS
17
ТosRw“E᜘khw‗᠕gCRDzi᠛Dgv₫VLcgDᆏ»,
VhaeCcࠈ适”oGK逄₏eLToahw‑k \rLetRS
GeLToahi⸠ЭDᰠkToCcTRᬠVLcgDR輘ⰠVhae
CcTThtᰠ᪆LckeabDoDᬠVcLihȠRDcLomRᄬ LR
TRwocDgဠ᪆soCcgDiᬠThihtᰠkToCcTRဠVLc
gDR輘₏eLToaoⰠshDhLhᬠTᠠiDhLhȠRDcLomRᄠ
iThiଠ«ഛaRDgv묠wcGKᘠigcwᄠgᖐasowR,
RgShKvURwᄠRภGeLToao⸠BoacᬠVLh贛gᔠVh
iDhLvcDgဠജ‍hgDRGcTRဠsiokRgDoERabThtᰠ
ghgDhvTRv, shtKᠠhCcLcKThȠIo\t RDcLomRᄠ
eGc ᜘sDRиgsR c ᬈရD‎ToиTRv₫VLc
gDR輘»ⰠVhaeCcTThtᰠsoGKzРRภGeLToahi.
ТhCTᰠDoᴠGᬠ᪆gaeCoᬠgaeCoNThtᰠVcLcShKᠠVᰠ
ggzasow㨠CcРwcTbIᬠggzahᴠ᪆GeLToac, \fcРEhabIᬠ
icLhvDThgDb, Dh‚hhELoGocҐN RDoఛጋ‚hgVhጋke
cDgဠsoshN-DᰠshTsLcDThȠRภTRS, ᠠkToCRD, izIᬠmcT
ࠜgDb”oGKhN―gzaᴑ.
(ТhCTzȠoathLRDРegDLhc\b \fosRРhELokhЬ
CDᰠKoTThᬠghgDhvTRᬠEeഛ\f hEvkoDcabTᰠ
Khg఑ईeDh.)
9htaoᔈᰠgDLhthwᘠwoDcwoDRCcᔝhwᘠ
hVLcKcጛTR4, \rav‚zCᄕጛTRv‎ToиTRv
ghEgDicTThtᰠ(osDhLᠠLcIocDgဠwoDLRCThᬠ
e᜘iࠛTᄛ‑)ToShKRDgv―hEgDiᬈTzN‚ᬝDhL
woDLRm造icLhvDThgDcȠVcLcShജᨠ(hDᖀ
Ko Tokioࠑc «ghEgDicࠈ适 (osDhL»). 9hE
gDicࠈ适₭osDhLₚ hᴘkoDcጋ₏eLToao
soᴠ贛ahth⸠lgaᄠctᰠThLwRLhioDଠTᠠCRgaᰠ
gDoDcN‚)RkKoࠑR, haeCRDgv‑TKᄝoDhL,₁o
LosDcLRke4URȠᔗcKT4耠gDoDb耠᪆GeLToaᬠ
R)Tok通ocҐN₫ᄈKcsghw‚጑vࠑv―DoD଑»
(Article InAuence)⸠rEᠠVhsokoDcaဠVeEaRse
4Dgဠᖆ2007 \t⸠᪆JCR.
dLR‚zCᄕጛTRR―hEgDiᬈThth₭osDh᜘
GeLToaᠠᆆRTഛsgᠠiaRvTRဠgDoDbᄠeCRDz
io4DgဠgᖐasᄠDcse鴛tᰠthKᠠTᠠVeEaRso
mRᄬ‚zIcKIRᬠkᠠVvDଠVLcKzKeUR脠acD, š
VeEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh‑)hᴈh₍RDRLhioTRv
ghiVoKo而―)egDoThiacࠈ逄R \rav vDRacD
Tcth‑ЁosD-(osDhLo.—D጑CRDcጋThN“gh
EcTThgDb耠/DR脠VhsokoDcacȠviavcDgဠDh,
CDᰠgᖐasᄠGeLToaᠠTᠠᔚhᄠGᬠgDoDbᄠTᬠ
eCRD通o而gာₚ―owhmRDᄗhioࠑc LR‗og
иDc‑gsa4C᠛Dgv.
MgVhጋkhioࠑc‚kicIcࠈzS‑TKᄝoDh
Lhi‚)ghihseVࠜgDR―)DLoKRmᄜTTzw‑w
VosD-괘sDhLhw (KieS-‑aR ဌRacఈRw)
VᰎihavcఠiktavTeDଠTᠠmRDRLecwhgDଠGeL
ToahᨠEhacᬠhEъcwTh⸠ᦆCogDThgDᄬ LᄠRS
ghVhgఘiacTRR,”os Loᨑጜ,‗cabc(ࠜ
izഛav4DgဠGeLToa逬”hDhLzᬠVhaeCRaR
izghsRc‑ЁosD-VhᴘkoDc጑ aothKoLv
gowhmRDᄗhioࠑ4‑጑―gzጝow (koCogDe4
ikoRwTzw)‑k‖ฝhth,‎owᴈeDhth”Leघ
RkKoࠑN. dLR izghshw kToCcࠑR ᄄVosD-
(osజLo (RwVosD-(osజLhi)₌DR₏eLToaz
EeഖD‑ЛDb \bRksᄛ‎ToиTRv‚ki᭿ᬈT邁
RTKRsoDhLhi:‌oshth‗hKo₫hgDLh᨝R‚ko
Rwࠜth₍RDRLhioTRv» \bc \roKeD‚zghᴑc
kToCcTRဠghEgDicTThwᘠ(osDhLᘠGeLToaᢆ/
RTഛsgᘠiaRvTRဠgDoDbR⸠ᦆwhഛaᄠ«gae
CoNThtᰠEaeGKoTRv묠CRDoDcaଠLcKsᰠEeഛD
hᴘk通oDbgv \bo₌DRS“gDLhiᴘS,‛g጑“ࠑ
Tc givko࢐ g)hgDoጋ࢐Б GeLToaoБ Vhae
Ccࠈ逄R‑k RS―gzጝoБ (o”Lhwc \fhth,‑k
LoggwhDLcࠈzS \boБ‚kicIcࠈzS‑TKᄝo
DhLhi‚hhEUc‑gsa考cࠜ―oМmRDRLhio
TRc). yoVLRwcLⰠhKRࠠRภGeLToahᨬ‖aRCcT
TzN‚)VLosDRsc₫ikoRwࠜth \rhthihᜈhth
mRDᄗhioࠑv»,‚)JCR-2012‎oࠑwoa 14-c
wcgDh h‑ЁosD-(osDhLe‚)KRgmᄁ጑Tc
«/shThwRso묠騠ᆆVLᄠ/DhР197-c(!⤠wcgDᰠVh
ᄈKcsge‚጑vࠑv―DoD଑.
yoshTcmⰠhDwcDRЬ DᰠRTഛsᔠiaRvTRဠ
i)soshN-Dh gDᬁᬈR gtao輑i᠛D ᜘kTR贖
eLhiࠛN‘sDRiThgDR₍RDRLhioTRv‚)᜘k
጑C࢐S ToeC࢐S KRgmᄁ጑ToS (taoiTov VLh
Eacwo LR‑gVhጋkhioࠑR‘EghᎀD࢐S‎To
CcࠑN‑ЁosDo), hgshጋse₫VLcgDRG»₏eL
ToaᠠLoᔁLcഛavcDgဠVhLhiTᘠwcGKᘠigcwᄠ
RgShKvUᄄR‑k \bcth―gzጝoБ.’)KRgmᄁ጑
ToS, \tഛ―LcKTcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahᴠ᪆hKThȠgDo
DbᬠicaRsh, icᔠhKThȠgᖐasᄠEeഛ\f wcTbIc,
CcР᪆Dc脠hEaogDv脠Toesᄬ ഛ―ᖐahᴠ᪆Log
CcDᬠTᠠgDoDb耠wcTbIᬠᆆ«gᖐahCThᬠVhac묠
Лࠛc VahDThc. 2LhЛ Dhth, vDRጛDࠛc e
EaRsomᄜTࠜc hᴈh ఘsGc gVhghEgDiecD Eh
acᬠLoiThicᔈhwᘠeCcDᘠmRDRLhioTRȠ᪆Lok
጑C࢐S \boeC࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑ToS.
2.6⸠dTKBvఠ5wty\n (
-index)
wz«茄tyⶏMKMUTfB»₏༐O4਋Blw
MTഛsᔠХRLIᠠEzጠVLcKahGcࠠ(RkRshР
Rภ舘aR(hLTRNᔝhtᰠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠ᪆9oT-
ԑctᰠХ⸠ХRLIcР[Hirsch, 2005]⸠ЭDhఠVhso
koDcጋ”oLKᄈoጋ࢐w“ELokhw“D጑CocDgv
hఠigc脠LogᔄhDLcTTz脠LoTccⰠVhᔝhab
sᘠhࠠVzDocDgဠKoDଠshwVacsᔈe耠h贛Tsᘠ
hKThiLᬄᬈTh ᄕae eEaRsomRN‖иThth
ᆆR脠mRDRLecwhgDᄠ(D⸠c⸠«shaRCcgDiᘠᆆso
CcgDie»)⸠2LhwᬠDhth, wcDhKRsᠠVhകCcDᠠ
RTഛsgᠠХRLIᠠTowcLcTTᰠeShKRఠhఠhVLc
ഛacTRဠᔗcKTR脠icaRCRࠬ―LcKTcȠmRDRLe
cwhgDᄠgDoDcȠ(ᨠ/DhРhࠠgSh輠ᖆwcDhKRsowᄠ
«谝gDLcwoabࠜN»₍RDRLecМgDR,‗okhELoT
Tzwᄠ᪆Lokഛaᬠ2.4)⸠ЭDᰠRwccఠᔚhȠᔄzga,
VhᔝhabsᘠeᔗcKTcTRᬠkoCogDe耠TᬠKoc\f
VhaThȠsoᜌRT造hؠRggacKecwhРwThGcgDiᬠ
gDoDcȠᆆTᬠVᰎihavcఠVLhRkihKRDଠshL
LᬝDThc―᜘iࠛTᄛ₌((ᬝDRiThgDR \boeCThN
ഛvDcabThgDᄠoiDhLhᨠᆆhLtoTRkomRN⸠dLᄠ
eᔗcKTcTRᄠᔑabTzᬠRᔝoGcTRဠwhteఠEzDଠ
izkio࢐“DKcጋ࢐Б eE጑ᴘmRvБ,”hDh
LzᬠVhaeCo4ఠhCcTଠwThtᰠgᖐahsⰠviavvᔋ
(osDRCcgsR₫izELhgoБ»,‚zKcacࠈ逄R
gaeCovwᄮ
MTഛsᔠХRLIᠠRwcጠTcicLhvDTzȠeᔁcS
᪆ToeCThРghhE鴛gDicⰠiജSThiRᨠᔁcmRo
aRgDhᨠ᪆EREaRhwcDLRᄠTᠠgᰎKoTRᬠwThtRS
ഛgvDshᨠᔚhR脠«whKR(RsomRN묠ᆆ«eghicL
IcTgDihioࠑN».‟z‗oggwhDLᄄ–ᅿb \rio
VLRЛ᜘₌Dᆁ₫SRLI-VhKhET邁» cDLRs,
hKTosh \boCࠛw―)᜘ggwhDLᬈRv”a᠕gRи
ᔝhtᰠRTഛsgo.
0,4,C, Индеке Хидша
9htaoᔈᰠhVLcഛacTR4ⰠRTഛsᔠХRLIᠠ
woggᄚo eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖CcThth‗oicT
Ⱐcgaᄠ
cgDଠ
―DoDcȠRภ/DhtᰠwogᔑioⰠsoGKoဠRภ
shDhL邁 haeCRao c ᬈcc
₍RDᄗhioࠑN,
ᠠsoGKoဠRภhgDoabTz脠gDoDcȠVLᄠ/DhРVh
aeCRaᠠTᬠEhacᬠ
₍RDᄗhioࠑN.ₗsiᄚo
acTDThᬠhVLcKcacTRᬺ RTഛsᔠХRLIᠠwogᔑ
io VeE጑ᴘmᄂ eCcThth LoicT
, cgaᄠcgDଠ
gDoDcȠRภ/DhtᰠwogᔑioⰠsoGKoဠRภshDhLz脠
VhaeCRao c ᬈcc
₍RDRLhioTRN, \bᰠTc\f
)⮆ㄠgDoDcȬ”oGKoဠRภshDhLz脠VhaeCRaᠠE造
ࠛ ᬈcc
+ 1₍RDᄗhioࠑN.
yoVLRwcLⰠcgaᄠᚆeCcThtᰠcgDଠ㔠gDoDcN,
shDhLzᬠVhaeCRaᄠ10, 8, 2, 2 †〠gᖐahᴠgh
hDicDgDicTTh, \fᰠctᰠRTഛsᔠХRLIᠠLoic\b 2,
VhᔝhabsᘠcgDଠ㈠gDoDbᄬ”oGKoဠRภshDhLz脠
mRDRLhioaoᔋ ᬠwcTcᬠ㈠Loภ(DosR脠gDoDcȠ
ꀑᔮ‱ㄮ‏ࠍᬝᔠ鄑᝿ᠠ(
ⴑࠍᬝᔩ
KoGᬠ4), \bᰠeGᬠTc\f 3 DoDcȬ”oGKoဠRภshDh
Lz脠mRDRLhioaoᔋ 造TᬠwcTcᬠ㌠Lok
18
%L
o(RCcᔝᄠ/DᰠVLhRaa4gDLRLhioTᰠTᠠ
LRg. 11⸠舘GKoဠDhCsᠠTᠠtLo(RsᬠghhDicD
gDiecD“KThN eE጑ᴘmᄑ‖CcThth.‒eE጑ᴘ
mRᄠeVhLvജCcT造VᰠmRDRLecwhgDR㨠h\f \fcS,
shDhLzᬠVhaeCRaᄠEhabIᬠigctᰠgᖐahs,
ᶆToRwcTcᬠmRDRLecwzРgDoDbvw⸠dᰠhᔑ‘E
ᖍRgᔠTᠠLRg. 11 hDahGc\b VhLvKshizȠThwcᜠ
VeEaRsomRᄠ᪆/DhРeVhLvജCcTThРᔁRᔝc.
dᰠhᔑ hLKRToఠ騠ᔝhabsᰠgᖐahᴠVhaeCRaᠠ
gDoDbဠᖆghhDicDgDie4URРThwcLhw⸠niRKᘠ
eVhLvജCcTRဠVᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄬ‖)DhCcᴠVh
gDᬁᬈTh‖ЛTbI᠛Dgv“LKRToDo LR‖icaR
CcࠑR‘EgmRggz. g጑ zgacࠈh―hcKᄈRDb
DhCsᄠKaဠVhaeCcTRဠtLo(Rso, \fᰠ
-RTഛsᔠ
EeKcD ToShKRDbgv i)᜘Nhࠛ ᬗcgᬃᬈRv
/DhtᰠtLo(RsᠠᖆVhsokoTThȠTᠠLRgeTsᬠ
EᄕgᬝDLᄕhN
w ; x
⸠ТhCTccⰠRTഛsᔠХRLIᠠ
EeഛఠghhDicDgDihioDଠwosᔑwoabThwᘠTh
wcLᘠgDoDbR, \boShKv鴛Ngဠ
от охзт
 LငhN
w ; x
(izIᬠRaᄠTᠠ/DhȠVLvwhN)⸠舘ᴠiRKTᰠ
RภtchwcDLRᄠtLo(Rso, ᚆLogᔄoDLRiocwhtᰠ
eCcThtᰠcgDଠ
―DoDcȬ”oGKoဠRภshDhLz脠
mRDRLecDgv c ᬈcc
‗ok, \bᰠVLᄠ/DhРᚆTc
tᰠTc\f
+ 1 DoDcȬ”oGKoဠRภshDhLz脠mRDR
LecDgv c ᬈcc
+ 1 ok㨠gDoDbဠᖆThwcLhР
+ 1 ToShKRDgဠTRGᬠVLvwhȠ
w ; x
, ᠠkToCR\f
VhaeCRao ᬈcc
+ 1 ᖐahs.
rᔈhiThᬠᔚhNgDiᰠRTഛsgᠠХRLIo㨠eic
጑Ccࠑc eE጑ᴘmRhࠈhN‘sDᄚThgDR ck
KhgDoDhCThN₍RDᄗecwhgDR eE጑secҐS
LoEh\f \bᬠVLRicഛఠᶆctᰠLhgDe⸠྆TohEhLhD:
VhaeCcࠑc hጋIhth Rgao₍RDᄗhioࠑN
hKࠜN-Kiewv―ఘDbvwR‌osGc \bc h᪐gRD
RTഛsᔠgcLbckTzРhELokhw⸠lgaᄠoiDhᜠTo
n gDLhthw woDᬄoDRиgshw iRKc hVLcKcጛTᄛ RT
KcsgᠠХRLIᠠ(hLweaRLecDgဠDos㨠VegDଠᚆeCcThtᰠcgDଠ
―DoDcNⰠeVhLvKhCRРR脠h\f \boREhacᬠmRDRLecwz脠
s)ToᄄcTcc₍RDᄗecҐw.—EhkTȏw
 Rgጜ―gzጜs,
VhaeиTT邁
-ȠgDoDbcN,
g)C
\raဠigc脠
– 1.
ТhtKᠠRTKcsᔠХRLIᠠ
= max{
VRgoጠ10〠gDoDcȬ ᰠVLᄠ/DhРsoGKoဠRภTRS
VhaeCRaᠠ㔠gᖐahsⰠRTഛsᔠХRLIᠠeCcThth
EeഛఠLoicࠠigctᰠaRIଠ5. C†KLethȠgDhLhT逬
cgaᄠoiDhᜠToVRgoጠaRIଠ㖆gDoDcȬ”oGKov
RภshDhLz脠VhaeCRaᠠVᰠ10〠gᖐahsⰠctᰠRT
ഛsᔠigᬠLoiTᰠEeഛఠLoicࢆ5⸠BaဠജgDR
GᬈRv‚逕hshth‎ToиTRv‑TKᬝgoₑRLIo
TchEShKRwhⰠCDhE造oiDhᜠVRgoጠ
ноыды ун
чхх эноыу* чнзеня хи чыуыэых ьышучншн оы
ноыды чхухэыпнохц
⸠MwcTTᰠ᪆/DhРᔄzgac
-RTഛsᔠVzDocDgဠhDLokRDଠgEoaoTᔑLh
ioTTe耠h贛TsᘠᔗokᘠᆆVeEaRsomRhTThȠos
DRiThgDR‖иThth,‑)mRDRLeᬄhgDR‛th‗᠆hD.
nicKcࠈ适‑kToCoጋTh \rav‘iDhLhi,‑T
ഛsᔠХRLIᠠwhGc\f EzDଠLoᔁLhgDLoTc\b \bᠠ
hLtoTRkomRᄬ―DLoT造ᆆihhE鴛–4EhȠTo
EhᜠgDoDcȬ‍aဠsoGജȠRภshDhLz脠RkicgDTᰠ
Cᄕah haeиTT邁―gzahᴮ
Bav‖иT邁 ᠕Dh―CRDo4D «Vh輑kࠛT
TzN묠RTഛsᔠХRLIᠠkᠠiᖀ ToeCTe耠soLbc
Lᘠ(soᴠEzaᰠgഛaoTᰠХ⸠ХRLIcР᪆RgShKThȠ
gDoDbc)ⰠhKTosᰠ/DᰠVLRihKRఠᶆhCciRKThwᘠ
ࠛ᜘iᬈgDie h輑a邁‑)whahK邁―ěmR
oaRgDhi. Bcaᰠ᪆DhЬ CDᰠDoshȠVhsokoDcaଠ
ࠛ hGcD‖ЛTbIoDbgv―)Dᬃᬈᄛw
iL
ᬄᬈR,
Dhabsh‗᠕DR‑aR“gDoioDbgv ᬑkЛT
19
Ⲇ騠ᆆeCcTzȠwhGcఠeGᬠwThtᰠac\f
ToShKRDbgဠTᠠVcTᔑᄠᆆTᬠVRgoDଠToeCTz脠
DLeജᨬ“KTosᰠ
-RTഛsᔠctᰠEeഛ\f \bᬠwcTb
IcⰠCcРhࠠEzጠTᠠVRsᬠsoLbcLz.
dh/Dhwe \rav haeиTRv hጛc“gw逕ጛT
ThtᰠVhsokoDcaဠgacKecDⰠsoᴠᆆKaဠa4EhȠ
EREaRhwcDLRCcᔝhȠicaRCRT逬‎oKoDଠVe
EaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh‑)hᴈh₍RDRLhioTRv.
yoVLRwcL, whGTᰠLogᔄoDLRioDଠigᬠgDoDbᄬ
iz缛KIᄛ‖)eиThth‎o vDRጛDTRN VLhЛ
GeDhsⰠᆆeCRDzioDଠgᖐasᄬ haeCcTTzᬠ/DR
wᄠgDoDbvwᄠ᪆DcCcTRᬠDhtᰠGᬠVvDRacDTctᰠ
RTDcLioaᠮ
9ጛഖcD eVhwvTeDb ᮝc h ࠛshDhL邁 ht᜘
ࠑCcࠑvS,₫TcKhgDoDᴘS»‑TKcsgoₑᄗIo:
-RTഛsᔠTᬠVLcKVhaotocఠVhVLoisᄠTᠠ
KᄕmRVaRToLTe4“Ea᠕Db:―᜘iࠛTᄛ‘Egh
a4DT邁‎ToиTRN‑TKᬝgo‖蘖иT邁,‗᠆hDo
4UR脠᪆LokTz脠hEaogDv脠ToesR, \bciᰎwhGTh;
/DᰠTᬠThLwoaRkhioTTzȠVᰠhEaogDvРToesᄠ
VhᴘkoDcጋ;
-RTഛsᔠviavcDgဠ贛azРCRgahЬ―ac
ജioDcabTh, TᬠhEaoKoc\f RഛoabThȠ«Lok
LcIo4鴛ȠᔁhghEThgDb4묠(EzaᄠVLcKah
GcT造ᔁhghE造hEhEURDଠ
-RTഛsᔠTᠠKLhE
TzᬠkToCcTRvⰠkKcᔋ 造TᬠEeഛРTᠠTR脠
hgD᠈᠚aRi᠌bgv);
騠᪆RTഛsgᬠTᬠeCRDziocDgဠLᬘabThᬠ
CRgጜ―gzጜs, haeCcTࠜc―ఘDbvwR‚z
IᬠᆆTRGᬠDhCsᄠ
㨠ioGTᰠDhabsᰠwcgDhTo
ShGഛTRᬠ/DhȠDhCsR⸠Тos, \boVLRwcLⰠcgaᄠ
E造soGKoဠRภ
 ᬗi邁―DoDᬂ \bo‗ᄕ.)11
VhaeCRaᠠ᪆1〠LoภEhabIᬠgᖐahᴠ(ᠠmRDR
LecwhgDb“gDoጋ࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ“gDoaogb
VLc輈ᬂ), \bo‎ToиTRR
-RTഛsgᠠ/DᰠE造TR
9DLhtᰠthihLvⰠigc-DosᄠgeUcgDiec\f \bcCogDoဠgRDe
omRv, VLᄠshDhLhȠ
-RTKᬝg eиThth gVhghEᬈ eЛTb
IRDbgv⸠ЭDᰠwhGcఠVLhRkhNDᄠ᪆gaeCocⰠcgaᄠeCcTzȠ
hDhkioጠgih耠eGᬠhVeEaRshioTTe耠᪆GeLToaᬠgDoDb耠
(retraction⤠騠Rk-kᠠToNKcTTz脠gcLbckTz脠hIREhᴠRaᄠ
hEToLeGcTRဠVaotRoDᠠᆆD. \r⸠yᠠ/DᰠhEgDhvDcabgDiᰠ
hELoUoጠiTRwoTRᬠn⸠%a/Tmcጠ(ᨠCogDThȠEcgcKc).
soᴠTᬠhDLokRahᔋ. (
+ 1)-ဠgDoDbဠigᬠLoiTᰠ
hgDoaoᔋ 造ac輘DଠTRGᬠaRTRᄠ
w ; x
‑)ᄈ
ഛsᔠХRLIᠠghSLoTRጠᔚhᬠkToCcTRc⸠྆To
hEhLhD㨠ജVegDRЬ DᰠKiᠠtRVhDcDRCcᔝR脠
oiDhLᠠhVeEaRshioaᄠVᰠ5〠gDoDcȠsoGKzN.
舘GKoဠgDoDbဠVcLihtᰠRภTR脠VhaeCRaᠠVᰠ
1〠gᖐahsⰠᠠᚆiDhLhtᰠ1〠gDoDcȠVhaeCRaᄠ
Vᰠ1〠gᖐahsⰠᠠhgDoabTzᬠ4〠gDoDcȠihhE鴛
TᬠmRDRLhioaRᔋ⸠ᦆ/DhРgaeCocⰠVLᄠhCc
iRKThw ᬗoiᬈgDic₫isaoKo»‘iDhLhi,‑S
RTഛsᔠХRLIᠠEeഛఠRwcDଠhKRToshihᬠkTo
иTᄛₚ 10.
Oᔁc脠RTഛsgᠠХRLIᠠEzጠiᰠwThthРᔚv
koࠠᖆDcЬ DᰠLvഠeCcTzS,  \taoiThcⰠoKwR
TRgDLoDhLhᨠToesᄬ hgCRDoaᄠctᰠVLhgDzР
ᆆeTRicLgoabTzРᔗcകDihРKaဠh贛Tsᄠ
eCcTzS/hLtoTRkomRȠᆆD. K. Тh, CDᰠ/((cs
DRᨈhgDb \boeCࠜN \rcvDcabࠜgDR hGࠜ“So
LosDcLRkhioDଠhKTRРCRgahЬ“sokoahᔋ
g጑缝hw―Rጋ࢐w―hEaokThw.’)KcNgDiR
DcabThgDᄬ”oᴠw造iRKRЬ
-RTഛsᔠ騠/DᰠTᬠ
VoTomcာ‘–ᅿb“Kᄈ‑k RE጑hwcDLRCc
ᔝR脠RTKRsoDhLhᨬ”hDhLzȠജaGcࠠRᔁhab
khioDbgဠhEvkoDcabTᰠ᪆shwVacsgᬠᖆKLetR
Б cDLᄝoБ \rav‗okThgDhLhࠈcN“mcࠝR
oiDhLhᨠᆆToeCTz脠shaacsDRihi.
0,4,0, f
+индеке
nhhEUc \thihLv,‖gahiᄛ‗oiᬈgDio ᄕ
ao―DoDcN‑)БࠑwoጋThth Rgao haeCcT
Tz脠soGജȠRภ/DR脠gDoDcȠgᖐahᴠviavcDgဠ
᪆hVLcഛacTRᄠRTഛsgᠠХRLIᠠVLhRkihab
Tzw⸠dhCcwᘠ/DᰠTᬠDLcEhioTRcⰠCDhE造
―ఘ
Dᬂ haeCRaR”oGK᠐ c ᬈcc 2
―ᖐahs?
Maᄬ ohEhLhDⰠCDhE造soGKoဠRภ
―DoఛN
VhaeCRao c ᬈcc
㈠gᖐahs㼠Mwcဠ/Dᰠ
᪆iRKeⰠy⺆no\b ЭNᴠᆆЛ⺆noaDwo\b [Van Eck,
Waltman, 2008崠«hEhEURaR묠hVLcഛacTRᬠ
RTഛsgᠠХRLIo, \bokioᨠctᰠ
-RTKcᴕ.
rVLcഛacTRᬺ“EhE鴛TTzȠ
-RTഛsᔠ
woggᄚo eE጑ᴘmᄂ‗oicT
ⰠcgaᄠsoGKoဠ
Rภ
―DoDcȠ/DhtᰠwogᔑiᠠVhaeCRaᠠTᬠwc
ⴑࠍᬝᔮ‒ᜑЛᜠK ª = 2  ª = 1/2
Tcᬠα
₍RDᄗhioࠑN,‘”oGKov‑k“gDoጋ
Tz膆騠TᬠEhacᬠα
₍RDᄗhioࠑN.
%Lo(RCcᔝᄠᔄzgጠ
-RTഛsgᠠhDLoGc\b \bᠠ
LRg. 12⸠dᰠtLo(Rsᘠ
-RTഛsᔠwhGTᰠhVLc
ഛaRDଠDosRРGᬠhELokhЬ”oᴠᆆhEzCTzȠ
RTKᬝgₑRLIo, \bh―ጛഖcD‑gsoDb ᬗcgᬃc
TRᬠTᬠᖆVLvwhȠ
w ; x
ⰠᠠᖆVLvwhȠ
w ;
⸠yᠠ
LRg. 1㈠VhsokoT造VLRwcL造Kaဠꨠ㴠㈠ᆆª = 1/2.
rᔈhiThȠᔄzgጠThihtᰠRTഛsgᠠ᪆gac
Ke4鴛w⸠舘ᴠw造thihLRaᄬ‑TഛsᔠХRLIᠠ
hKThiLᬄᬈTh“mᬈRi᠛D ᄕah eEaRso
mRȠᆆR脠mRDRLecwhgDb, \rcaoဠ/Dᰠ᪆soshw-Dᰠ
gw逕ጛ₫᜘iThЛLTh» (i―w逕ጛ‖gahiRv
LoicTgDio Rgao―DoDcN‑)БࠑwoጋThth
CRgaᠠVhaeCcTTz脠soGജȠRภ/DR脠gDoDcȠ
ggzጜs).‒ᜑ hМUR
-RTഛsgᠠw造whGcР
eVLoiavDb₌DhN₫LoᨈhwcᜈhgDb4».‒ᜑ
eicaRиTRR₪ To ěLihc ЛgDh i邁hKRD mR
DRLeᬄhgDb, \boaRCᄛ‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁
᜘EhD.‒LR‖ЛTb缛TRRₚ‚gc‚o輈cc―Do
ࠜᨑDgv LhKesDRᨈhgDb, hab缜c Rgጜ
VeEaRsomRN⸠ЭDᰠVhTvDTᰠRภtLo(RCcᔝhtᰠ
VLcകDoiacTRဠ
-RTഛsgoⰠᠠw造VLhഛwhT
gDLRLecРTᠠeVhwvTeDhРLoTcᬠVLRwcLᬺ
VegDଠhKRࠠoiDhᜠToVRgoጠ㔠gDoDcȬ”oGKoဠ
RภshDhLz脠VhaeCRaᠠVᰠ10〠gᖐahsⰠᠠiDh
LhȠToVRgoጠ10〠gDoDcȬ”oGKoဠRภshDh
Lz脠VhaeCRaᠠ5 gᖐahs. dLᄠꨠ= 5 ᚆVcLih
ज‘iజLo
-RTഛsᔠLoic\b 5 (cgDଠ㔠gDoDcȬ
soGKoဠRภshDhLz脠VLhmRDRLhioTᠠTᬠwc
Tcᬠꪆ힆㖆㶆㖆힆㖆㶆2㔠Lok)ⰠᠠᚆiDhLhtᰠ騠ㄠ
(cgDଠaRIଠㄠgDoDbvⰠshDhLoဠVLhmRDRLhioTᠠ
TᬠwcTc ª × 5 = 1 × 5 = 5 ok,  \rie脠gDoDcȬ
VhaeCRiIR脠Vᰠ1〠gᖐahs, \bcD)⸠dL ª = 1/5
ᚆVcLihtᰠoiDhLᠠ
-RTഛsᔠhgDocDgဠLoi
TzР5ⰠᠠᚆiDhLhtᰠiᰎLogDoc\f \r 25 (cgDଠ25
gDoDcȬ”oGKoဠRภshDhLz脠VLhmRDRLhioTᠠ
TᬠwcTcᬠꪆ힆2㖆㶆(1/5⦆힆25†= 5 ok)
Тo
sRРhELokhЬ―CRDoဠ
-RTഛsᔠVLᄠLok
T邁₪, h輈h‑ggጛKhioDb‗okT逛‘gěsDz
ᄕgጛഖᬄhth ThGcgDio―DoDᬂ,‚)koiᄕR
whgDᄠh\f VhgDoiacTTz脠koKo̠EhabIᬠ(h
seᔑLevᔋ ᠠVeEaRsomRhTThȠosDRiThgDᄬ
TᠠCRgaᬠVeEaRsomRȬ‑aᄠഛaoဠhᔈhiThȠ
os贛T\f \bᠠsoCcgDicTThРoᔁcsDc, \bᠠmRDRLe
ᬄhgDR‑keC᠛w邁‗᠆hD.
0,4,1, e+индеке
l鴛 hKTᠠVhVzDsᠠ«eaeCIRDb묠RTഛsg
ХRLIᠠ騠/DᰠiicഛTTzȠL. Egghe [Egghe,
2006]
-RTKcsg⸠rࠠCogDᰠigDLcCocDgဠ᪆aR
DcLoDeLᬠ(ShDဠᆆLcGcⰠCcР
-RTഛsg)⸠dh
hVLcKcacࠑ4,
-RTKᬝg‖иThth‗oiᬈ \fo
shwe wosgᄄoጋThwe
, CDᰠ
࠘REhacc mR
DRLeᬄ邁―DoDᬂ‖иThth haeCRaR‚ЛgDc
ࠛ ᬈcc
―ᖐahs. (9hhDicDgDicTThⰠa4Ezc
)+)1 ᬉh gDoDᬂ ghiЛgDTh VhaeCRaR ЛTb缛
蘫蘱)
―ᖐahs.⤠rELoDRDᬠiTRwoTRcⰠCDᰠkഛᔋ
lgaᄠLoggwhDLcDଠVLcKcabTzᬠgaeCoR, \fᰠKaဠa4
EhtᰠoiDhLᠠwosgRwoabThᬠkToCcTRᬠα, VLᄠshDhLhР
ctᰠ
-RTKcsᔠigᬠcUᬠEhabIᬠTeaဠ(D⸠c⸠Loic\b 1)Ⱐgh
iVoKocఠᖆCRgahРmRDRLhioTRNⰠshDhLhᬠVhaeCRaᠠctᰠ
ᔘwov‚zgᰝ᲍RDRLecwov―ఘDbv. ЧRgጜ gఘDcN ᜑ
/DhРTᬠRtLoc\f \bRsoshȠLhaR⸠yohEhLhDⰠVLᄠewcTbIc
TRᄠꨠ
-RTKᬝg‚hk᜘gD᠛D‑)KhgDRt᠛D―ihᬉh osgR
woabThtᰠkToCcTRvⰠshDhLhᬠLoiTᰠhEUcwᘠCRgaᘠgDo
DcȠKoTThtᰠoiDhLoⰠVhaeCRiIR脠ShDဠE造hKTᘠggzase.
5KcgଠghicLIcTTᰠTᬠioGTᠠmRDRLecwhgDଠgDoDcȠ(kᠠ
ᄕsa4иTᄛw \fLRttᬗo₫Ezao–R―DoDbᬂ haeиTo₁h
DဠE造hKTᠠggzaso»).
gwoDLRi᠛Dgv ghihseVT᠐ mRDRLeᬄhgDb
ěLi邁
gDoDcȬ eVhLvജCcTTz脠᪆VhLvKsc
eEzioTRဠmRDRLecwhgDR⸠ᦆgaeCoᬠ
-RTKcᴕo
DLcEhioTRv h₍RDRLecwhgDR LcK鼐iav
aRᔋ”)soGജȠhDഛabThȠgDoDbcⰠ᪆/DhРsa4
CcihᬠhDaRCRᬠRTഛsghᨠKLeठh\f \rLeto.
ncLTcwgဠᶆVLRwcLᘠRภV. 2.6.1, \tഛ‗ogᔄo
DLRioaRᔋ vDଠLoEhఠeCcThthⰠshDhLzᬠVh
aeCRaᄠ10, 8, 2, 2 †〠gᖐahᴠghhDicDgDicTTh.
-RTഛsᔠ/DhtᰠoiDhLᠠLoic\b 㐠騠Vhᔝhabsᘠ
cgDଠ㐠gDoDbᄬ”hDhLzᬠmRDRLhioaRᔋ‚wcgDᬠ
ࠛ ᬈcc 4
= 1㘠Loภ(TᠠgowhРഛaᬠhTᄠmR
DRLhioaRᔋ‱0 + 8 + 2 + 2 = 2㈠Loko), \bᰠTc\f
㔠gDoDcȬ”hDhLzᬠE造᪆gewwᬠmRDRLhioaRᔋ
= 2㔠Lok⸠yoVhwTRЬ
-RTഛsᔠKoTThtᰠ
eиThth hsokoጕv ᜘iTzw 2. n)KᬂgDiRDcab
ThgDᄠ
-RTഛsᔠigctKᠠEhabIᬠRaᄠLoic\b
-RTഛsge⸠ЭDᰠgacKecఠRภDhthⰠCDᰠsoGKoဠ
Rภ
―DoDcȠVhaeCRaoⰠVᰠhVLcഛacTR耠RT
ഛsgᠠХRLIo, \bᬠwcTcᬠ
―ᖐahsⰠᠠkToCRD,
iwcgDc“ࠑ haeCR጑”os ᄈᄄew
₍RDR
LhioTRN.‒h谌hwe
―DoDcȠkoicKhwᰠeജi
acDihLv4ఠegahiR4ⰠshDhLhᬠVLcKeᔄhDLcTᰠ
-RTഛsghw⸠9acജioDcabTh,
PhGࠜ cLc(hᜄeaRLhioDb“VLcKcac
ࠑc
-RTഛsgᠠDos:
-RTKᬝg‖иThth‗oiᬈ
ఘshwe osgRwoabࠜwe
ⰠCDᰠᚆeCcThtᰠcgDଠ
―DoDcȠgᲆ
юэтеотц чхухэутныюуью
‚gcȠR脠
ghihseVThgDᄠ(ᨠLogCcDᬠTᠠhKTᘠgDoDb4) \bᬠ
Лࠛc
⸠rVLcഛacTRဠ/siRioacTDT逬 h
gshጋse \bo጑CRc
―DoDcȠgᲆᔗcKTcȠmRDR
LeᬄhgDb4‑S―hihseVThgDR c ᬈcc
ToCocDⰠCDᰠ᪆gewwᬠ/DᄠgDoDbᄠVhaeCRaᄠTᬠ
Лࠛc
―gzጜs.
ᤠCcРVLcRwe鴛gDiᰠ
-RTഛsgo? r\b aR
IcࠠhKThtᰠRภTcജgDoDshᨬ“DwcCcTTz脠Kaဠ
RTഛsgᠠХRLIo⸠訑DRLecwhgDଠToREhacᬠ
mRDᄗecҐS―DoDcN (VhaeCᄚ缑S hጋIc
gᖐahsⰠCcРgDoDbဠᖆThwcLhР
⤠whGcఠiaR
vDଠTᠠkToCcTRᬠ
RTഛsgo⸠ТosⰠcgaᄠ᪆VLR
icKᬈThw‚z缛 LRЛLc―ow᠐₍RDRLeᬄ᠐
gDoDbဠgᰠiLcwcTcРVhaeCRఠc鴛‌Lᄠgᖐa
sᄠ(ᄠR脠gDoTc\f 13ⰠmRDRLecwhgDଠhgDoabTz脠
gDoDᬂ egDb c ᬈရDgv),
-RTഛsᔠeCcThtᰠ
ജgDRtTcఠVvDR⸠yoVhwTRЬ Dᰠ᪆
-RTഛsgᬠ
TᬠeCRDziocDgဠLᬘabThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahs, Vh
aeCcTThᬠgDoDbvwᄠizIᬠᆆTRGᬠDhCsᄠ
ioGTᰠDhabsᰠwcgDhToShGKcTRᬠ/DhȠDhCsR.
Л4EhᬠeicaRCcTRᬠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgowhȠmR
DRLecwhȠgDoDbᄠTᬠVhiaRvc\f \bᠠ
-RTKcᴕ.
2.7.‗༐O4਋Blw₃t༈M܏NwCBDv༂M
t਌GtBKBlBTѿ \fDf܏v
n \fcsgDc \roTࠜN \tao᪐ \bchKࠜᴗoDࠜ
eVhwRToጜgb“₫gఘLcTRR» \boeCࠜth‎To
TRv⸠舘ᴠEzgDLᰠThihᬠkToTRᬠihᔁLR
TRwocDgvⰠiihKRDgဠ᪆ToeCTzȠhEhLhఠᄬ
ToVLhDRᨬ”oᴠജatᰠTᬠDcLvcఠᔚhcȠos
DeoጋThgDR‑)hgDocDgv‚hgDLcEhioࠈ逄.
ЭDR₁oLosDcᜑgDRᴑ МGࠜ“mcTRDb Vh
脗hࠜጜtRCcgshN―DLesDeLc REaᄜtLo
(RCcᔝR脠gᖐahsⰠshDhLzᬠghഛL輘Dgv
i)Dhw‑aR‑ࠜw₏eᜈoac,‗oEhఘS‖Ccࠜth,
gDoDbv脠RTgDRDeDᠠRaR, \bohEhLhDⰠshDhLzc
mRDᄗe而 \roࠈ适₏eLToa,‗oEhDz \roࠈhth
eCcࠜth,―ఘDbR‑TgDRDeఘ.’)KoTࠜw gae
CoᬠLcCଠeGᬠTᬠRഛఠᰠVhVzDsᬠh贛TRDb
ᴘCcgDih, /((csDᄚThgDb VeE጑ᴘmᄂ Vh
CRgaᘠVhaeCcTTz脠Rwᄠgᖐahs⸠ЭDᰠKLe
thᬠRggacജioTRc⸠྆DcРTᬠwcTcᬠGeLToጬ
mRDRLe4URȠ᪆hᔈhiThРsaogᔑCcᔝRᬠRg
DhCࠑsR ThthacDTcN \roiThgDR,“D጑Co
cDgဠhఠRkKoTRvⰠgDLcwv鴛thgဠkToshwRDb
gihRS CRఘDcacN g)ᔘМN ghᨗcwcTࠜN
aRDᬗoDeLhN h‗᠕gwoDLRi᠛whwe ih
VLhge.„‛g጑‖Cc࢐N“VeE጑shioa‗oEhDe,
i)KoabࠛN缛w‗ᬉeavLTh₍RDRLeᬄe4‑k
thKᠠ᪆thK, ctᰠisaoK, ᔝhLcᬠigcth, EeഛD
RThth₁o᜘sDᬗo, ᬄ‖)ᄕgጛKhioDcav,
VhaeCRi缛th Thth―gzahs‚)ěLi逛 2–3
thKo hgac eE጑ᴘmᄑ―DoD଑‑)iVhgacK
gDiRR‎oEzజज.
Bav₁LhࠜጜtRCcgshN₁oLosDcᜑgDRᴑ‗og
VLcഛacTRဠgKcaoTTz脠GeLToahw/oiDhLhw/
107
ꀑᔮ‱㌮ₑ᜜ࠜጜऑиᔝᰛ‗᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠgᖐጜᴠ
᪆ᔌ᠌ଐ脠Gᘗ࠘ጘ Annual Review
of BiochemistryⰠ᪐缛ൿᆁ‚′013 \t⸠萝ᜑࡿh\f
ᄈDᬗ괛нᠠؘຐ‍᠈࢐脠䩃删
(Thomson Reuters)
hLtoTRkomRcȠmRDRLhioTRȠCo鴛‚gctᰠRg
Vhabke4ఠkToCcTRᬠwcKRoT造/DhtᰠLoᔁLcKc
acTRv⸠dhahiRTᠠgഛaoTTz脠gᖐahᴠicഛ\f \bo
RgDhCࠑsᄬ“VeE጑shioࠈzc hkGc‎ToCcࠑv
wcKRoT逬 hahiRTᠠ騠TᠠEhacᬠᔚcGe耠aRDc
LoDeLe.₉o‗Rg. 13 hsokoࠜ₁LhࠜጜtRCcgshc
LoᔁLcഛacTRᬠgᖐahs, gഛaoTTz脠᪆gDoDbvS
GeLToaᠠAnnual Review of BiochemistryⰠiz
IcKIR脠᪆201㎆t⸠ᦆ/DR脠gDoDbv脠Ezaᠠ2ㄠgᖐa
sᠠTᠠVeEaRsomRᄠ2013 \t., 42㐠gᖐasᄠTᠠRg
DhCTRsᄬ‚zIcKIRᬠ᪆201㊆t.ⰠᆆD. \r⸠ᦆhE鴛N
gahGThgDᄠgDoDbᄠ2013 t. ghKcL輘aᄠ4883
gᖐasᄬ‑ภTR脠VhahiRTᠠVLRIaoᔋ ᠠജse
wcTDzⰠizIcKIRᬠ᪆2007–2013 \tt.ⰠVhahiR
Tᢆ騠TᠠEhacᬠVᰎKTRᬠRgDhCTRsR⸠dh/Dhwe
ЛKRoTo―hhDicDgDiecD \rhseЛTDow―ᬄRጛD
TcȠKoiThgDR⸠ᦆJCR \raဠ/DhtᰠVhsokoDcaဠRg
Vhጋke而 \fcLБT₫iLcwv haeGRkࠑ―KcaoT
Tz脠gᖐahs묠(citing half-life)⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ
KaဠKoTThtᰠGeLToaᠠ᪆2013 \t⸠iLcwဠVhae
GRkTᄠgഛaoTTz脠gᖐahᴠLoiT 7 (koDcTcT
ThȠhEaogDb耠TᠠLRgeTsᬠhDwcCcT造gᖐasR
TᠠEhacᬠVᰎKTRᬠRgDhCTRsR)
21
nL
cwဠVhaeGRkTᄠgᖐahᴠkoiRᔑఠh\f \bo
eCThȠhEaogDᄬ”)shDhLhȠhDThᔑDgဠGeLToa.
9hEgDicTThⰠhTᰠᆆSoLosDcLRkecఠ/DᘠhEaogDଠ
g)DhCᴑ‎LcTRv \fcwVhi‖gఘLcioTRv LhRk
ihKRwhtᰠ᪆TcȠToeCThtᰠkToTRv⸠ᦆJCR-2013
БࠑwoጋThc‚Lcwv haeGRkࠑ―KcaoࠈzS
ggzጜs‖)Geᜈoጜi \rRgmRVaRTz₫ToࠜToeᴑ
R)ToThDcSThahtᄑ» (5,9–cD).‟osgᄄoጋ࢐N
eLhicTb₌Dhth hsokoDcav“mcTRDb―ጜGࠜ,
VhᔝhabsᘠJCR \bᬠesokziocఠctᰠDhCThᬠkTo
CcTRᬠKaဠDc脠hEaogDcȠToesᄬ ഛ“TᰠEhab
Iᬠ1〠acD⸠ТosR脠KRᖍRVaRࠠ᪆JCR-201㌠᪆hE
鴛ȠgahGThgDᄠ48ⰠᔗcKᄠTRSⰠ᪆CogDThgDR,
RgDhᜑv,―hmᄜጜtRv,‎hhጜtRv, \tchጜtRv,
aRTtiRgDRsᠠᆆKL⸠ᦆ/DR脠hEaogDv脠ToeCThᬠ
kToࠑc‑wccD osgᄄoጋTh LhKhaGRDcጋ
࢐N₍ᄝa₏Rkࠑ,‑)EhጋIc hahiᄈz‚gcS
VeEaRsecwz脠gᖐahᴠicഛ\f TᠠRgDhCTRsᄠ
Ehጛc ᬄ \rcgvDRጛDࠛN \roiThgDR.
uToጜtRCTzN hsokoDcab‌osGc‚ihKRDgv
TᬠKaဠgഛaoTTz脠gᖐahsⰠo, TohEhLhD, \raဠ
VhaeCcࠈzS₏eLToahw₍RDᄗhioࠑN.—T
TokziocDgဠcited half-lifeⰠiLcwဠVhaeGRkTᄠ
VhaeCcTTz脠gᖐahsⰠᆆSoLosDcLRkec\f \fh, \bo
ᔝhabsᰠᔚcGRᬠgDoDbᄠGeLToaᠠmRDRLe4Dgဠ
᪆wRLhihȠToesc⸠lgaᄠctᰠicaRCRTᠠwoao,
kToCRDⰠ᪆ToesᬠRᔁhabke4DgဠVLcGഛ‚gctᰠ
gicGRc, \bcKoiࠑc eE጑ᴘmᄑ‑kKoࠑv. g጑
ic጑ᴘₚ hack࢐Б hᴘk通o而gv‑)KhgDo
DhCTᰠgDoLzᬠwoDcLRoa逬 VeEaRshioiIRcgဠ
i)GeLToጛ.’Lᬄv hae輑kTR haeиTT邁
gᖐahᴠKaဠ贛az脠ToeCTz脠KRᖍRVaRࠠio
LbRLecDgဠ᪆JCR-2013 h\f 4,1 thKᠠ(ᔈhiᠠTo
ThToesR⤠ജ₫Ehacᬠ1〠acD묠(31 \rRᖍRVaR
To)⸠.ckegahiTh, cited half-lif攠ᔚvkoࠠᖆciting
21
lg጑ zDb \fḧ逄,‚)ėᄚcKcࠈhw LᄄcLc \bo e
EaRsomRᄠ2007–2013 \tt⸠VLRShKRDgဠ49,6 % gc脠ggzahᴠ
(242㐠Rภ4883)⸠lgaᄠKhEoiRDଠcUᬠhKR\b \th\r (2006), \fᰠ
EeKcఠhSioCcTᰠeGᬠ55,7 % gc脠ggzahs⸠dh/DhwᘠKcao
cDgv LᰁhLmᄜToabTov ᰁLo᨝o‑)ᨗcwv haeGRจR
Kaဠ/DhtᰠRkKoTRဠesokziocDgဠ᪆JC删LoiTzР7,1 \thKo.
half-life: \boVLvwe耠hTᄠTᬠkoiRgv\f \rLeठh\f
KLetoⰠhKTosᰠhEᠠVhsokoDcaဠhDLo輘4ఠᔝh
LhgDଠ/iha4mRᄠkToTRဠ᪆ghhDicDgDie4鴛Ƞ
ToeCThȠhEaogDR⸠dh/Dhwe, \boVLRwcLⰠᔗcKᄠ
31 \rᄕmRVaRTz―h‚Lᬄᬈᬄ hae輑kTR h
aeCcTTz脠gᖐahᴠEhacᬠ1〠acఠ᪆28 \rRᖍR
VaRTo脠iLcwဠVhaeGRkTᄠgഛaoTTz脠gᖐahᴠ
DosGc LᬚzI᠛D 10–cD.
rEo‑keCcࠈzS‑TKᄝoDhLo₁LhThahtR
CcᔝhtᰠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠgᖐahᴠ᪆GeLToao脠
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Пхюшячып П, П,
₃REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑc‑TKRsoDhថ:
VLosDRsew⸠P.㨠yФd2㬠MT(Lo-P, 2014. 6〠g.
Пхюшячып П, П,
₄hoiDhLgDiᰠLhggRNgsR脠eCcTz脠ᔠkoLe-
EcG࢐Б”haactoБ: eE጑ᴘmᄑ‑‑S₍RDᄗecwhgDb.
dLcVLRT\f WP6/2010/01⸠P.㨠%O-nШЭ, 2010. 4〠g.
Пхюшячып П, П,
₞cKciL造ToeCThtᰠDihLCcgDio㨠oToaRภ
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eCTh-DcSTᄃcgsov‑T(hLИmRv.₄cL. 2:‏T(hLИmR
hTTzᬠVLhmcgg造ᄠgRgDcwz. 2011. ¤ 12⸠9. 1阸.
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kᠠLeEcGhР/⼠yoeCTh-DcSTRCcgsoဠRT(hLwomRv.
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Ehacc \taeEᰝᰉh‎TosᰄgDio― REaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑwR
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hఛCcgDicࠈzc‑‎oLeEcG࢐c‑gDḧᄝR:
Оэтехххо С, П,* uуиотчып Н, л,* жтэончыпн Н, Р,
„ToaRภ
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gDoDbR⸠dᰠgahioРn⺆%⺆.caRTᔝhthⰠ«GeL
ToጠcgDଠTᬠToesᠠᄠTᬠeCcThgDb, \bh, \foᴠᔝo
koDbⰠ(osDhᜠToesᄠᄠeCcThgDᄬ hᔗcKTRs
wcGKᘠToesh耠ᄠeCcTzwR⸠舘ᴠE造TᄠicaRso
EzaᠠGeLToabToဠgDoDbv, \bᰠhTᠠTRshtKᠠTc
RkahGRఠigcȠᔑgDcw造soshth-aREᰠkToTRv.
rTᠠwhGcఠVLcകDoiRDଠLckeabDoD造/DhN
gᄕDᬄz, DhEz“E᜘DRDb‚TRwoTᄛ‖иT邁,
soᴠᔝhLhᬠRkicgDRcⰠᄠVeEaRsᄬ”oᴠLoVhᜌ
ᰠgaeCRiIcwgv묠[mRD⸠Vh: ushVh, 2007],
D⸠c⸠hᔈhiThȠ(eTsmRcȠGeLToaᠠᔠwh
wcTDᠠctᰠgᰎKoTRဠᄠKᰠᔑ脠VhᜠviavcDgv
shЄeࠑᴘmRv.
ᤠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwv, VᰠKoTTzРUlrich’s
PeriodicalsⰠᨠwRLᬠTogCRDziocDgဠVhLvKsᠠ
20ゆDzg. RkKoTRȬ hDThgvURSgဠᴠVcLRhKR
CcᔝRР(GeLToaow), \bᰠKoacsᰠTᬠigᬠRภTR脠
viav而gv \boeC࢐Б₏eLToaoБ‚)
DLhthw
ꀑᔮ‱4⸠༎Лࠛࠑᬠsh጑иᔌᨘ₏ᘗ࠘ጜᨠ
᪆Science Citation Index Expanded
ᄠSocial Sciences Citation Index
ꀑᔮ‱㔮‏คᬈᬈᄛ”h጑иᔌᨘ―D᠌ᬂ†
ᨠScience Citation Index Expanded
ᄠSocial Sciences Citation Index
ꀑᔮ‱㘮₄᜛ഈcᬠsh጑иᔌ᨜―D᠌ᬂ‚₏ᘗ࠘ጛ
᪆Science Citation Index-Expanded
ᄠSocial Sciences Citation Index
VhࠑwoࠑR₌Dhth \fcLБTo. \ngahiᄄgာ
CDᰠToeCTzРviavcDgဠGeLToጬ‚gᬠgDo
DbᄠᨠshDhLhРVLhShKvఠVLcKioLRDcabThᬠ
LᮍᬈkRLhioTᄛ.
ТhCThᬠshaRCcgDiᰠToeCTz脠GeLToahᨠ
᪆TogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠwhGTᰠVLREaRkRDcabTᰠ
h贛TRDଠᨠ70–100 \fzg⸠ТhabsᰠᨠfhgᔑᄠcGc
thKTᰠgᰎKo4Dgဠhshaᰠ200 \bhiz脠ToeCTz脠
GeLToahi. ᄈoБse‑kwcTcࠑv”h጑Cc
gDio₏eᜈoጜi hGࠜ“mcTRDb ᜑEaRฑ
DcabTᰠVᰠshaRCcgDiᘠGeLToahᨬ‑Tഛsᔑ
Lecwz脠Web of Science Core CollectionⲆ騠kᠠ
VhgacKTRᬠ15 ac\f shaRCcgDiᰠRkKoTRȬ
VLcകDoiacTTz脠ᨠJournal Citation Reports
(Science &†Social Science)ⰠeicaRCRahᔋ hC
DᄠiKihᮆ騠ᖆ6,6 Dzg. ᨠ1997 t. ജ 11,5 Dzg.
013-w⸠dLᄠ/DhРcgaᄠLhgఠshaRCcgDiᠠ
ToeCTz脠GeLToahᨠᨠcgDcgDicTTz脠ᄠDhCTz脠
Toeso脠(Science⤠VLhRgShKRጠigᬠ/DᰠiLcwv,
ShDv―)2007)t.‎ToCRDcጋTh hጋIcc”h጑Cc
gDiᰠGeLToahᨠisa4Coahᔋ‚‑TഛsᔠcGc
thKTh, \fᰠKaဠghmRoabTz脠ToeᴠshaRCcgDiᰠ
GeLToahᨠKᰠ200㞆t⸠hgDoioahᔋ LosDRCc
ᔝᄠVhgDhvTTzЬ ᄠaRIଠVhDhРToCoaᰠVLh
ᄕShKRDb‎oЛDThc‖icaRиTᄛ”haRиgDio
RTഛsᔑLecwz脠GeLToahᨠ⠗Rg⺆14).
lgaᄠgCRDoDbⰠCDᰠToeCTzᬠGeLToa造sos
viacTRᬠᨠ贛ahРᄠR脠hDEhᜠKaဠEok造KoT
Tz脠Web of Science Core Collectio渠VhKCR
Tv4DgဠkoshTᘠdoLcDᰠ(shDhLzȠᨠToREh
acᬠhE鴛РiRഛ₭hLweaRLecDgဠsoᴠ«2ゆ%
egR጑N Ko而 80 %‗ckeጋDoDo,‘“gDoጋ࢐c
8ゆ┠eᔑaRʆ騠aRIଠ20 % ckeabDoDo»),
DᰠᨠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠshaRCcgDiᰠToeC
TzS Geᜈoጜi МGࠜ hmcTRDb Vᜑwcᜈh
᪆7ゆDzg.Ⱐisa4CoဠGeLToa造VᰠtewoTRDoL
TzРToesoРᄠRᔝeggDieⰠshDhLzᬠRTഛsᔑ
Le4DgဠᨠhDഛabThȠEokᬠArts & Humanities
Citation Index, \bᰠKaဠshDhLz脠TᬠLoggCR
Dzio4Dgv \boeshwcDᜑCcgᴑc hsokoDcaR
᪆Journal Citation Reports.
rKThiLᬄᬈTh,‛gDcgDiᬈTh,‚hk᜘gD᠛D
ᆆshaRCcgDiᰠToeCTz脠gDoDcȬ hVeEaRshioT-
Tz脠ᨠ/DR脠GeLToaoS⸠yᠠKRotLowwc
(Lᄕ.)15) LRicKᬈh‑kЛࠛTᄛ”haRиgDio
ജsewcTDhᨬ LhRTഛsᔑLhioTTz脠ᨠEokoS
ꀑᔮ‱7⸠༓ᎀᔌ᜘贑ဠࠛ᜘ᨈᰄᬗࠜtᰠ
᜘ᔁ᜛Kcጛࠑဠᔌ᠌ᬂ‑‑脠贑఑᜜ᨘࠑȠ
Ĝ oᘃ࢐РGᘗ࠘ጘw
K᠈TzS Science Citation Index Expanded
ᆆSocial Sciences Citation Inde砠kᠠ/DhఠGc
VLhЛGeDhs‚LᬄᬈR.
MTDcLcgTh“DwcDRDb, Dh \rᄈoБᴘ”h጑
CcgDiᠠgDoDcȬ“VeEaRshioTTz脠ᨠᔗcKTcw
᪆hKThРGeLToaᬠ⠗Rg. 16)ⰠVᰠsa4Ccizw
KoDow₁hLhIh―hiVoK᠛D―‑kЛࠛTᄛw”h
aRиgDio₏eLToahi: aoiThc‖icaRиTᄛ
ᆁ shaRиgDio ghiVoK᠛D g VhgDᬁᬈTzw
ToLogDoࠑcw‑጑―DoERጋ࢐w”h጑Cc
gDihРToeCTz脠GeLToahᨬ ᠠLckshᬠᔈRGc
TRᬠshaRCcgDiᠠgDoDcȠᨠLogCcDᬠTᠠhKRT
GeLToa h‚LᬄᬈR―hiVoK᠛D―‗cksRw
eicaRиTᄛw”haRиgDio‑TKᬝgRLeᬄ邁
ᨠEokᬠKoTTz脠GeLToahᨠ(200㢆t.)⸠ТosRw
hELokhw, hGࠜ LcKVhጜGRDb, Dh h᪐c
GeLTo᎐‚hkࠑᴘ而 \fhtKo,”htKo LcKwcD
TzN―hgDoi‑kKoi᠛w邁₏eLToahi ᬗc
gDocఠghhDicDgDihioDଠLokiRDR耠ToesᄠR
DLcEecDgv―hkKoTRc hihN \rRgseggᄜTࠜN
VጜUoKᴑ \rav“EgeGKcTRv‗ckeabఘDhi
ToeC࢐S‑ggacKhioࠑN‚)ThizS‚hkࠑᴘ4
Uᆁ \boeCT邁“Ea᠕ఐ脮
MTDcLcᔈᰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠeVhwvTeDhᬠ
iz缛‗᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ‒oLcDh‘Egha4DTh
ᔁLoicKaRiᰠᄠᴠhDEhLᘠGeLToahᨠKaဠRT
ഛsᔑLhioTRဠᨠEoko脠KoTTzS⸠rDwcCocDgv,
CDh“DThgRDcጋTh \bcEhጋIhc”h጑CcgDih
GeLToahi eE጑secD‎ToCRDcጋTe4 \rhᎀ
ToeCTz脠gDoDcȬ haeCo4UR脠c鴛 habIe耠
ജa耠mRDRLhioTRN. 9htaoᔈᰠoToaRke, VLh
icഛTThwᘠVᰠGeLToaowⰠRTഛsᔑLecwzР
Web of Science, VhaeCocDgဠghhDThIcTRc,
VLRicKcTThᬠTᠠLRg. 17.
ᤠsTRtᬠB⸠dLoNgᠠ(shDhLe耠whGTᰠVhgh
icDhioDଠVLhCRDoDଠigcРRTDcLcge4URwgဠ
ᄕDhLᄛN \boesR‑ \boeshЛDLᄛN)‖sokoTz
gጛഖ4Uᄛ iLᬄᬈT逛 ěLRhKz eKihᬈRv
VhsokoDcጛN,₁o᜘sDᬗT逛 \rav‗okaRCT邁
gDhLh\b \rcvDcabThgDᄬ‌oᴠRaᄠRToCᬠᔚvkoT
Tz脠ᔠToeshN:
«10〠acఠ阠CRgaᰠaRmⰠeVhwRTocwz脠ᨠTomR
hToጋ࢐S RhtLo(RCcgsRS―VLoihCࠑᴘS;
5〠acఠ阠koTvDhgDଠ⠗oEhCoဠᔑao), \bogcac
ࠑc, Rgah‖ࠑicLgRDcDhi;
20–cDₖ―hihseV࢐N \bomRhToጋ࢐N Lh
ഖsD, io輈逛 ToeCT逛 hDsLzDRv, Cᄕah iz-
Ko肝RSgv₭Rฑshi, Rgጜ‑บcgDTzS₁RwR
иgsᆁ /ጛЛTDhi, DhCThgDb RࠕDLeЛTDhi,
CRgaᰠVhgDeVo4UR脠ᨠshaacKGᄠTᠠ1000
T᠕cጛTRv;
1㔠acఠ阠EosoaoiL造tewoTRDoLTz脠ᄠDhC
Tz脠Toes, \boeCTzᬠGeLToa逬 RgaᰠCacThᨠ
ToeCTz脠hE鴛gDᨬ RgaᰠRkicgDTz脠SRwR
CcᔝR脠ghcKRTcTRȬ ghihseVThᬠVᰠigcРhD
᜘gavw ᄕah‗c(ᬗoDRiT邁₏eLToahi;
1〠acఠ阠CRgaᰠRkicgDTz脠ogDcLhRജᨬ
aRDcLoDeLᠠVᰠTc/isaRKhihȠtchwcDLRᄬ
aRDᬗoDe᜘ h‗ᬈDtᬈhizw–eCow,–RDᬗo
DeLo h₌sgVcᜑwcTఘabࠜN gRShጜtRR….»
ᆆD⺆K. [Price, 1965].
dhsokoDcabThⰠCDᰠᔗhᴠᨠ1㔠acDⰠkᠠshDh
LzȠVLhRkhIaᰠeKihcTRᬠshaRCcgDiᠠGeL
Toahi, hገhgD஀―hiVoKocD―‖ᴘkoࠈ逄
KaဠGeLToahᨠᨠLoEhDᬠB⺆dLoNgo.
BoTTzᬠOEC䐠VᰠshaRCcgDiᘠRggacKhio
DcacȠTᠠ100〠LoEhDo4UR脠ShLhIᰠesaoKz
io4DgဠᨠVLRicഛTTe耠gScwᘠ⠗Rg. 18).
ꀑᔮ‱㠮‏คᬈᬈᄛ”h጑иᔌᨘ oᘃ࢐脠᜘؜ఈᄝᰚ ᰠᔌ᜘࠘Р⠝h጑иᔌ᨜‎᠈ဌ邁
ᨠ࠘ᘝᬠ࠘‱〰〠᜘؜Dᢀ鴑脩⸠鈑ᜈ逄‚逍cጛࠜ―᜛ഈcᬠจoиࠑᬠĜ―గ᠈᠄⁏ECD
uTo጑k KoࠈzS OECD h oEghᎀDThwe sh
aRиgDie‑ggጛKhioDcጛN‚‗okT邁―D᜘ToS
ᄠghVhgDoiacTRᬠ/DR脠KoTTz脠ᔠshaRCcgDihР
VeEaRsomRȠᨠWeb of Science Core Collection
VhsokziocఠviTe耠DcTഛTmR耠ᴠiᰎLogDo
ࠑ4”h጑CcgDio eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚‗ogCcDc \bo
RggacജioDcaဠ⠗Rg. 19).
ТcРTᬠwcTcᬠ/DᰠTᬠhEvkoDcabTᰠᰎToCocD
Vhiz缛Tᄛ₫VLhRkihKRDcabThgDR» eиT邁,
ᔝhLcᬠ/DᰠhDLoGcTRᬠDcTഛTmRᄠᴠeicaRCc
TR耠shaRCcgDiᠠghoiDhLhᨠᨠgDoDbvS, hDwc
CcTThȠᨠgDoDbᬠ[Bцrner et al., 2004崠⠗Rg. 20).
dhgDᬁᬈThc‚hk᜘gDoTᄛ―LcKࠛth”haR
CcgDiᠠghoiDhLhᨠVeEaRsomRȠhDwcCoahᔋ
ᆆLoTcc⸠ᤠᔗcKTcРCRgaᰠLoEhఠᔠEhabIRЬ
CcР1ⰠshaRCcgDihРoiDhLhᨬ hELoDTᰠVLh
VhLmᄜToabࠜ (
阠1), cgaᄠ
騠shaRCcgDiᰠ
ghoiజLhi [ሗoNg,₃RicL, 1976].
%hihLv“―ఘࠜiacTRR \boeCTzS₏eᜈo
ጜi, \bcabkv \bc‖VhwvTeDb“―hic᝿cTࠜ
ࠜihw \fRVc \boeCTzS₏eᜈoጜi,‚hจRᵿRS
g‗oบRDRcw‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzS \fc脈hጜtRN
ᄠigcwRLThȠgcDᄠMTDcLTc\f —“)GeLToaoS
hDsLzDhtᰠജgDeVo⸠ᤠ贛ahРR脠hDaRCRc
hD \fLoKRmᄜTTzS Geᜈoጜi‎osa考ocDgv
ᨠDhЬ Dᰠ/DᄠGeLToa造ge鴛gDie4ఠVLc
Rwe鴛gDicTTᰠᨠ/acsDLhTThРiRഛ ᄠhEc
gVcCᄚo而 hገ适 \rhgDeV”“VeE጑shioT
TzРgDoDbvРKaဠigc脠VhabkhioDcacȠgcDR
MTDcLTcD.‒cLi逄R \fosᄄR₏eLToaoБ
gDoaᄠGeLToa造Public Library of Science
(PLoS)ⰠhKTosᰠshaRCcgDiᰠGeLToahᨠOpen
Acces猠LogDcఠcGcthKThⰠജVhaTvvᔋ‚ᰎ
whGThgDvБ eE጑ᴘmᄑ“DKcጋ࢐S―DoDcN
hDsLzDhtᰠജgDeVᠠᨠDLoKRmRhTTz脠GeL
ToaoS, ᠠDosGᬠVeEaRsomRvwᄠ᪆hDsLzDzS
἞ᴜc᨜cᤘ᜖ᔖᔞᘛᐓduᄖᴐMkcsvฐᘍc༛ఋਛईc܆ԋІଛᔎĉțᔎđᕿ脛贎輓ပḔጏc逓cᴐ贎ᔎL
2000200720082009201020112012
Великобритания
Китай
Корея
Япония
‐‐ h9C5
ꀑᔮ‱9⸠༎Лࠛࠑᬠsh጑иᔌᨘ―D᠌ᬂ‚⁗eb of Science
\b 100 \bᘃ࢐脠᜘؜ఈᄝᰚ ᰠᔌ᜘࠘w
ꀑᔮ′0⸠༎Лࠛࠑᬠsh጑иᔌᨘ―ᰘᨌᰗᰚ
᪆ᔗcഈᬄ‚“ഈᰂ oᘃࠜȠᔌ᠌ଛ
[Börner et al., 2004]
oLSᄚoSₚ‗cVhkRDhLRvS \boeC࢐S eE጑ᴘ
mRȬ oREhacᬠRkicgDTzwᄠRภshDhLz脠vi
av而gv PubMed‑጑ ar
iv.
ᤠᔚvkᄠᔠ/DRРigDocఠihVLhᔠ«shTDLhav
soCcgDio»₏eᜈoጜi“DᴗzDhth \rhgDeVo,
R脠ghhDicDgDiRဠhE鴛VLRTvDzРThLwow
VeE጑ᴘmRhࠈhN₌DᄝR‑,―hhDicDgDicࠈh,
KhicLRv”“VeE጑shioࠈ逄‚ RS oDcLRo
aow⸠ncᔋwᠠRTDcLcᔈzРᔠ/DhȠDhCsᄠkLc
TRဠviavcDgဠVhKShഠEREaRhDcsoLဠRภOTR
icLᔑDcDᠠ2hahLoജ Gc((Lᄠ.caaoⰠoTo
aRฑLe肝cth₏eᜈoaz“DᴗzDhth \rhgDeVo
R)ᄎKoDcabgచo h LᄎTosow―hhచcD
gDiRv eE጑ᴘmRhࠈhN₌Dᄝc [Beall,)2012].
dh)LckeጋDoDow‘To጑ko₍RDᄗhioࠑv₏eL
Toጜi (i \fhw Rgac―oМmRDRLhioTRv,‚ko
Rwࠜth₍RDRLhioTRv₏eᜈoጜi,‑kKoioc
w邁“KTRw‑kKoDcጛw, \boLe缛TRN ᜘iRa
LcmcTkᄗhioࠑာ \bcKhgDhicL࢐S―icKcࠑN
ᰠLcKosmRhTThȠshaactRᄠGeLToaᠠᆆD⺆K.)
ghgఘiavcDgv VhgDhvTࠜ hEࠜiavcwzN
«ᔁRghᴠ.caao»
, VLᄠ/DhРVhVoKoTRᬠGeL
ToaᠠᨠKoTTzȠᔁRghᴠജgDoDhCTᰠCogDh
viavcDgဠhKTRРRภhᔈhioTRȠRᔝa4Cc
TRဠGeLToaᠠRภwcGKeToLhKThtᰠRTഛsgo
mRDRLhioTRN⸠Тos, \boVLRwcL,  201㎆t⸠Rk
Journal Citation Repor琠EzጠRᔝa4Cc\b Life
Science Journal,‑kKoiocwzN \boSᰍvURwgv
ᨠᔁRᔝᬠ.caaᠠRkKoDcabgDihРMarsland
Press⸠ᦆDhРGᬠ201㎆t⸠EzጠVhgDoiacࠠᔚh
chELok࢐N‗cshLKₚ‎o oࠑVeavmᄑ―
mRDRLhioTRvwᄠRภJournal Citation Report
EzaᄠRᔝa4CcT造6㘠GeLToahi
舘ᴠE造DᰠTᄠEzahⰠshaRCcgDiᰠToeCTzS
VeEaRsomRȠᨠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠeGᬠDoᴠiz
LhgahⰠCDᰠeCcTzȠVLhgDᰠTᬠᨠghgDhvTRR
VLhCRDoDଠKoGᬠigᬠVeEaRsomRᄠVᰠᔚhcN
ekshȠᔁcmRoabThgDR, \bᬠDᰠCDᰠhDgacGR
ioDଠVeEaRsomRᄠᨠᔄcGTz脠hEaogDv脠kTo
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ࠜ h᪐Io肝cнv cGKRgmRVaRToᜈhgDR
RggacജioࠑN.
3.2.₇O4f \rOࠈf.₏RU܄vOSҭ
vO႐wTDଉRVBࠋꀠGMwDvਠҐOTOlw4O
2htKo shaRCcgDih ToeCTzS Geᜈoጜi
᪆wRLᬠVLcizᔑaᰠ300, \boCoaᄠVhviavDbgv
ěLi逛‗c(ᬗoDRiT逛₏eLToaz,“EጛtCo
4URᬠeCcTzРVhRᔝ chEShKRwhȠRT(hL
womRR⸠ᦆshT贛
‚⸠VhviRaRᔋ cLizc
esokoDcaᆆ騠RTഛsᔠ4LRKRCcᔝR脠ജse
wcTDhᨠShepard’s Citations  Index Medicus,
http://scholarlyoa.com
http://blogs.nature.com/news/2013/06/new-record-
66-journals-banned-for-boosting-impact-factor-with-
self-citations.html
hKTosᰠTogDhvUoဠLciha4mRဠᨠ/DhРVaoTc
VLhRkhIaᠠᨠ196ゆt.ⰠshtKᠠ3⺆%oL(RaഠhL
घTRkhioa‏TgDRDeD \boeCࠜN‑T(hᜄomRR,
iěLi逛 \boCoiIRN―hgDoiavDb oIRThCR
DocҐN‑TKcsg \boeC࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ―‚hk
МGࠜgDb4 eCcఘ mRDRLᰚoTRN. yo“gࠜic
ghkKoࠈzS ok \roࠈzS \boeC࢐S eE጑ᴘ
mRȠgDoaᰠiᰎwhGTzРVLhihKRDଠwoᕿDoE
࢐c‑ggacKhioࠑာ―ivkoࠈzc―‘To጑khw
mRDR᜖cwhgDR.
9e鴛gDie4URᬠEREaRhDcCTzᬠEok造KoT
Tz脠whGTᰠLokഛaRDଠTᠠTcᔝhabsᰠDRVhi:
- EREaRhtLo(RCcᔝRc, ghഛL輘URᬠDhab
sᰠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝRᬠkoVRᔑ;
-‗c(ᬗoDRiT逛,―hKᬗGoUᄛ‗c(ᬗoDz
(oࠈhDomᄑ) eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑‑Te4 \rhVhገR
DcጋTe4‑T(hLwomᆀ“ \rhsewcTDc;
- haThDᬝgDhi逛,―hKᬗGoUᄛ,”os―ጛKe
cD‑k \bokioࠑာ hገzc \fcsgDz‚sᎀCcࠈzS
ᨠEokᘠKoTTz脠ജsewcTDhi;
-”hwEᄈᄗhioࠈzc.
OᴘkoDc጑ (ᄈKcsgz)₍RDᄗhioࠑv \bo
eCTz脠gDoDcȠVLcകDoiav4ఠghEhȬ”oᴠ
V᜘iRah,‗c(ᬗoDRiT逛 okz \roTT邁,―h
KcLGoURc \rhVhገRDcጋTh”h጑CcgDicT
Te耠RT(hLwomR耠ᰠmRDRLhioTRᄠgDoDcȬ
RkiጛиTTe4‑k LᄕDoDᬂT邁―Vᄕshi
aRDᬗoDeLz.
.okᠠKoTTz脠Science Citation IndexⰠLok
LoEhDoTToဠᨠMTgDRDeDᬠToeCThȠRT(hLwo
mRᄠ3⺆%oL(RaജЬ zaᠠkoVe鴛Tᠠᨠ196㒆t.,
CeDଠVᰎGᬠVhviRaRᔋ⁓ocial Sciences
Citation Index (1973)  Arts & Humanities
Citation Index (1978)⸠ᤠ/DR脠Eoko脠RTഛsᔑ
Le而gv igc Eck RgsᎀCcࠑv Dᄁz VeE጑ᴘ
mRȠᨠhᔈhiTz脠ToeCTz脠GeLToaoS, gDLhth
hDERLocwz脠VᰠVLoiRaoЬ―”hDhLzwᄠwhG
TᰠᰎToshwRDbgဠTᠠgoNDc
⸠ᦆ199ゆt. \boCo
ahᔋ―hgDoiacTRᬠConference proceedings
Citation Inde碆騠Science  Social Sciences and
http://wokinfo.com/russian/editors/
Humanities. 蒆199㞆t. /DᄠEok造KoTTz脠gDo
aᄠജgDeVT造ᨠgcDᄠMTDcLTc\f \bᠠVaoD(hL
wᬠISI Web of Knowledge (ᔠvTioLဠ201㒆t⺆—
VaoD(hLwᠠWeb of Science)⸠蒆201ゆt. \boCo
ahᔋ‑TഛsᔑLhioTRᬠsTR\t (Book Citation
Inde碆騠Science  Social ScienceⰠᔠoLSRihw
ToCRToဠᔠ200㖆t.)⸠ЭDᄠ㜠esokoDcacN,  \fos
Gᬠ㈠SRwRCcᔝR脠RTഛsgᠠ(Current Chemical
Reactions‑)Index Chemicus)“EъcKRTcTz
᪆EokᘠKoTTz脠Web of Science Core Collection
(ജ′01㒆t⺆騠Web of Science)
4, 5
ЭDR Eokz \roࠈzS‐iav而gv Lc(cLoDᄚ
Tzwᄬ‑―DLesDeLᠠR脠KocఠiᰎwhGThgDଠ
VLhihKRDଠoToaRภᄠVhRᔝ ᰠTokioTRvР
VeEaRsomRȬ‘iDhLoЬ”a4CcizРgahioЬ
o((RaRomRᄠoiDhLhᨬ okioTRvРGeLTo
ahi‑”hT(cLcࢍᄂ, LcKwcD࢐w”oDcthLR
vРᆆRggacജioDcabᔝRРhEaogDvw⸠9VRᔝᄠ
VLhmRDᄗhioࠈhN–RDcLoDeLz‑TKcsgᄗe
4DgဠᨠhDഛabTz脠Eoko脠KoTTzSⰠCDᰠVᰎih
avcఠVᰠTRРVLhihKRDଠTckoiRᔑwzȠVhRᔝ
ᄠhEToLeGRioDଠgᖐasᄠKoGᬠTᠠDᬠRgDhC
TRsᄬ‑TഛsgomRဠshDhLz脠ᨠWeb of Science
Core Collection \bᬠVLhihKRDgv.
MTഛsgomRဠsoᴠgowR脠gDoDcȬ‌oᴠᄠVLR
gDoDcNTz脠ᔁRᔝhᨠaRDcLoDeL造VᰎihavcD
hge鴛gDiavDଠoiDhwoDRCcᔝRȠeCcఠmRDR
LhioࠑN \rav‚gcS LhᄈKcsgᄗhioࠈzS
ജsewcTDhi⸠yᠠhᔈhioTRᄠ/DR脠KoTTzS
LoggCRDzio4Dgv hsokoDcaR₏eᜈoጜi,
LoggCRD通o而gv“gThi࢐c‑TKᄝoDhLz h
ToeCTzРhEaogDvЬ―DoThiRDgဠiᰎwhGTzw
oTo጑k hᴘkoDcacN₍RDᄗhioࠑv \rav–4
EzS \boEhLhi eE጑ᴘmᄂ‎o–4EhN cLRhK
iLcwcTᆆ騠KaဠhDഛabTz脠oiDhLhᨬ“LtoTR
komRȬ―DLoࠠᄠD. \r.
9w⸠VhKLhEThᬠhVRgoTRᬠWeb of Science Core
Collection ᨠtaoiᬠ2. .REaRhwcDLRCcgsRᬠRTKRsoDhL造
᪆LcgeLgo脠Thomson Reuters.
dhKLhETcᬠhؠhghEcTThgDv脠igc脠EoภKoTTzSⰠLok
wcUcTTz脠TᠠVaoD(hLwᬠWeb of ScienceⰠgw. \roacᬠ
᪆LokKcaᬠ3.8⸠noGThgDଠRgDhCTRsᠠRT(hLwomRᄠᰠVe
E጑ᴘmRvS \rav“mcࠝR \boëhN \rcvఛጋThgDR.
2LhwᬠWeb of Science Core Collection \bᠠ
VaoD(hLwᬠWeb of Scienc攠LoᔁhahGcT造
ᆆKLetRᬠLcgeLᖐⰠജgDeĠᴠshDhLzРkoiRᔑ\f
hD hKVRgᴑ“ᜉoTRkomRR:
- Biological Abstracts;
- Biosis Citation Index;
- CAB Abstracts;
- Cab Global Health;
- Current Contents Connect;
- Data Citation Index;
- Derwent Innovations Index;
- Food Science Technology Abstracts;
- Inspec;
- Medline;
- Zoological Record.
yh᪐w₌ఘVhw‚‗oบRDRR aoD(hᜄz
Web of Scienc攠gDoaᰠLokwc鴛TRᬠTᠠTcN
LctRhToጋ࢐S ok \roࠈzS (eᴘkoDcacN)
ToeCThth₍RDᄗhioࠑv.₠ctRhToጋ࢐c
eᴘkoDc጑ \boeCThth₍RDᄗhioࠑv‑TKcs
gᄗe而 \boREhacc‎ToCᄄzc‑gDhCࠑsR
ToeC࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚―ihRS―DLoToS‑጑
LctRhToS⸠ᤠhDaRCRᬠh\f Web of Science
Core Collection, hጋ缑TgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ,
ᄈKcsgᄗecҐS‚‗ctRhToጋ࢐S‖ᴘko
DcavS,“VeE጑shio࢐ \bc \bo‘ࠉ጑Ngshw
vkzsc.  2009 \t. \bᠠVaoD(hLwᬠWeb of
Scienc攠EzጠLokwc鴛ࠠesokoDcaଠsRDoN
gsRS \boeC࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ Chinese Science
Citation Database,  2013 \t⸠騠esokoDcab
ToeCThȠaRDcLoDeL造TᠠRᔁoTᔝhРᆆVhL
DetoabᔝhРvkzso脠SciELO Citation Index
ᆆ᪆201㒆t⺆騠shLcNᔝRȠesokoDcaଠKC䦆—
Korean Citation Index⸠ᤠgcTDvELᬠ201㒆t.
shwV᠈Rv Thomson Reuters“EъviRao
ᲆToCoaᬠLoEhD造VᰠgᰎKoTR4ⰠghiwcgD
ࠜ―₉oeCࠜN₌acsDLhTࠜN REaᄜDcshN
eLIBRARY.RUⰠLhgᔑNᔝhtᰠesokoDcav
࠘eCThth₍RDRLhioTRv Russian Science
Citation IndexⰠshDhLzȠDosGᬠEeഛఠLokwc
鴛\b TᠠVaoD(hLwᬠWeb of Science. ᤠLhg
ᔑNᔝhРesokoDcaᬠToeCThtᰠmRDRLhioTRv
EeKeఠRTഛsᔑLhioDbgဠaeCIRᬠToeCTzc
GeLToa造RภfhgᔑᄠᄠgDLoࠠ9y%.
dᰠigcРEokoЬ‑wc4URwgဠᨠജgDeVc
VhabkhioDcacȬ hGTᰠhge鴛gDiavDଠVh
Rᔝ‑T(hLwomRᄠsoᴠhKThiLcwcTTh, \fos
ᆆVᰠsoGജȠEokᬠᨠhDഛabThgDR⸠dLᄠ/Dhw
i ࠛshDhL邁‑k ok \roTT邁, ᜘kЛUᬈT邁
TᠠVaoD(hLwᬠWeb of ScienceⰠeCRDziocD
gဠmRDRLhioTRᬠ(ToVLRwcL,  BIOSI匠RaR
Data Citation Index)ⰠᠠᨠTcshDhLz脠阠TcD
(࠘VLRwcL,‚ Inspec‑aR Medline).
rge鴛gDiRᨠDhabsᰠhKRࠠVhRᔝ‑T(hLwo
mRR h”a4иizw―ahiow, \boVLRЛL,‑ggጛ
ജioDcaଠVhaeCR\f TᬠDhabsᰠᔁRghᴠVLhRTഛs
ᔑLhioTTz脠ജsewcTDhᨬ ᰠc鴛‑“tLhwThc
shaRCcgDih hacจhN \rav―cEv‑T(hᜄomRR:
1. ᤠsosRᬠthK造ToREhacᬠosDRiTᰠVLh
ihKRaRᔋ‑ggacജioTRဠVᰠRTDcLcge4鴛Ƞ
DcwoDRsᬿ
2⸠ᤠsosR脠gDLoTo脠ᄠRggacജioDcabᔝR脠
hLtoTRkomRvS‑ggጛഖcDgv LhEጛwo?
3⸠舘sRᬠRggacജioDcaᄠToREhacᬠosDRiTᰠ
᜘EhDo4D‚‑TDᬗcge4Uᬂ“Ea᠕DR?
4⸠舘sRᬠGeLToa造VeEaRse4ఠLoEhD逬 h
ᔚv鴛TTzᬠRTDcLcge4鴛ȠDcwcⰠᄠᨠsosR脠
GeLToaoS eE጑se而―oҐc RDocҐc (mR
DRLeᬄ逛)‗᠆hDz?
5⸠舘sRᬠ(hTK造VhKഛLGRio4ఠRggacജ
ioࠑv h \roࠈhN \fcwoDᄝc?
6⸠yᠠsosR脠shT(cLcTmRv脠whGTᰠVLcK
gDoiRDଠLckeabDoD造ᔚhcȠLoEhDz?
dhaeCRᨠhDicD造TᠠKoTTzᬠihVLhᖐⰠRg
gacKhioDcጋ―whGcD“VDᄄoጋ࢐w“ELo
khРᔁaoTRLhioDଠᔚh耠LoEhDe, izgDLhRDଠ
gగoDcऑ4―hగeKTRCcgచo‑―గoDcऑ4
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ.
dᬗiRCThN‛KRTRmᬂ‑kЛLᬈRv‚h igcS
gaeCov脠viavcDgဠhDഛabTᰠikvDoဠgDoDbv,
KaဠshDhLhȠwhGTᰠRkwcLRDଠsoᴠshaRCcgDih
gᖐahᴠᨠVLRicഛTThРᔁRᔝᬠRᔁhabkhioT
ThȠaRDcLoDeL逬‌oᴠᄠiVhgacകDiRᄠshaR
CcgDiᰠmRDRLhioTRN⸠MggacKeဠToEhL造gDo
DcȠKaဠoiDhLoⰠGeLToao, \boeCThȠhEaogDᄬ
hLtoTRkomRᄬ―DLoT造ᄠD. \r.ⰠwhGTᰠizicgDR
᜘kaRCT逛―DoDᄕDRиgsᄛ o᜘ЛDLz,₁o
᜘sDᬗT逛 \rav‑ggጛഖᬄ邁―eEъᬝDhi‑)Vh
kihav4URᬠഛaoDଠizihK造ᄠVLcകsokoTRဠg
ᄕVhabkhioTᄛw‑kicgDT邁―DoDᄕDRиgsᆁ
koshThi⸠舘ᴠhDwcCoጠB⺆dLoNgⰠwThGcgDih
ToeCTz脠gDoDcȠVhജETᰠtoke, \tഛ”oGKov
whacseaᠠicഛఠgcEဠgowhgDhvDcabTh, \bᰠVh
icഛTRᬠtokᠠᨠ贛ahРVhKCRTvcDgဠiVhaTc
hVLcഛacTTzРkoshToРᆆwhGcఠEzDଠactsh
VLcകsokecwᰠ[Price, 1965].
3.3⸠LtwtMKਠSЋwtMkOTwI
n‗oEhఘS h‑gDhᜑR‑―hmᄜጜtRR \bo
esᄠicKcDgဠwThtᰠᔁhLhᨠᰠVLRLhഛ₍RDR
LhioTRvⰠᰠwhDRiomRᄠeCcTz脠VLᄠizEhLᬠ
gDoDcȬ ᠠshDhLzᬠhTᄠgᖐao4DgဠᨠᔚhR脠
LoEhDoS, ᲆkToCRwhgDᄠDc脠RaᄠRTz脠gᖐ
ahᴠᆆR脠saogᔑ(RsomRR. dhKLhETzȠhE
khᜠLoEhDⰠVhᔚv鴛TTz脠/DhȠDcwcⰠwhGTᰠ
ToNDᄠᨠsTRtᬠ«uToaRภmRDRLhioTRဠᨠER
EaRhwcDLRR묠[.LcKRSRࠬ₂ekTc贜ᨬ€cLEo
shio, 2013]. „ \fhCsᄠkLcTRဠToeCThȠ/DRsᄠ
ToREhacc‚บcIcTࠜN‐iavcDgv hᜄoDRi
ToဠDchLRဠmRDRLhioTRvⰠVhgDLhcTToဠTᠠ
g(hLweaRLhioTTz脠ᨠ1973 \t⸠f⸠PcᜌhThР
VLᄈmᄁoS \boeCThN₌DᄝR [Merton, 1973].
rTᄠkosa4Co4DgဠᨠDhЬ Dᰠ1⤠eCcTzȠVeDcР
VeEaRsomRȠVcLcKoc\f VahK造ᔚhR脠DLeജᨠᨠ
hE鴛ᬠVhabkhioTRc, 2⤠h贛TsᠠToeCThtᰠkTo
CcTRဠTᬠkoiRᔑఠh\f \fhthⰠsDᰠgഛaoጠToeC
TzȠisaoK, \f⺆c⺆TckoiRᔑwhgDଠLckeabDoDhᨠ
ToeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠh\f \bomRhToabThgDᄬ
saogghihN LᄈoKacGThgDR‑጑–RC࢐S”o
CcgDᨠeCcThth, 3⤠EcᔝhLzgDThgDଠToeCThȠ
ഛvDcabThgDᄬ‌⺆c. \bcജVegDRwhgDଠiaRvTRဠ
TᠠVLcകDoiacTTzᬠLckeabDoD造Raᄠh贛Tsᘠ
RaᄠewoaCRioTRᬠCeGR脠LckeabDoDhᨬ―Vh
ghEgDie4UR脠ghEgDicTThȠizthഛ, 4⤠hLto
TRkhioTTzȠᔝcVDRmRkЬ‌⸠c⸠sLRDRCThgDଠ
soᴠᴠghEgDicTTzЬ‌oᴠᄠCeGRРLckeabDo
Dow⸠lgaᄠhᔈhizioDbgဠTᠠ/DR脠VhgDeaoDoS,
DᰠgᖐasᄠᨠToeCTz脠LoEhDo脠ഛao4DgဠKaဠ
DhthⰠCDhE造hEᰎToCRDଠLoEhDzⰠviav4URc
gဠhᔈhihȠKaဠRkaotocwhtᰠRggacജioTRv,
hVᄕzio4Uᄛ‑gVhabkhioTT逛 cDhKz‑g
gacജioTRvⰠᔚvkoTTzᬠDcwoDRCcᔝᄠᄠTc
hEShKᄄzc \rav“EgeGKcࠑv haeCcࠈzS
LckeabDoDhi. ТosRРhELokhЬ RggacജioDcaᄠ
mRDRLe4\f \fᬠwoDcLRoa逬”hDhLzᬠVhKDicL
KRaᄠKaဠTR脠ᔚh耠贛TThgDb.
2Lhwc hᜄoDRᨈhN \fchᜑR₍RDRLhioTRv
gacKecఠhDwcDRDଠDosGᬠge鴛gDihioTRᬠgh
mRoabࠜN”hTgDLesDRᨑgDgshN \fchᜑR₍RDR
LhioTRဠ[Latour, Woolgar, 1986]ⰠgeDଠshDhLhȠ
ghgDhRఠᨠDhЬ DᰠmRDRLhioTRဠviav4Dgဠ
ᔁhghEhРeEcGഛTRဠCRDoDcav, \raဠCctᰠ
oiDhL造CogDᰠgᖐao4DgဠTᠠLoEhD造oiDhLR
DcDT邁‖иT邁‚ЛgDh‚zEh᜘ \boREhጛc‗c
acioTDTz脠gᖐahᴠKaဠVLRKoTRဠicgᠠᔚhȠ
LoEhDc⸠ТoshȠVhKShഠgaoEᰠghhDThᔑDgဠ
ᖆThLwowᄠToeCThȠ/DRsᄠᄬ VᰠgeDᄬ oVLR
hLᄠhEiRTvcఠoiDhLhᨠᨠTowcLcTThȠ(oab
gR(ᄝomᄑ, \bcshLLcsDThw₍RDᄗhioࠑR
ᆆewoaCRioTRᄠge鴛gDie4UR脠KoTTzS.
2hT贛VmRဠtoTKRsoVo, \bᠠhᔈhiᬠshDhLhȠ
LoทoEhఘࠜ“EhgࠜioTRc₍RDRLhioTRN₉R
shaoNgcThР[Nicolaisen, 2004]ⰠiᰠwThthР
ěLᬝaRs᠛Dgv―”hࠕDLesDRiᄕDgshN \fch
LRcN₍RDᄗhioࠑာ LcKVhaotoာ Dh‖ic
aRCRioဠshaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahᴠᨠgDoDbcⰠoiDhᜠ
VLRKocఠᔚhcwᘠDcsgDᘠജVhaTRDcabTzȠicg,
TckoiRᔑwᰠh\f \fhth, \boᔝhabsᰠgᖐasᄠVᰠ
ᔄzgaᘠᔚvkoT造ᔠRkaotocwzРwoDcLRoahw.
fc(acsᔑiToဠDchLRဠmRDRLhioTRဠ
[Wouters, 1998; Wouters, 1999崠hᔈhiziocD
gv \bo‗okaRCࠜN‑TDcᜁLcఘmRR \fcᜄRࠜi
«ERE጑htLo(RCcgᴘv―gzጝo»‑₫mRDᄗh
ioTRc»⸠訑DoD造LogᔄoDLRio4DgဠᨠsoCc
gDiᬠRTKRsoDhLhᨬ―ᰎKo4UR脠(hLwoaRkh
ioTThᬠVLcകDoiacTRᬠToesᄬ‑‚ cLie耠
hCcLcKଠgacKecఠeCRDzioDଠTᬠVLRCRT逬
kogDoiRiIRᬠoiDhLᠠVLhmRDRLhioDଠDᘠRaᄠ
RTe耠LoEhDe,  \fhⰠsoᴠmRDoD造hDLo輘4ఠSo
᜘sDᬗᄕDRsR \boesR.’heDᬗg LcKaot᠛D
hVLcKcacTRc \boeᴑ”os‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜ
tᰠmRsao, ghgDhv鴛tᰠRภmRsaᠠ/sᔁcᜌThȠ
hmcࠝR‑)mᄝao₍RDᄗhioࠑN.‒hviacࠑc
ERE጑hwcDLRCcgsRS‑TKᄝoDhLhi―ࠑGo
cఠLhaଠ/sᔁcᜌRk造ᨠh贛TsᬠVeEaRsomRȬ
Vhgshጋse \boeCTov eE጑ᴘmRv hGcD‑k
wcLvDbgဠᖆVhwhUb耠oToaRkᠠmRDRLhioTRဠ
RaᄠgcwoTDRCcᔝhtᰠoToaRkᠠ(VᰠghiVoKo4
URw―ጜiow,―ጜihghCcఘTRvw).ₛoshN hK
ShഠVᰎihavcఠgᰎKoDଠhᔈhiᘠKaဠ(hLwRLh
ioࠑv―ivkcN cGKe eE጑ᴘmRvБ‑ \roጋ
TcNIctᰠgᰎKoTRဠsoᜌ oesR.
dLR LoggwhDLcࠑR Lok጑C࢐S \fchLᄂ
mRDRLhioTRဠTcabkဠTᬠeVhwvTeDଠ/((csD
PoD(cာ LhoTo጑kᄗhioࠈ适―hmRhah
thРf⺆PcᜌhThР[Merton, 1968]⸠ᤠhE鴛w
gaeC᠛₌Dh₭ᬈhЛT ᬗoiThЛLThth
LoᔁLcഛacTRဠVLcRwe鴛gDᨬ‚”hDhLhw
gDhLhToⰠeGᬠRwᄠhEaoKo4UovⰠVLhജa
輘c\f R脠TosoVaRioDଠᄠVLRewTh輘Db, ᨠDh
iLᬄv”os \rLet᠐,‑kToCoabTh“t᜘TRиT
TovⰠhsokziocDgဠhEKcacTᠠc鴛―RabTcc
R,)gacKhioDcጋTh,‑wccD cࠋ缑cⁿoT
gz \bo \roጋTcɿᄂ‖gVcS.’)VLᄄcTcࠑR
ᶆToesᬠ/((csఠPoD(cဠkosa4CocDgvⰠih-
ěLi邁,‚ \fhw, Dh‑kicgDT逛 eиT逛 hae
Co4ఠizghshᬠVLRkToTRᬠkᠠRggacജioTRv,
120
mЋwtMkOTwB
hKMUtЋBlE
ࠏB
nᆑBDbkBTTMB
iMGMlTw
bBl؈MB
hఈ༎ࠏB
cಏ༁༂O
bBl؈MB
ᘅ)༉VOlE
ࠏB
ЖMtVਇETMB
LMlTMB
舊DbЃTMB
eBNO଄kTMB
ꀑᔮ′ㄮₛᄁ造贑఑᜜ᨘࠑN
shDhLzᬠTᬠigctKᠠwhteఠgCRDoDbgဠkToCR
ҐБ, \fhtKo”os \bcRkicgD࢐c―VcmRo጑
gD造kᠠoToahtRCTzᬠLckeabDoD造VhaeCo4D
th᜘kKh ᬈb缛c LRkToTᄛ,‚h-iDhL邁,
᪆DhЬ DᰠLoEhDoⰠVhaeCRiIoဠVLRkToTRc,
VLᬚ᜘U᠛Dgv‚₫VLᮍcKᬈDTzN \fᬝgD»,
ihᔁLRTRwo4URNgဠTᬠᔠDhCsᄠkLcTRဠcth
ghഛL輘TRvⰠᠠᔠDhCsᄠkLcTRဠctᰠshTgDR
DeRLhioTࠜth₫จoCcTRv».
ᤠ90-脠tt. \tLeVVᠠVhഠLeshihകDihР
P.
hTRmᠠhEToLeGRaᠠviacTRcⰠshDhLhᬠ
hTᄠTokioaᄠ/((csDhРPoD(cဠKaဠgDLo\b
[Bonitz e璆al., 1997; Bonitz et al., 1999; Bonitz,
Scharnhorst, 2001], sᰌhLzN kosa4Cocకv
᪆DhЬ DᰠcgaᄠeCcTzᬠgDLoT造VeEaRse4Dgဠ
᪆VLcgDRGTz脠RkKoTRvS, Dh, ᔝhLcᬠigcth,
hTᄠVhaeCoఠᨠᔗcKTcРEhabIᬠmRDRLhio
TRȬ cРVLcKVhaotocఠᔗcKTvဠmRDRLec
whgDଠGeLToao⸠MggacജioDcavwᄠEzaᰠiic
ഛTᰠVhTvDRᬠ«RTഛsgᠠPoD(cv», VLcകDoi
av4鴛tᰠghEhȠCogDThᬠhఠഛacTRဠᔗcKTcȠ
mRDRLecМgDR‘iDhLhi”hTᴗcDࠜN―DLoTz
ᨠGeLToaᬠkᠠizCcDhРᔗcKTcȠmRDRLecwh
gDᄠVᰠGeLToaᘠᨠ贛ahРTᠠᔗcKT4耠mRDR
LecwhgDଠGeLToao. lgaᄠRTഛsᔠhsokziocD
gဠEhabIᬠTeav, \fᰠgDLoTᘠmRDRLe4ఠizIᬠ
ThLw逬‑ ohEhLhD⸠n⺆n⺆dRgavshᨠᨠLoEhDᬠ
2009)t.‑ggጛKhioa LhviጛTᄛ₌((ᬝDo
PoD(cဠKaဠLhgᔑNᔝR脠oiDhLhᨠTᠠVLRwc
LᬠGeLToahᨬ‑TഛsᔑLecwz脠ᨠEokᬠKoTTz脠
Web of Scienc攠ᨠhEaogDᄠ(RkRsᄠᆆSRwRR.
.zጜ hsokoࠜ‎ToCRDcabࠜc hጜGRDcab
Thc‚aRvTᄛ cGഖToLhKThth―hDLeKTRи
gDio \bo₍RDRLeᬄhgDb“DᬃcgDiᬈT邁―DoDᬂ
ᨠkoLeEcGTz脠GeLToao脠[dRgavshᨬ bvCcT
sh, 2009].
nᰎwhGThgDଠᔗoiTRDcabTᰠactshtᰠeCcDᠠ
mRDRLhioTRN―ఘDcN hgac hviacTRv”hw
V஀DcL࢐S ok \roࠈzS LᄚhKRD”)ghEaokTe
KaဠoKwRTRgDLoDhLhᨠToesᄠRᔁhabkhioDଠ
R脠soᴠVhsokoDcaᄠsoCcgDiᠠgDoDcȠRaᄠ/(
(ᬝDRiThgDR‗᠆hDz‖иT邁, \boeCT邁”ha
acsDRihᨬ“LtoTRkomRȠᆆD⺆K⸠rKTosᰠcgaᄠ
iKewoDbgာ \fh”h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN
ᔝhLcᬠviavcDgဠTᬠVhsokoDcacРsoCcgDio,
ᢆVhsokoDcacРVhackThgDᄠRaᄠiaRvTRv.
ТosⰠEhabIhᬠshaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠwcDhKR
Ccᔝe耠LoEhDᘠCogDᰠhEegahiacTᰠEhabIRР
᜘gVLhgD᜘ࠛTᄛw LcKahGᬈThth‘iDh
LhРwcDhKᠠRggacജioTRvⰠShDဠgowᘠgDoDb耠
Ehጋ缑TgDih‑k₍RDᄗe4URS,‚hkwhGTh,
ᆆTᬠCRDoaᄠ阠DosRᬠgᖐasᄠCo鴛‚gctᰠvi
av而gv₭hLwoጋ࢐Б.
ᤠᔚvkᄠᔠLokTzwᄠVhKShKowᄠiᰎTRsoc\f
VLhEጛwo h ᬗoiThkToCThgDR‚cgo‗ok
጑C࢐S―gzahs \rav“mcࠝR eE጑ᴘmᄂ.
ᦆhE鴛РiRഛ‗okaRCTzᬠDRV造mRDRLhio
TRȠwhGTᰠVLcകDoiRDଠgacKe4鴛ȠgScwhȠ
[Chubin, Moitra, 1975崠⠗Rg. 21):
dLhicഛTTzȠᨠghhDicDgDiRᄠᔠ/DhȠgSc
whȠoToaRภEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠gᖐahᴠRภ
gఘDcN h₭Rฑsc, hVeEaRshioTTzS i cᜑ
h\r 1968–196㦆tt.ⰠVhsokoጬ DᰠDhabsᰠ2ゆ%
gᖐahᴠEzaᄠ(hLwoabTzwᄠᄠhshaᰠ㖆▆騠
TctoDᄚ࢐Б.’–4Ehw―aeCoc \bo጑CRc
KoGᬠTctoDRiThȠgᖐasᄠᰎToCoc\f hVLcഛ
acࠈ适‑TDcLcg” LcKwcDe‑ggacKhioࠑာ
D⺆c⺆gᖐasᠠa4EhtᰠDRVᠠ贛TTᠠKaဠoToaRkᠠ
DLᬈKhi‗okiRDRv \boeCT邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN.
dhgshጋse₁oLosDcL₍RDᄗhioࠑv hGTh
hVLcഛaRDଠDhabsᰠVLᄠVLhicഛTRᄠDUo
DcጋThth‘To጑ko―DoD଑‑₍RDᄗecҐS
᪆TcȠwoDcLRoahᨬ‌ᰠgDoThiRDgဠVLosDRCc
ᔝᄠTciᰎwhGTzРoiDhwoDRCcᔝRȠeCcఠmR
DRLhioTRȠᔠVLRKoTRcРRЬ‚‎oiRᔑwhgDᄠ
h\f \fRVᠠgᖐasᄬ”oshth-Dᰠicgo⸠dh/DhwᘠVLᄠ
oiDhwoDRCcgshw“VLcKcacࠑR‑TKᄝoDhLhi
igᬠgᖐasᄠᄠmRDRLhioTRဠᨠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLc-
wv‖CRD通o而gv”os‗oiThkToC࢐c.
rDഛabTᰠgacKecఠeVhwvTeDଠDoshȠDRV
mRDᄗhioࠑာ”os₫gowhmRDᄗhioࠑc».
ЭDh hTvDRc‑wccD―hic᝿cTࠜ‗oจzN
gw逕a‑)kToиTᄛ‚ LRЛࠛTRR”‗okTzw
hEъcsDow⸠lgaᄠLcCଠRഛఠᰠgowhmRDRLhio
TRᄠoiDhLo, \fᰠVLRCRT造/DhtᰠwhteఠEzDb
጑Eh‚)eVhБToࠑR \bchEShKᄄzS \rav h
ࠑwoࠑv‗oEhDz‗oTcc“VeE጑shioࠈzS
woDcLRoahᨠoiDhLoⰠaREᰠᨠGcaoTRᄠ«To
ᴗeDRDb»‌oᴑw“ELokhw―iᰑ hsokoDc
aᄠmRDRLhioTRဠ(CDhⰠVᰠgeDᄬ‐iavcDgv
ToLe缛Tᄛw LRTmRVo cgshL逕DThgDR,
hVRgoTThtᰠizIc)⸠l鴛 hacᬠgahGTzw
viavcDgv“VLcKcacTRc―oМmRDRLhioTRv
ᨠgDoDbv脠ᔠTcᔝhabsRwᄠghoiDhLowR⸠ᤠhD
ࠜIcTRR₏eᜈoao₫ᔘМmRDRLhioTRcw»
viavcDgv₍RDᄗhioࠑc―DoDcN,“VeE጑sh
ioTTz脠ᨠDhРGᬠGeLToacⰠCDᰠDosGᬠwh
GcఠEzDଠiVhaTᬠhVLoiKoTTzРᆆജELh
ghicgDTzЬ‘ hGcఠEzDଠgacകDiRcРVh
VzDhs «ToᴗeDᴑ» VhsokoDcacN Geᜈoao
RaᄠᔑtToahРDhthⰠCDᰠKoTTzȠGeLToa
CRDo而 \fhጋsh \fc,”Dh eE጑secD \fow―DoD଑
(h)᜘kaRCRR cGഖ”h/((RmᄛTDowR₫go
МmRDRLecМgDR»‑)«ᔘМmRDRLhioTRv»
ᔄ⺆Lokഛጠ2.4)⸠dLRwcLTᰠDoᴠGᬠhEgDhRD
ഛaᰠᆆ᪆gaeCoᬠgowhmRDRLhioTRȠVᰠhDTh
Icࠑ4” \boeCThN“Ltoࠑkomᄑ.₉hLwoጋ
TzРgCRDocDgဠiᰠigc脠gaeCov脠gowhmRDR
LhioTRᬠᨠVLcഛao脠30
ⰠkToCRDcabThc
VLci避cࠑc₌DhN‚c጑Cᄈz \fLcEecD‖Gc
hDKcጋThth‗oggwhDLcࠑv LRCᄈ.
3.4⸠gTOlw耠SЋwtMkOTwI
uToaRภmRDRLhioTRဠTᬠᔚhKRDgဠᴠVLh
gDhwᘠVhകCcDᘠshaRCcgDiᠠmRDRLhioTRȠ
hDഛabThȠgDoDbᄠRaᄠgDoDcȠoiDhLoⰠhLto
TRkomRᄠᆆD⺆K.ⰠShDဠKoGᬠ/DᰠwhGc\f \roDଠ
ജgDoDhCThᬠshaRCcgDiᰠRT(hLwomRᄠKaဠ
hVLcഛacTRဠosDeoabThgDᄠRaᄠioGThgDᄠ
RggacKhioࠑN.„To጑k₍RDᄗhioࠑN hkih
avcఠegDoThiRDଠᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠജsewcTDowᄬ
TᠠhᔈhioTRᄠshDhLz脠whteఠEzDଠizഛacT造
saogDcL造LoEhDⰠᔚvkoTTz脠VᰠDcwoDRscⰠCDᰠ
viavcDgဠhᔈhihȠKaဠghgDoiacTRဠsoᜌ o
esR. 9ivkᄠwcGKᘠജsewcTDowᄠwhte\f hDgac
GRioDbgဠsoᴠLcDLhᔁcsDRiTᰠ(TokoK), Doᴠ
ᆆVLhᔁcsDRiTᰠ(iVcLcK)⸠舘GKoဠgDoDbဠgh
ഛLGRఠᔁRghᴠVLhmRDRLhioTThȠaRDcLoDe
L造RⰠᨠᔚh耠hCcLcKb,  \roabTcNIcРwhGc\f
EzDଠVLhmRDRLhioTᠠᨠKLetR脠LoEhDoS.
ᤠhᔈhiᘠwcDhKᠠ«EREaRhtLo(RCcᔝh
th―hCcఘTRv», LcKጜGcTࠜth₂cggacLhw
[Kessler, 1963]ⰠVhahGcࠠVLRTmRĠizഛac
TRဠikoRwhᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠgDoDbvwᄠTᠠhᔈh
ioTRᄠghiVoKcTRȠᨠᔁRᔝo脠mRDRLecwhN
aRDᬗoDeLz.ₕᬄ hab缛 \fosᆁ―hiVoKᬈRN,
DcРEhacᬠDcᔈᰠᔚvkoT造wcGKᘠghEhȠKoT
࢐c―DoD଑.‒hKhE࢐N‗cDLhgVcsDᄚ࢐N
oToaRภiᰎwhGTᰠVLhihKRDଠTckoiRᔑwh
hఠvkzsᠠVeEaRsomRȬ‍aဠTctᰠTᬠDLcEecD
gv₌sgěLDT᠐“mᬈso,‚zviጛTT逛―hиDo
TRv‑kЛTv4Dgv‚‎oiᄕRwhgDR“D‚LᬄᬈR
g)VhviጛTᄛw \bhi邁 \rhseЛTDhi, \rhgDeV
࢐S \rav‘To጑ko.
dhSh輑N cDhK ᜘sDRиgsR“KThiLᬄᬈ
TᰠEzጠVLcKahGcࠠᨠ999ꀠᄠ9ШḠ[PoLIo
shio, 1973; Small, 1973]⸠ЭDᰠwcDhഠoToaRkᠠ
sh-mRDRLhioTRvⰠhᔈhioTTzȠTᠠDhЬ CDᰠ
wcGKᘠജsewcTDowᄠRwccDgဠᔚvkbⰠcgaᄠ
/DᄠജsewcTD造mRDRLe4DgဠᨠhVeEaRshioT
Tz脠VᰎKTcᬠജsewcTDoS⸠ЭDᰠeGᬠVLhᔁcs
DRiToဠᔚvkb, shDhLoဠwhGc\f EzDଠVLhgac
GcTᠠTᬠᔗokᘠVhgaᬠhVeEaRshioTRဠജse
wcTDhᨬ‘)VᰠwcLᬠVhviacTRဠmRDRLe4UR脠
/DᄠജsewcTD造VeEaRsomRN⸠lgaᄠᨠgaeCoᬠ
LcDLhᔁcsDRiThtᰠoToaRkᠠhKRࠠLoภegDo
ࠜiacTTov―ivซ“gఘcDgv hgDhvTࠜN‑
whte\f \fhabsᰠജEoiavDbgဠജsewcTD逬 LR
ToKac輘URᬠtLeVVᬠ(saogDcLe⤠VeEaRsomRN,
DᰠᨠgaeCoᬠVLhᔁcsDRiThtᰠoToaRkᠠwhte\f
VhviavDbgဠThizᬠᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠLoTcᬠhVe
EaRshioTTzwᄠKhsewcTDowR⸠舘ᴠᄠᨠgaeCoᬠ
LcDLhgVcsDᄚThth‘To጑ko₍RDᄗhioࠑN,
ᔑaᠠᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠജsewcTDowᄠkoiRᔑఠh\f
shaRиgDio‗᠆hD,“KThiLᬄᬈTh₍RDRLe4
Uᆁ‗᠕gwoDLRi᠛w逛.
rVRgoTTzᬠsLoDsᰠwcDhK造oToaRkᠠmRDR
LhioࠑNⁿᄗhsh LᄄcTv而gv LR hgDLh
cTRᄠsoᜌ oesR⸠yoVLRwcLⰠRggacജioDcab
ᔝRᬠ(LhTD造(research fronts)ⰠVLcകDoiacT
TzᬠᨠLokഛaᬠEok造KoTTz脠Essential Science
Indicators \bᠠVaoD(hLwᬠInCitesⰠVhgDLhcT造
g)RgVhጋkhioࠑcw cDhKo”h-mRDᄗhioࠑv.
rKTosᰠkToCRDcabTᰠEhacᬠCogDᰠRggac
KhioDc጑ gDoጝᄚo而gv― hacc LhgD逄R
wcDhKowᄠeCcDᠠᄠoToaRkᠠmRDRLhioTRȬ
hᔈhioTTzwᄬ oVLRwcL, \bᠠVhകCcDᬠVhae
CcࠈzS₍RDᄗhioࠑN‑ \roጋTcɿcw‑S \bhL
БLhioࠑR \bo”h጑CcgDih LhmRDᄗhioT
T邁 \rhseЛTDhi.
5ഛᔋ―acKecఠhELoDRDଠiTRwoTRᬠTᠠDh,
CDᰠmRDRLhioTRဠLokaRCTz脠ജsewcTDhᨠ
ᆆ᪆LokTz脠hEaogDv脠kToTRȠᔑabTᰠLok
aRCo4DgvⰠVh/DhwᘠTcshLLcsDTᰠVLhihKRDଠ
VLhgDᰠᔗoiTcTRᬠhᔈhioTTz脠TᠠmRDRLh
ioTRR hsokoDcጛN ck‖иDo“ghEᬈThgDᬂ.
ᤠGeLToao脠ᨠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠizഛ
av4ఠLokTzᬠDRV造ജsewcTDhᨠ騠gDoDbR
(Articles)Ⱐh؎hL造(Reviews)ⰠshLhDsRᬠgh
hEUcࠑာ Rg଄o,‗cKosmRhࠈzc oDcLR
oazⰠwoDcLRoa造shT(cLcTmRȠᆆD⺆K⸠ЭDR
KhsewcTDz‗ok጑Co而gv”os h \r጑Tc
ᔁRᔝhᨠmRDRLecwhȠaRDcLoDeL造(RaᄠRS
hDgeDgDiᆀ,”os‚ hጋ缑TgDic‗cKosmRhT
TzS‑aR hihgDTzS oDcᜑoጜi),‌os‑ h
CogDhDc‑ \r጑DcጋThgDR‑S₍RDᄗhioࠑv.
5ToCRDcጋTh‗ok጑Co而gv \roࠈzc oLo
wcDL造ᄠᨠLokaRCTz脠hEaogDv脠kToTRȬ
VLRCcРkഛᔋ hviavcDgဠc鴛‑‍hVhaTR
Dcጋ࢐N (osDhL — hD጑CRv i Dᄁc mRDR
Lecwz脠KhsewcTDhi⸠ngᬠ/DᰠTchEShKRwh
eCRD通oDb LR―LoiࠑDcጋThw‘To጑kc
VhsokoDcጛN₍RDRLhioTRv‗okT邁‖иT邁,
GeLToahᨬ“LtoTRkomRȠᄠD. \r.
dhᴘkoDc጑₍RDᄗhioࠑv hGTh‗oggwo
DLRioDଠᨠVLRwcTcTRᄠᴠLokTzРgeEъcsDoЬ
ᆆ᪆soGജРgaeCoᬠhTᄠEeKeఠRwcDଠᔚhᄠhgh
EcTThgDᄬ₁hDဠwcDhK造hVLcഛacTRဠwhte\f
EzDb“Kᄈoshi逄R‑጑ hShGᄄR.
3.5.‗MvO4ObBlw ਑CTf.₅RtࠊlMk
dh“DTh缛TR4”₏eLToaow‚ěLi逛‘To
aRภmRDRLhioTRဠEzጠVLRwcTcࠠᨠToCoaᬠ
ХХ)i. \rav‗᭿ᬈRv LhEጛw”hwVጛsDhio
TRv REaᄜDcs cᜑhKRCcgᴑwR₏eᜈoao
wR⸠%Lhgᔠᄠ%Lhgᔠ[Gross, Gross, 1927]ⰠRggac
KeဠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝRᬠgᖐasᄠᨠicKe鴛Р
TᠠDhఠwhwcTఠRkKoTRᄠVᰠSRwRᄠThe Journal
of the American Chemical Society, LcKah
GRaᄠRᔁhabkhioDଠCogDhDᘠmRDRLecwhgDᄠ
᜘kaRCT邁₏eLToahi \rav‑S‗o࢏RLhioTRv.
BoTࠜc‑ggacKhioTRc―ఘጜ“DVLoᨈhN \fhC
shȠKaဠgcLRᄠLoEhDⰠshDhLzᬠVLRicaᄠᶆVh
viጛTR4 cDLRsR, haeCRi缛N \bokioTᄛ
«RwVosD-(osDhL묠(D⸠c⸠(osDhᜠiaRvTRv)⸠ЭDᠠ
wcDLRsᠠEzaᠠLokLoEhDoTᠠᖆ贛ab耠izvi
acTRဠToREhacᬠkToCRwz脠GeLToahᨠ᪆shT
sLcDThȠhEaogDᄠRggacജioTRv⸠ᦆ195㖆t.
izIaᠠLoEhDᠠ3KGRTᠠ%oL(RaKᠠ[Gar8eld,
1955]ⰠᨠshDhLhȠRkahGcࠠVhKShഠᴠizCRgac
ࠑ4 cDLᄝR₫ᄄVosD-(osDhL \boeC࢐S₏eL
Toah᪻ⰠRᔁhabkecwzȠജ ogDhv鴛tᰠiLc
wcTᄠᄠVLcകDoiavcwzȠcGcthKTᰠToCRToဠ
ᔠ197㖆t⸠᪆hDCcDo脠VᰠmRDRLhioTR耠ToeCTz脠
GeLToahᨠ(Journal Citation Reports)ⰠizSh
KRiIR脠ᔈoCoaᠠ᪆EewoGThРiRഛⰠᢆ᪆To
gDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠജgDeVTz脠TᠠRT(hLwomRhT
ࠜ-oToaRDRCcgshN aoD(hᜄc InCites.
dhKLhEThc“VRgoࠑc‗ok጑C࢐S RE጑
hwcDᜑCcgᴑS‑TKRsoDhLhi,₁oLosDcᜑke
4UR脠ToeCTzᬠGeLToa逬‍oTᰠᨠtaoiᬠ«.R
EaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑc‑TKRsoDhថ‚‗cgeLᔘS
Thomson Reuters»Ⱐkഛᔋ₏ᬠVLRicഛРRT
(hLwomR耠ᰠKLetR脠iᰎwhGTz脠ᔁhghEo脠
hmcTᴑ”oCcgDio₏eᜈoጜi,‗oทoEhఘTTzS
ᔠ贛ab耠RkEc輘DଠTcജgDoDshᨠRwVosD-(os
DhLᠠᄠVᰎihav4UR脠ᔗoiTRioDଠeLhicTଠ
GeLToahᨠᨠLokTz脠ToeCTz脠KRᖍRVaRToS.
SJR (Scimago journal rank⤠eCRDziocD,
soᴠᆆEigenfactorⰠiaRvDcabThgDଠgᖐahs,
D⺆c⺆gᖐasᠠRภVLcgDRGThtᰠGeLToaᠠeCR
DziocDgဠᔠEhabIRРicghЬ cРgᖐasᠠRภ
wcTcc LcgDRGࠜth.₂Lhwc \fhth,―oМmR
DRLhioTRဠGeLToaᠠᨠ/DhРLogCcDᬠeCRDz
io4DgဠDhabsᰠTᠠ3㎆% [Gonzбlez-Pereira,
Guerrero-Bote, Moya-Ane柳n, 2010; Guerrero-
Bote, Moya-Anegуn, 2012]⸠BaဠLogCcDᠠRg
VhabkecDgဠVLh贛KeLoⰠgShKToဠᔠoathLRD
whРGoogle PageRank긠[Page et al., 1998].
MgShKTᰠsoGജwᘠGeLToaᘠVLRᔚoRiocDgဠ
᜘Tt, ᜘iTzN)1, shDhLzN i KoabࠛN缛w ᜘g
VLcഛavcDgဠwcGKᘠGeLToaowᄬ‚”hDh
Lz脠mRDRLe4DgဠgDoDbᄠKoTThtᰠGeLToao,
VLhVhLmᄜToabࠜ”haRCcgDie haeCcT
࢐S₍RDᄗhioࠑN.₄hhDicDgDicࠈh hgac
hVLcKcacTࠜth”haRCcgDio₍Rsጜi‌oᴑS
ěLᬗ᠕VLcKcጛTRN ᜘Tthi wosgRwoabThc
kToиTᄛ hsokoDcav \rav \roabࠛN缛th‗᠕
VLcഛacTRဠwcGKᘠGeLToaowᄠhsokziocDgဠ
e―oМth‚aRvDcabࠜth₏eᜈoao, haeCo4
Ucth osgᄄoጋThc”h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhio
ࠑN.₄hhDicDgDicࠈh“KTh₍RDᄗhioࠑc‑k
ఘshth₏eᜈoao“soຐiocDgv‎ToCRDcabࠜ
icghЛc, иw mRDRLhioTᄛ Rk Лࠛc VLc
gDRGThज₏eLToao,”ᰌhLzN‌habsh‗okKo
cఠmRDRLhioTRv, \bᰠTᬠVhaeCocఠR脠ikowcT.
dᜑ‗ogCcDc₌Dhth hsokoDcav‖gఘToiaRio
cDgဠhsTᰠmRDRLhioTR 3 \thKo⸠dhaeCcTTzȠ
«VLcgDRG» \rav haeCcTRv“shTCoDcabࠜth
kToCcTRဠSJR \bhLwRLecDgဠTᠠshaRCcgDiᰠ
hVeEaRshioTTz脠ᨠGeLToaᬠജsewcTDhi.
Тosᄄ“ELokhw, \roࠈ适 hᴘkoDcጋ“ᴘkz
iocDgဠTckoiRᔑРhఠhEaogDᄠkToTRȠᄠeCR
DziocఠeLhicTଠGeLToahᨬ‑ภshDhLz脠VhgDe
Vo而₍RDᄗhioࠑv.
lUc“Kࠑw hᴘkoDcacw, LRkioࠈ逄
shwVcTᔑLhioDଠTcജgDoDsᄠsaogᔑCcᔝh
tᰠRwVosD-(osDhLoⰠviavcDgဠSNIP (Source
Normalized Impact per paper) [Moed, 2010].
2a4иizw‚‗᠕иDc \roTThth hsokoDcav
viaရDgv“VLcKcጛTᄛ hDᬈmRoao₍R
DRLhioTRဠGeLToao⸠ЭDᰠhge鴛gDiavcD
gv eDcw“VLcKcacࠑv‑TKᄚRKeoጋThth
hsLeGcTRဠGeLToao, \f⸠c. \raဠRggacKecwhth
GeLToaᠠhVLcഛav4DgဠigᬠGeLToa逬 ᨠsh
DhLz脠kᠠVcLRh\r ᨠVhgacKTRᬠ10 ac\f igDLc
Co而gv₍RDᄗhioࠑv―DoDcȬ“VeE጑shioT
T邁 i ᄕgጛഖᬄhw GeLToጛ, R izCᄕaရDgv
ᔗcKTvဠKaRTᠠᔁRᔝhᨠaRDcLoDeL造ᨠmRDR
Le4UR脠gDoDbvS⸠dLᄠhELoEhDsᬠKoTTz脠Vh
ᔁRᔝoРaRDcLoDeL造RภTR脠Rᔝa4Co4Dgv
igᬠgᖐasᄬ”hDhLzᬠicKeఠkᠠVLcഛa造Eo
kz \roࠈzS, h”hDhLhN‗oggCRD通o而gv
VhᴘkoDc጑.ₛosᄄ“ELokhw,‖CRD通o而gv
LokaRCRဠᨠDLoKRmRv脠mRDRLhioTRဠᨠLok
࢐S“EaogDvS‎ToࠑN.’zCRgacࠈ适―DoT
KoLD࢐w“ELokhw 3-acDࠑN‑ЁosD-(osDhL
ഛaRDgဠTᠠVhDcTmRoጠmRDRLhioTRvⰠᆆDo
sRw“E᜘khw haeC᠛w ckoiᄕRwzN“D
hEaogDR‎ToࠑN hᴘkoDcጋ‗cNDᄈthihgDR
GeLToao. 2hLLcsDThgDଠhVLcഛacTRဠVh
DcTmRoaᠠmRDRLhioTRဠkoiRᔑ\f h\f VhaTh
D造Eok造KoTTzS, \bᠠhᔈhioTRᄠshDhLhȠhT
᜘ggCRDzi᠛Dgv:‛gaR―DoDbR‑k‑ggጛKe
cwhth₏eLToao₍RDᄗe而gv‚‑gDhCࠑᴘS,
TᬠVhVoKo4UR脠ᨠRTഛsᔑLecwzc, \fᰠVh
DcTmRoጠmRDRLhioTRဠhsoGcDgဠTcജh贛
TcTTzw, h/Dhwe‖LhicTb hᴗzDRv \boeC
࢐S“EaogDcN‚ okc \roࠈzS“ᴘk通ocDgv
LcIo肝Rw₭osDhLhw \rav‗ogCcఘ \roTࠜth
VhsokoDcav. av‖Ccఘ‚hคhGࠜth \bcKh
gఘDhCࠜth hᴗzDRv“EaogDR \rav‗ogCcఘ
124
ꀑᔮ′㈮₠᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠ᠚Dᰗᰚ ᰠsh጑иᔌᨖ
VeE጑sᢍᄂ‚‗᠎࢐脠࠘ᘃ࢐脠ᰆጘᔌႁ†
嬒᜘нⰠㄹ63]
1000
500
200
100
1020
×ло⃯убкац⃭а⃠вра
VhDcࢍRoao₍RDᄗhioࠑv cLeDgv―gzጝR
DhabsᰠTᠠGeLToa逬 VLRgeDgDie4URᬠᨠEokc
KoTTzSⰠᠠgᖐasᄠTᠠhDgeDgDie4URᬠRgDhC
ࠑsR‑tThLᄗe而gv.
9ጛഖcD hDЛDRDb, CDh Kav ᜘gиDo h
sokoDcacȠSJR  SNIP ᨠCRgaRDcaᬠᄠkTo
ЛToDcጛ‖CRDzio4Dgv“KRToshi逛 \fRVz
ജsewcTDhᨠ(articles, conference proceedings
papers  reviews)ⰠᠠLogCcఠhge鴛gDiavcDgဠ
VᰠEokᬠKoTTz脠Scopus.
5ToTᄛ‗okaRCT邁 \boeshЛDLRиgsᆁ h
sokoDcacȠGeLToaᠠVᰎihavcఠRggacജio
Dca耠LokLoEhDoDଠKaဠgcEဠhVDRwoabTe耠
gDLoDctᆀ eE጑ᴘmᄂ,‚zEᄗov \boREhacc
VhKShKvURᬠGeLToa造soᴠVᰠToeCThȠᔁc
mRoaRkomRᄬ‌oᴠᄠVᰠR脠VLcgDRGThgDR.
3.6⸠ᜏvO4ObBlРKl缠RCBTf茠
wzMtNOࠄ4OSҭ
Bav“mcTᴑ‗ckeabఘDRᨈhgDR \boeCࠜN
ഛvDcabThgDᄠeCcTz脠ᄠhLtoTRkomRȠCo鴛
igctᰠRᔁhabke4\f \fosRᬠVLhgDzᬠVhsokoDc
጑, ᴘs sh጑CcgDih hVeE጑shioࠈzS LoEhD,
hE鴛ᬠshaRCcgDiᰠR脠mRDRLhioTRȠᆆᔗcK
Tcc”h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN \bo“KTe eE጑
ᴘmᆀ. g጑―LoiࠑioDb \roࠈzc hᴘkoDc጑
kᠠshTsLcDTzȠVcLRhഠiLcwcTᄠᄠᨠhKThȠ
ᄠDhȠGᬠhEaogDᄬ‌ᰠwhGTᰠEhacᬠRaᄠwc
TcᬠoഛsioDTᰠVhgDLhRDଠLcNDRTठeCcTzS,
o \rhVhገRDcጋThc \bhLБLhioࠑc \rav“L
toTRkomRȠTᠠshaRCcgDiᰠeCcTz脠VᰎihaR\f
VhgDLhRDଠᄠLcNDRTठhLtoTRkomRȠVᰠR脠gh
ihseVࠜN \boeCࠜN LhKesDRᨈhgDR.—KTosh
ᨠKoTThРgaeCoᬠDosGᬠRwccDgဠജihabTᰠ
ᔑabToဠkoiRᔑwhgDଠhఠhEaogDᄠkToTRȬ Dᰠ
TᬠVᰎihavc\f \fosRРVLhgDzРhELokhРᔗoi
ࠑioDb eCc࢐S R hLtoࠑkomᄑ Rk Lok࢐S To
ëzS“EaogఛN [Price, 1963].
l鴛‚‗oEhDᬠB⺆dLoNgᠠEzaᠠhDwcCcTo
hEU᠐‎oshThЛLThgDb \rav‗᠕VLcKcጛ
ࠑv‘iDhLhi h”h጑CcgDie \boVRgoࠈzS
gDoDcȬ―iRഛDcabgDie4UoဠᰠDhЬ Dᰠ2㖆%
oiDhLhᨠVLhRkihKv\f 7㖆┠gDoDcN⸠yᠠLRg⺆22
VLcകDoiacTᰠCRgaᰠVeEaRsomRȠKaဠCcDz
LcS \tLeVV‚逕hshVLhഖsDRiT邁‘iDhLhi:
1))Cac࢐₉omRhToጋThN‘ᴘKcБR \boes,
2⦆19 izKo4URSgဠeCcTz脠
‚., 3⦆ToREh
acc LhKesDᄚ࢐c‘iDhLz-SᄄᄝR, 4))oi
DhL造VᰠesokoDca耠«OCcTz脠koVRghᴠ2hLh
aciᔝhtᰠhE鴛gDio».
ТᰠGᬠgowhᬠLoᔁLcഛacTRᬠw造VhaeCRЬ
oTo጑kᄗev‘iDhLhi,“EъcKᄈcࠈzS–4E逄
VLRkToshw⸠yᠠLRg. 33–3㔠VLcകDoiacTᰠ
᪆oToahtRCThР(hLwoDᬠLoᔁLcഛacTRᬠ
LhgᔑNᔝR脠oiDhLhᨠVᰠToeCTzРhEaogDvР
⠗Rg⺆33Ⱐᔄ⺆g⺆185⤠ᄠVᰠthLhKoР⠗Rg⺆34,
ᔄ⺆g⺆186⤠VᰠKoTTzРfMy1,  \fosGᬠLog
VLcഛacTRᬠoiDhLhᨠVᰠshaRCcgDiᘠVeEaR
somRȠVᰠKoTTzРCore Collection Web of
Scienc攠⠗Rg⺆35Ⱐᔄ⺆g⺆186⤠kᠠ2000–201㒆tt.
(igcthⰠVᰠ9ШuⰠVᰠVLcKwcDThȠsoDcthLRᄠ
Biochemistry molecular biolog礠—‚ RLc,
9ШḠᄠ舘aR(hLTRNᔝhРeTRicLᔑDcDc).
ТosRРhELokhЬ―DoDRgDRCcᔝᄠLoᔁLcKc
acTRᬠviavcDgဠhEURРKaဠa4EhȠghihseV-
ThgDᄠoiDhLhᨠᄠhCcTଠVhShGᬠTᠠeGᬠeVhwR
ToiIRNgဠkoshࠠdoLcDh.
ᤠLoEhDᬠn⸠n⸠yoaRwhiᠠᄠ5⸠P⸠PeabCcTsᰠ
[yoaRwhᨬ‟eabCcTsh, 1969崠騠hᔈhihVhao
to4鴛РDLeഛ ᰠToeshwcDLRᄠ騠hDwcCo
cDgvⰠCDᰠh贛TsᠠഛvDcabThgDᄠeCcTz脠Vᰠ
geЄoLThwe Rgae eE጑ᴘmᄂ LᄈhgRD
EhabIhȠiLc\r \boescⰠVhᔝhabsᘠRภDhthⰠCDᰠ
DoaoTD጑izc‖Cc࢐c eE጑shio጑ Thth
᜘EhD,―hiᬗ缛TTh c―ጛഖcD“E᜘DThc: Dh
ᎀEhN,“VeE጑shioi缑N Thth‗oEhD,‐iav
cDgv \foaoTD጑i逄‖Cc࢐w.₄acKhioDcጋTh,
VLhgDh”h጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ \bcጋkv―CR
ఘDb”ᜑDcᜑcw₌((csDRᨈhgDR‖Ccࠜth.
dLRTRwoဠDhⰠCDᰠwcLhȠVhackThgDᄠVeEaR
somRᄠviavcDgဠcᬠmRDRLecwhgDbⰠgDoThiRD
gဠiᰎwhGTzРVLhRkihKRDଠᔗoiTRDcabTe耠
hmᬈse‗᠆hD‗okT邁‖иT邁.
ШRLhsh‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTThc‚hk᜘Gᬈᄛ
VLhDRᨠh贛TsᄠLoEhఠeCcTz脠VᰠmRDRLec
whgDᄠR脠VeEaRsomRȬ―ivkoTThᬠᔠeCcDhw
hDLᆍoDcጋ࢐S mRDᄗhioࠑN, n. n. yo጑
whi―CRD᠛D cgeUcgDiᬈTzw.—T“DЛC᠛D,
CDᰠ«᪆ToesoS, \bᬠRwc4UR脠hgDLhȠVhaRDR
CcᔝhȠToVLoiacTThgDᄬ ᬠTeGTᰠVLhih
KRDb‗okt᜘TRиTRv cGഖ hah輑Dcab
࢐w‑)hDLᆍoDcጋ࢐w₍RDᄗhioࠑcw. g጑
LoEhDo₍RDᄗecDgာ‎ToCRD,‚zgᴘkoࠈzc
ᨠTcȠRഛᄠVhgaeGRaᄠDhaCshРKaဠLok
iRDRဠThiz脠LoEhD⸠༠ᔠ/DhȠDhCsᄠkLcTRv
TcioGThⰠVLhജa輘4ఠaᄠRgShKTzᬠRKcR
LokiᄚoDbgv‑጑“ࠑ‗oKᄝoጋTh cLc
hgҐg጑io而gv».’DhLhc‚hkLoGcࠑc)—
h)ihคhGࠜw‎oVokKzioTRR ᜑจoTRv
TcshDhLz脠LoEhఠ騠hgDocDgဠTcᔈvDzЬ“K
TosᰠᄠeCcgDଠ/DᰠsosRw-aREᰠhELokhРhso
ຐiocDgv \bcihคhGࠜ.
ᤠVhKDicLGഛTRᬠiᰎwhGThgDᄠRᔁhab
khioDb”ᜑDcᜑN₍RDRLecМgDR‚)soCcgDic
hmᬈsR₌((ᬝDRiThgDR‗᠆hDz‖иThth
n⺆n⺆yoaRwhᨠᄠ5⺆P⺆PeabCcTsᰠVLRih
KvD‗᠆hDe‘ЛLRsoࠕsᆁ‑ggጛKhioDcጛN,
Vhsoko᩿e4, Dh‖LhicTb₍RDRLecМgDR
eCcTzS-(Rฑshi ShLh缜 ghtaogecDgv g 谝g
VcᜌThȠh贛TshȬ LhicഛTThȠVLcകDo
iRDcavwᄠosoഛwRCcᔝhtᰠghhE鴛gDio, \bo
hgThioTRR”hDhLhN‑ggጛഖᬄ逛‖иT逛
EzaᄠLokERD造T 4 \tLeVV造騠«VahജDihLTh
᜘EhDo4Uᄛ eиT逛» (wThth ěCoDo4Dgv
ᄠCogDᰠmRDRLe4Dgv)Ⱐ«VahKhiRDzᬠ(RkR
sR묠(wThtᰠVRIeD, \bᰠLcKsᰠmRDRLe4Dgv),
«(Rฑᴑ-ࠜioDhថ» (gLoᨈRDcabࠜ oጜ
VcCoDo4Dgv, \bᰠsoGKoဠRภLoEhఠwThtᰠmR
DᄗecDgv)‑₫whaCo጑izc₭RkᄝR» (woah
VcCoDo而gv‑‗cKsh₍RDᄗe而gv).
dhShGcᬠRggacജioTRcⰠVᰎihav4鴛ᬠ
izഛaRDଠtLeVV造eCcTz脠VᰠR脠mRDRLecwh
gDᄬ ᰠoToaRkᘠmRDRLecwhgDᄠosoKcwRshᨠ
uy)999f h‗ok࢐w \boeC࢐w \rRgmᄁ጑Tow
EzaᰠVLhicഛTᰠᨠP%O⸠fhgᔑNᔝRРGᬠeCc
TzРf. Ф. noᔑabcizРEzaᰠiicKcTᰠVhTv
DRᬠᔗcKTcȠCogDhD造mRDRLhioTRဠ9/ꀠ(蒆騠
VhaThᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠLoEhD造eCcThth,
ꂆ騠VhaThᬠCRgaᰠctᰠLoEhD) ᄠVhsokoTh, CDᰠ
/DᠠicaRCRTᠠTᬠhVLcഛavcDgဠiᰎLogDhР
RaR‑บcgDࠜgDb4‖Ccࠜth.
9acKecDⰠhKToshⰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠigᬠᔗoi
ࠑDcጋ࢐c‑ggacKhioࠑv₍RDᄗecwhgDR
eCcTz脠RaᄠᔗcKTcȠCogDhD造mRDRLhioTRဠ
VLhihKRaRᔋ‚ Lcഛao脠hKThȠᄠDhȠGᬠ
hEaogDᄠkToTRN⸠lgaᄠhELoDRDbgဠᴠVLRic
ഛTThȠᨠLokഛaᬠᨠEokᬠKoTTz脠Essential
Science Indicators \foEaR贛―LcKTctᰠmRDRLh
ioTRဠgDoDcȠVᰠhEaogDvРkToTRȠ(Average
Citation Rates for papers published by ˆeld,
2004–2014), \fᰠiRKTh, ToᔝhabsᰠᔑabTᰠ
Lok጑Co而gv―LcKࠑc hᴘkoDc጑₍RDᄗec
whgDᄠVᰠLokTzРhEaogDvw.
ᤠᔚvkᄠᔠ/DRРKaဠᔗoiTcTRဠeCcTz脠
᜘kT邁―ěmRoabThgDᬂ chEShKRwh LR
wcTvDଠEhacᬠgahGTzᬠVhKShK造ᄠoathLRD
w逬‖CRDzio4URᬠge鴛gDie4URᬠhDaRCRဠ
ᨠᔗcKTcРeLhiTᬠmRDRLecwhgDᄬ‌hCTᰠDoᴠ
GcⰠsoᴠ/DᰠഛaocDgဠᄠKaဠᔗoiTcTRဠGeL
ToahᨠRภLokTz脠hEaogDcȠkToTRN.
Bav‚zviጛTRv“ghEh‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁
gDoDcȠᨠLokഛaᬠEssential Science Indicators
cgDଠDoEaRmoⰠVᰎihav4UoဠhVLcഛaRDb,
CDh―ఘDbv,“VeEaRshioTTov‚”hTᴗcDࠜw
thKeⰠhDThᔑDgဠᴠ0,01 % a 1 % \boREhacᬠ
mRDᄗecҐS‚”hࠝLcDThN“EaogDR‎ToࠑN
(DoEaRmᠠVLh贛TDRacN)⸠9hhDicDgDicTTᰠVᰠ
/DhwᘠVoLowcDLeⰠᠠRwcTTᰠVᰠVoLowcDLᘠ
VhVoKoࠑv‚“VLcKcacࠈ适‑TDcLioa Lh
贛TDRacȬ‚ᰎwhGTᰠhge鴛gDiavDଠᔗoi
ࠛTᄛ―DoDᬂ‑k‗okT邁“Ea᠕Dᬂ‎ToTRN.
rKTosᰠKaဠᔗoiTcTRဠToEhLhᨠVeEaRsomRȠ
(eCcThth, \tLeVV逬“LtoTRkomRᄬ―DLoTz) \fo
shȠVhKShഠviavcDgဠsLoNTᬠDLeജcwsRЬ
Vhgshabse,‚h-ěLi邁, \boVLvwe4 LRЛTRw
ᶆhDഛabTzРgDoDbvwⰠᄬ‚h-iDhLzS, \roTTzᬠ
VᰠVLh贛TDRavРVLcകDoiacT造ᨠKoTThР
LokഛaᬠkᠠVhgacKTRᬠ1〠acD, \f⸠c⸠LoTcᬠhVe
E጑shioࠈzc―DoD଑―owhgDhvDcጋTh Lh
oTo጑kᄗhioDb \bcጋkv.
dLR―᜘iࠛTRR hsokoDcጛN₍RDRLeᬄh
gDᄠeCcTz脠KoGᬠᨠhKThȠᄠDhȠGᬠhEaogDᄠ
DosGᬠiᰎTRsocఠwoggᠠVLhEacw⸠dLcKVh
ahGRЬ DᰠKihᬠeCcTz脠Rwc4ఠhKRToshihᬠ
sh጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑―hihseVTh“Kᄈo
shihᬠshaRCcgDiᰠmRDRLhioTRȬ‌⸠c. Vhso
koDcaଠᔗcKTcȠCogDhD造mRDRLhioTRဠᘠTR脠
DosGᬠEeഛఠghiVoKoDb⸠rKTosᰠLoᔁLcഛac
ࠑc gDoDcN Vh”h጑CcgDie mRDᄗhioࠑN Lok
aRCocDgဠ騠ᘠhKThtᰠeCcThtᰠRภ5〠VeEaR
ᴘmᄂ―“EUᄄ”h጑CcgDihw₍RDᄗhioࠑN
50〠cgDଠTcᔝhabsᰠhCcTଠizghshmRDRLec
ҐS eE጑ᴘmᄂ LR Rkshw₍RDᄗhioࠑR
(R጑‑S“DgeDgDiᄑ)“gDoጋ࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ,
ᠠᘠKLethtᰠmRDRLhioTRဠLoᔁLcഛacT造
ЛGഖ―DoDbvwR hጛc‗oiThЛLTh.₂os
hVLcഛaRDbⰠsoshȠRภoiDhLhᨠLoEhDoc\f
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KRKoDhᨠTᠠജaGThgDଠVLh(cgghLᠠ(RkR
sᄬ‘wcLRsoTᔝRȠ(RkRᴠХhLSᬠХRL缠Rk
OTRicLᔑDcDᠠ9oT-ԑctᰠVLcKahGRጠiic
gDR \bhi适‑TKᄝoDhL,”hDhL适 LRkioT
eCRD通oDb Tc Dhጋsh sh጑CcgDih gDoDcN
ᆆmRDRLhioTRȬ ᰠᄠLoᔁLcഛacTRᬠgDoDcN
Vh”h጑CcgDie haeCcࠈzS₍RDᄗhioࠑN
[Hirsch, 2005]⸠ЭDhఠRTഛsᔠVhaeCRጠTokio
TRᬠRTഛsgᠠХRLIᠠ(
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aရD―hEhN”haRиgDiᬈTe4₁o᜘sDᬗᄕDR
se LhKesDRᨈhgDR‖Ccࠜth,“gࠜioTTe4
To ᜘gVLcKcጛTRR₍RDRLhioTRN‛th‗᠆hD.
dhKLhEThᬠhVRgoTRᬠRTഛsgᠠХRLIᠠᄠTc
shDhថS₫脑᝿-VhKhETzS» hsokoDcacN
eGᬠVLRicഛTᰠ᪆taoiᬠ«.REaRhwcDLR
CcᔝRᬠRTKRsoDhL造᪆LcgeLgo脠Thomson
Reuters»ⰠVh/DhwᘠᨠKoTThРLokഛaᬠghᔗc
ജDhCRwgဠTᠠhghEcTThgDv脠RᔁhabkhioTRv
/Dhth‑TKᄝoDhLo,‘ \fosGc \bc‖VhБToi
Iᆁgv‗oࠛc‛th‚oLRomRv脮
dcLizᬠVᰠVhLvKsᘠ
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D.)c.)ToREhacc₍RDᄗecҐc eE጑ᴘmᄑ,
ghgDoiav4\f vKLᰠХRLIo.  ᔚhcȠLoEhDc
ХᄗI RggacKhioa VeE጑ᴘmᄑ owcLᄝoT
ᔝR脠(RkRshᨠᆆegDoThiRጬ DᰠRTഛsᔠХRL
IᠠVhLvKsᠠ10–1㈠ghhDicDgDiecఠVhgDhvT
ࠜN‑ggacKhioDcabgshN hฑmRR‚”LeVࠜw
eTRicLᔑDcDc, 15–20 騠CacTgDiᘠᨠuwcLR
soTᔝhР(RkRCcᔝhРhE鴛gDicⰠᠠRTഛsᖆ45
ᄠizIᬠ騠CacTgDiᘠᨠyomRhToabThȠosoഛ
БR \boes₄Шu.
9acKecఠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠRTഛsᔠХRLIoⰠShDଠ
ᄠജgDoDhCTᰠShLhIᰠhDLo輘cఠeLhicTଠeCc
ThthⰠᨠᔑabThȠgDcVcTᄠkoiRᔑఠhఠhEaogDᄠ
kToTRȠᄠKLetR脠(osDhLhᨬ”osⰠiVLhCcЬ
ᄠVLosDRCcᔝᄠigᬠToeshwcDLRCcᔝRᬠVh
sokoDcaR⸠lgaᄠVhᔄhDLcDଠRTഛsᖐₑRLIᠠ
eиT邁‗okT邁―ěmRoabThgDᬂ,‚ShKvUᆁ
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icLᔑᄠLcgeLg Highlycited.com, \fᰠVhaeCRР
gacKe4Ue耠soᜌRTᘠ(ᔄ. \foEa. 4).
ТosRРhELokhЬ―LoiTRioDଠ/((csDRi
ThgDଠLoEhD造eCcTz脠VᰠRTഛsgᘠХRL
IᠠwhGTᰠDhabsᰠᨠVLcഛao脠hKThȠᄠDhN
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VhTvDTh, CDᰠicaRCRTᠠRTഛsgᠠХRLIo
ht᜘TRиTo―iᬗSe“EURw”haRиgDihw
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ‖CcThth, \f.‛. LR \bo጑Cᄑ
了VeEaRsomRȬ egDଠKoGᬠᄠhCcTଠizghsh
mRDᄗecҐS, ᄈഛsg ХᄗIo ࠑᴘs Tc hGcD
hᴘkoDbgv‚避c N.
MTDeRDRiTᰠVhTvDThⰠCDᰠ/DhఠRTഛsᔠko
iRᔑఠᄠh\f \raRDcabThgDᄠLoEhD造eCcThth,
D⺆c⸠hఠctᰠ«osoഛwRCcᔝhtᰠiᰎLogDo».
yᠠgacKe4鴛РtLo(RscⰠghgDoiacTThРVᰠ
KoTTzw hVeavᜈhth‗hggRнshth‗cgeLᔘ
«2DᰠcgDଠsDᰠᨠLhgᔑNᔝhȠToesc»
,₁hLh
IᰠiRKTᠠDcTഛTmRဠᴠᔈRGcTR耠RTഛsgᠠ
ХᄗIo‖)eCc࢐S― cࠋ缑w₫oᴘKcБCc
ᔝRРiᰎLogDhw»ⰠshDhLzȠkഛᔋ“VLcഛav
cDgဠVᰠKoDᬠVcLihȠVeEaRsomRᄠᨠWeb of
Scienc斆9蒆⠗Rg. 23).
MTഛsᔠХRLIᠠwhGcఠEzDଠhVLcഛacT
Kaဠa4EhtᰠToEhLᠠgDoDcȠ騠KaဠhDഛabTh
tᰠeCcThth, \raဠhLtoTRkomRᄬ‍aဠGeLToao
ᄠD. \r⸠nᰠigc脠/DR脠gaeCov脠TᬠeCRDziocDgv
isaoഠᨠhE鴛ᬠmRDRLhioTRᬠgowz脠izghsh
mRDᄗecҐS VeE጑ᴘmᄂ, D. c. cg጑ i SᄗI-
vKLᰠᘠLokTz脠oiDhLhᨠ᪁hKvఠhKRToshihc
http://www.expertcorps.ru/science/whoiswho/.
2ᬋጒI 4
ለഅvಠ₋Љ褊‑̅ࢠ茠t઀ࢠ茠ಏցЊ܆ࠏఋ֭
ᜉBKVBbTOI‏UlODbE
dTKԐD₋wtyO \bOwUMlBB₁wbwtRԁMȏ‑CԈMȏ
Biology & Biochemistry
114
Neuroscience
93
Plant & Animal Science
Physics
63
Geoscience
56
Mathematics
Computer Science
ꀑᔮ′㌮₋᠚ᄕᄄᰕఋ‑ࠍᬝgᠠ鄑᝿ᠠ
hఠ꬘s᠍ᬄᄃcᔝᰉᰠ᨜ท᠕Dᢻ‖иࠜth
sh጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ, \fh‑S―eЄoLThc
mRDᄗhioࠑc \bc“ᴘk通ocD ᄝoshth‚጑
vTRဠTᠠghEgDicTTᰠRTഛsᔠХRLIo⸠芆ge
UcgDicࠈ逄 \bcKhgDoDᴘw‑TKcsgoₑᄗIo
hDThgv\f \fosGᬠDhⰠCDᰠh\b \bᬠeCRDziocఠsh
጑CcgDih―hoiDhLhi‚ eE጑ᴘmRvS (CDh
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LhgDhРshaRCcgDiᠠghoiDhLhᨠᄠVhviacTR
cРgDoDcȬ”haRCcgDiᰠoiDhLhᨠᨠshDhLzS
RkЛLရDgv D逕vCowR), ࠛ whGcD eEzioDb
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ࠑc‘sDᄚThN \boeCThN \rcvDcጋThgDR ᄝos
ࠛ‚aRရD \bo‑kЛࠛTᄛ‖Gc \rhgDRtTeDhth
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azРCRgahР(ᔈR輘cDgဠDhCThgDଠRkwcLc
TRv), \bᬠeCRDzioc\f \fRĠജsewcTDoⰠhghEcT
ThgDR₍RDᄗhioࠑv‚‗ok጑C࢐S \boeC࢐S
hEaogDv脠ᄠD. \r.
Bav shЁcTgomᄑ‖ᴘkoࠈzS \bcKhgDoDshi
s \b᠕DhvUᬄe‚LᬄᬈR‗ok᜘EhDoTh‖Gc
hshaᰠghDTᄠLokaRCTz脠ioLRomRȠRTKcsgᠠ
ХRLIo⸠dLRicഛРkഛᔋ‌habsᰠTcshDhLzᬠ
Rk \boREhጛc ᠕Dh‑gVhabkeᬄ邁.
dcLizᬠioLRomRᄠEzaᄠVLcKahGcT造go
wRРХRLIcРᨠRgShKThȠgDoDbc⸠萠贛ab耠
eCcDᠠ«izELhgh᪻ⰠshDhLzᬠKo4ఠVeEaRso
mᄑ g Ehጋ缑w”h጑CcgDihw mRDᄗhioࠑN,
o \fosGc eE጑ᴘmᄑ― cࠋ缑w Rgahw
mRDRLhioTRȬ‑РEzጠVLcKahGc\b
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viav4URNgv hDTh缛Tᄛw shaRиgDio igcS
mRDᄗhioࠑN‘iDhLo (
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a*rmr
dLcKahGcTTzȠᨠDhȠGᬠgDoDbᬠ
-RTഛsᔠ
KocఠiᰎwhGThgDଠeCcgDଠKaRDcabThgDଠso
LbcL造eCcThtᰠᄠVLcKgDoiavcఠghEhȠCogD
ThᬠhఠഛacTRဠRTഛsgᠠХRLIᠠTᠠshaRCc
gDiᰠac\f \boeCThȠsoLbcL逬 oVLRwcLⰠh\f
ToCoao eE጑ᴘmᄂ.ₗDh“ᴘk通ocDgv hacc
RaᄠwcTcᬠicLTᰠVLᄠegahiRᄠജgDoDhCTᰠ
LoᨈhwcᜈhN \boeCࠜN”oᜋcថ―h―ఘERab
࢐w”h጑CcgDihw eE጑ᴘmᄂ LᄄcLTh
hKᄈoshihth”oCcgDio.
ycജh贛TsᘠmRDRLhioTRȠᨠ
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aotocDgဠegDLoTRDଠVeDcРiicഛTRဠshwER
129
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VLcകDoiav4鴛tᰠghEhȠtchwcDLRCcᔝhᬠ
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C᠕Dh₍RDRLeᬄ邁‗᠆hD‑“EcgěCRi᠛D
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gDiᠠaeCIR脠LoEhఠᄠTcEhabIhtᰠshaRCc
gDio‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁‗᠆hD.
BaဠeCcDᠠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDcȬ‚ShKvUR脠
i₁R᝿-vKLh, LcKaoघcDgv‌osGc \rhVhaTR
DcabTᰠLoggCRDzioDଠᔗcKTcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐ
ahᴠTᠠgDoDbᄬ‚ShKvURᬠᨠSRLI-vKLhⰠRaᄠ
hVLcഛavDଠwcKRoTᘠCRgaᠠmRDRLhioTR
)gDoDcȬ‚ShKvUR脠ᨠSRLI-vKLᰠVeEaRsomR
oiDhLᠮ
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VLRkioT‖wcࠋ缑Db‚጑vࠑc \bo
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CRgaᠠghoiDhLhᨠVeEaRsomR
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gDoDRgDRscⰠge鴛gDicTTᰠhDaRCocDgဠᨠLok
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9e鴛gDiec\f \fosGᬠhCcTଠRTDcLcᔈoဠicL
ᔑဠRcLoLSRCcᔝhtᰠRTഛsgᠠХRLIoⰠshDh-
L适‑gVhጋkecDgv \rav“mcࠝR eE጑ᴘmR
hTࠜN LhKesDRᨈhgDR \bo‗oจzS‖Lhᨈႁ,
D⺆c. \raဠh贛TsᄠghihseVThgDᄠRggacജioDc
acȬ“LtoTRkomRᄬ―DLoT逬₏eLToaᠠᄠD⺆K.
鬘s,
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VeDcw eVhLvKhCᄚoࠑv Vh eE通oࠑ4 ᄈ
ഛsghᨠХRLIᠠeCcTz脠hKThȠhLtoTRkomRᄬ
ᄠVᰠDhwᘠGᬠVLRTmRVᘠhVLcഛavcDgဠVhso
koDcaଠKaဠhLtoTRkomRᄬ‌⸠c.
-RTഛsᔠVh
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RTഛsᔠ
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Tcᬠ
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hLtoTRkomRᄠgDLoT造ᆆD⺆K.
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dhgshabse ThthCᄕጛTT逛‑ggጛKhio
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᜘kaRCT邁 ToeshЛDLRиgsᆁ VhsokoDcጛN
hD”hTᴗcDࠜN \boeCࠜN“EaogDR, \bchESh
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VLhicgDR \tLoࠑme cGKe‗ok጑C࢐Б \bo
eC࢐Б“EaogDvБ.₉oVLᄄcL,”os“D጑CRDb
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ЭDᠠVLhEacwᠠDcᔈcNIRРhELokhРᔚvkoTo
ᔠgᰎKoTRcРLeELRsoDhLhᨬ‚ VcLie耠hCcLcKb
LeEᜑsoDhLᰚ \boeCࠜ-Dc脈RCcgshN‑T(hᜄo
mRR⸠ᤠfhgᔑᄠ/DᠠVLhEacwᠠigDoaᠠജihabTh
hgDLh LR‗og缑LcࠑR‑kKoࠑv‗c(cLoDᄚ
Tz脠GeLToahi. 
950ⵥ)tt⸠᪆RT(hLwoDRsc
LeELᄝoDhLoБ―Do጑ \bok通oDb cLcCࠑ Le
ELRᴠLc(cLoDRiTz脠GeLToahᨠ(fЖ⤠ᄠKLe
tRS cᜑhKRCcgᴑS‑T(hᜄomᄜTTzS‑k
KoࠑN.’ \roࠈhw―aeCoc‗eELᄝo‚送hገvcD
Ehጛc―ěmRoabTe4₭eTsmR4,‚逕DeV᠐”os
ghഛL輘DcabTzȠ(LotwcTఠf鈠RaᄠVcLRh
KRCcᔝhtᰠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝhtᰠesokoDcav,
ᆆghgDhRఠRภRTഛsgᠠᆆkothahisᠠLokKcao,
ᢆDosGᬠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠koVRgcȠ(ᔠoTTh
DomRvБ‑጑‗c(cLoDoБ) \fcS LhRkicKcࠑN
VcCoDᄬ shDhLzᬠVᰠᔚhcwᘠghഛL輘TR耠hDTh
gvDgဠᶆKoTThȠLeELRsc. dhKLhETᰠRgDhLRv
ᰎKoTRဠLeELRsoDhLo, DchLRဠᄠVLosDRCc
ᔝRᬠVLRwcTcTRဠhVRgoT造ᨠsTRtᬠ«feELR
ᴘDhL”os‑TgDLewcTD ᄈ(hLwomRhࠈhN To
iRtomRR묠[%RavLciᔝRȠᆆKL., 2008].
rᔈhiToဠkoKoCᠠLeELRsoDhLhᨠghgDhR\f
᪆eജiacDihLcTRᄠVhDLcEThgDvРKie脠Lok
࢐S ikoᄄhgivkoࠈzS‑T(hLwomRhࠈzS
VhDhshiₚ hDhᴘ \boeC࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑)Vh
DhsᠠRT(hLwomRhTTz脠koVLhghi⸠ЭDᄠKiᠠ
VhDhᴘ‗okiᄚo而gv oLoaacጋTh, \bh \bc
gRࢁLhTTh, LRиw‑kЛࠛTᄛ―DLesDeLz
VhDhsᠠkoVLhghᨠVhCDᄠigctKᠠhVcLc輘c\f
RคcTcTRc―DLesDeថ \rhsewcTఘabࠜth h
Dhso.’“gࠜᨈhw‑gVhabke4Dgv‗okaRCࠜth
iRKᠠᔑgDcwoDRCcᔝRᬠsoDoahtRⰠVhgDLhcT
࢐c–REh h‑cLoLSRCcgshwe Lᄈmᄁe,–R
EᰠVᰠ(ogcDThwᘠDRVe.
ngᬠhᔈhiTzᬠEREaRhDcCTzᬠsaogᔑ(R
somRᄠgDLhvDgဠTᠠhᔈhiᬠRcLoLSRCcᔝhtᰠ
«KLᬚo‎ToTRN»―‚zKcጛTᄛw―ěmRoabT邁
LokഛahᨠᄠVhKLokഛahᨠKaဠᔑgDcwoDRko
mRᄠhghEz脠iRജᨠsTRt. ЭDh\f VLRTmRĠVLR
ЛTရDgv‛Uc―‘TDRCT邁‚Lᬄᬈ.’₄LcK
TRᬠicsᠠsaogᔑ(RsomRဠhᔈhizioaoᔋ ᠠ
ᔑgDcwᬠ«gcwᄠᔚhEhKTz脠RᔝeggD᪻‑―h
gDhvaᠠRภKie脠shwVacsghᨠToesⰠRkeCoiIRS
gဠ᪆DhtKoITcȠIshaᬺ₫DLRiRewo묠(tLow
woDᄝo, \rRoacsDᄝo‑‗RDhLᄝo)‑₫sioKLR
iRewo» (oLR(wcDᄝo, \tchwcDLRာ ek逝o
ᆆogDLhThwRv). ‚ shTmᘠ
i. ᨠeTRicLᔑDcD
ᔝR脠EREaRhDcso脠ToCoaᄠVLRwcTvDଠtLeV
VRLhisᘠsTR\t ᨠghhDicDgDiRᄠᔠge鴛gDihioi
缑Б₭oseጋDcDoБₚ₭Rahgh(gsᄄ, cKR
mRTᔝRЬ₀LRKRCcᔝRРᄠEhthgahiᔝRЬ Dᰠ
gఘጜ \boCoጜw ihจRᴈhicTRv ఘs Toຐioc
wz脠(oseabDcDᔝR脠ᔑgDcРsaogᔑ(RsomRR.
9LcKR‗ok᜘EoDzi᠛w邁 hkKࠛc―ጛഖcD
eVhwvTeDଠhKTᘠRภaeCIR脠saogᔑ(RsomRȠ
VcLihȠVhahiRT造
‚⸠騠saogᔑ(RsomR耠
2⺆Э⺆./LoⰠᨠshDhLhȠEzaᠠVLcKVLRTvDᠠhK
TᠠRภVcLiz脠VhVzDhᴠLoᔁhahGRDଠToesᄠ
᪆VhgacജioDcabThgDᄬ“DLo輘4鴛ȠRgDh
LR耠LokiRDRဠwRLo: \boesᄠᰠTchLtoTRCc
ᔝhȠVLRLhഛ, \boesᄠhؠhLtoTRCcᔝhȠVLR
Lhഛ, \boesᄠᰠCcahicsᬠᄠhE鴛gDic.
n 1876 \t.‘wcLᄝoTgsᄄ RE጑hDcC࢐w
ഛvDcacРP⸠ԋ4ᄠEzaᠠVLcKahGcTᠠ«ഛgv-
DRCToဠsaogᔑ(RsomRv»ⰠshDhLoဠgᰎKoaᠠ
Eokᄕ \rav \roabࠛN缛N‗ok᜘EhDsR‗okaRC
Tz脠ᔑgDcРoiDhwoDRkomRᄠVLᄠsaogᔑ(R
somRᄠᄠVhRᔝᬠTchEShKRwhȠRT(hLwomRR.
r\b \fchLcDRCcᔝᄠhEhᔈhioጠᄠVLosDRCcᔝᄠ
iTcKLRጠgDoTKoᜌRkomR耠DRVhiz脠ഛacTRȠ
(aRDcLoDeLToဠ(hLwoⰠiRഠRkKoTRဠᄠD⸠V.)
᪆LokaRCTz脠Lokഛao脠gScw造ᄠCogDRCTᰠ
aRTtiᄕDRиgsᆁ,₌DTRиgsᆁ‑ \tcht᜘(Rи
ᔝR脠ഛacTRȬ‑ᔁhabkhioᨠVLRcР(oseab
DoDRiThth Lᬚ᜘UᬈRv‚ hgDhvTT逛 hK
LokഛacTRဠhshTCoTRȠRTKcsghᨠLokഛahᨠ
«ФRahahtRv묠ᄠ«MgDhLRv»⸠ᦆ
905–190㞆tt.
TᠠEokᬠRഛȠԋ4ᄠEzaᠠgᰎKoTᠠ«OTRicL
goabToဠഛgvDRCToဠsaogᔑ(RsomRv묠(OB2).
ЭDh LRЛL”a᠕gRиgshN‑ᬗoLSRиgshN
saogᔑ(RsomRᄬ“EaoKo4鴛ȠgacKe4URwᄠ
脘LosDcL࢐Б cLDoБ:
охптэюншьоыюуь*
нчшючнющняюя
ioDc‚gcS“D᜘gጛN‎ToTRv;
ыдхчтючня
ууьточнуня
оетчюнчхя*
hบhav肝ov \bchtLoTRCcTࠜ \rcaRDb VhK
saogᖐ cภToLeIcTRဠhᔈhiThȠgDLesDe
Lz”aoggR(ᄝomᄑ;
зеуонэыеоня
эхнтохныюуь
шнды
KoLဠRᔁhabkhioTR耠DhabsᰠmR(Lhiz脠ഛ
gvDRCTz脠RTഛsghᨬ‚gcРVhTvDTz脠ᆆactsᰠ
koVhБTocҐS;
нипхуня
юутнн
ьэтетшхутштц
ын
ERTomᄜTࠜth hgDLhcTRv‑TKcsghi,“Ec
ᔁcCRio4UR脠hDThᔑDcabTe耠tREshgDଠVLᄠ
hDLoGcTRᄠജgDoDhCTᰠeksR脠ᄠgahGTz脠
VhTvDRN;
юуыцчхпыц
тучы
эднохиыпнооыц
cGKeToLhK࢐N c脘ࠑkw hKKcLGoࠑv
saogᔑ(RsomRᄠTᠠeLhiTᬠThiz脠ജgDRGc
ࠑN \boesR.
131
2ᬋጒI 5
鈉ਂąࠋ₆਌ԋࠏ괠ဇ਌ఄ蘄vઁЄ₏༠ąഄ脄ࠅ
鈕nao“
htNOTꀠbBlO
Ltྜྷlԁf Bഄ脄Tf
u.MK  B̅TЅ
1⸠rLtoT造ᨠmcahw
1.—EUᄛ LhEጛwz
1.‒RD᠈Rc
2.—Lto࢐ ᆝcioLcࠑv
2.3.‒RUcihK
2.4.ₒcaeKhs
2.5.₂ᅿcCࠑs
2.‟ᰗ(ᰓhtRv
2.ₗDRᰓhtRv
3⸠2LhicThg࠘ဠgRgDcИ
3.ₙRฑhጜtRv
3⸠BᄘtThgDRso
4.—Lto࢐ \rz脘ࠑv
4.5.ₜctsᄛ
4.₃hackTR
4.2.‏T(csmRhࠈzc
4.2.1.ₛeEcLseጛk
4.ₜᬃcTᄛ
ФogcDToဠsaogᔑ(RsomRဠEzaᠠVLcK
ጜGcTo‑TKRнᴑw REaᄜDcshicKhw
Ш⺆f⺆foTtoToDoThРᨠ1933 \t⸠9ᰎKoTRᬠ(o
gcDTz脠saogᔑ(RsomRȠᨠVcLie耠hCcLcKଠ
EzaᰠᔚvkoTᰠᔠVhDLcEThgDb耠CRDoDcacȠ
hDzᔝRioDଠജsewcTఠVᰠᔁcmRoabThȠDcwᬠ
«TᬠDhabsᰠDhtKoⰠshtKᠠRwcTTᰠhTᠠviav
cDgဠTcVhᔗcകDicTTzРhEъcsDhРVhRg
so, \bᰠDosGᬠDhtKoⰠshtKᠠVhRᔝ‚cഛDgဠVᰠ
a4EhwᘠDcLwRTᘠRaᄠtLeVVᬠDcLwRThᨬ‚Sh
KvUR脠᪆gahGThᬠVhTvDRc⸠BaဠeKhiacDih
LcTRဠ/DR脠DLcEhioTRȠTchEShKRwhⰠCDhE造
TᬠDhabsᰠVhTvDRဠwhtaᄠ᪁hKRDଠ᪆TchtLo
TRCcTThᬠshaRCcgDiᰠghCcDoTRȬ ᰠDosGc,
CDhE造ᨠgDLesDeLᬠᔑgDcw造EzaᄠhDLoGc
T造LhജizᬠᔚvkᄠVhTvDRȠᄠᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠ
LokഛaowR묠[foTtoToDo\b, 1970]. ᦆsoCcgDiᬠ
VᜑwcLo hGࠜ ᜑicgDR hgDLhcTTzc h
ᔑgDcwᬠШ⺆f⺆foTtoToDoTᠠ(ogcD造ᆆ(hseᖐ
RภhEaogDᄠwcKRmRT造(DoEa. 5).
dᰠ/Dhwᘠ(LotwcTDᘠ(ogcDThȠsaogᔑ
(RsomRᄠRTഛsᔠജsewcTDᠠVᰠKRotThgDR
sc‑T(ᬝmRhTT邁‎᠆hጛioTRN”R缛C
TRsᢆ阠25:42:3ⰠVᰠacCcTR耠DeEcLseackᠠ
actsR脠蚖‴5:421:4.
dLcKwcDTzᬠLeELRsoDhL造LoᔁLcഛav4\f
ജsewcTD造VᰠVLcKwcDoРRaᄠVhTvDRvЬ ᬠ
ghhDThgv‑S―”osᄄR-጑Eh“EaogDvБ‎To
ࠑv.‒LcKwcD࢐N‑”aoggR(ᄝomRhࠈ适
VᜑTmRVz“ᜉoTRkomRR \rᰝewcTDhi,‌oᴑw
hELokhwⰠജVhaTv4\f \rLe\t \rLetᠠᄠhEact
Co4ఠVhRᔝᄠജsewcTDhᨠVᰠLokTzРDRVoР
koVLhᔜᨮ
yoREhacᬠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTTzȠᨠfhgᔑᄠ
%hgeKoLgDicࠈ适‗eELᄝoDhL \boeCTh-DcSࠑ
CcᔝhȠRT(hLwomRᄠ(%fyТM⤠VLcകDoiavc\f
ghEhN―hiЛUᬈᄛ‑ᬗoLSRиgshth‑₭᠕cD
Thtᰠsaogᔑ(RsoDhLhi⸠dcLizᬠKiᠠeLhi
Tဠ%fyТ༠VLcKgDoiav4ఠghEhȠDRVRCTe耠
ᄛ᜘LSRиgse4”a᠕gR(RsomR4, \boVLRЛL:
— 02.00.00ₙRahgh(Rv
騠02.01.0〠rEURᬠihVLhᖐ₭Rahgh(RR
— 02.11.00—EUᄛ LhEጛwz―hiLᬄᬈThN
(Rahgh(RᄠᄠD. \r.
yᠠDLcDbcРeLhiTᬠsaogᔑ(RsomRᄠVhvi
av4DgဠCcᜌ造(ogcDThȠsaogᔑ(RsomRR: \bo
VLRwcLⰠiᰠigc脠LeELRso脠sh\r DRVᠠ**.01.45
ᰎToCocఠ«dLcVhKoioTRc»,  **.01.7㤠騠«舘
KLz묠VᰠghhDicDgDie4鴛ȠhEaogDR.
2aogᔑ(RsomRဠജsewcTDhᨠVᰠ%fyТ༠
hge鴛gDiavcDgvⰠᨠCogDThgDᄬ‚₠hgᔑNᔝhР
ᄈKcsgc \boeCThth₍RDᄗhioࠑv.
lUc“Kᄈ‗eELᄝoDhL, hgDLhcࠈ适 h‑c
LoLSRCcgshwe Lᄈmᄁe, ogDh‑gVhጋkecҐN
KaဠoToaRkᠠToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄬ)騠/Dᰠ
ThЛTsaoDe᜘―ěmRoabThgDᬂ \boeCT邁‗o
EhDTRshi.’“gࠜic₌DhN hwcTsaoDeថ–c
GR\f \rRᖍRVaRToLToဠsaogᔑ(RsomRဠToeᴠ
VᰠR脠VLcKwcDThwᘠghഛL輘TR4, ᄠRwcTTᰠ
/Dᠠsaogᔑ(RsomRဠVLcകDoiacTᠠᨠRcLoL
SRCcᔝhРiRഛ⸠dLᄠ/DhРiRഠVLRgeGKoc
whȠgDcVcTᄬ‐iav4URNgဠiDhLhȠᔑgDcwhȠ
saogᔑ(RsomRᄠᨠKoTThȠThwcTsaoDeLc, \bᬠ
RwccఠᔚhctᰠshജihtᰠhEᰎToCcTRvⰠᠠSo
LosDcLRkecDgဠDhabsᰠgahicᔈh. Тos, ToVLR
ЛL,‚“Ea᠕DR₫woDᬄoDRиgsᆁ \boes»‑g
gacKᰚoTRc₁oLosDcᜑkecDgv ᜑhᜑDcDhw
DhCTz脠woDcwoDRCcᔝR脠wcDhജi⸠ᤠ«DcS
TRCcᔝR脠ToesoS묠ᔁcmR(Rsᠠkosa4CocDgဠ
ᨠVLosDRCcᔝhРVLRahGcTRᄠᄠiTeKLcTRᄠ
VhaeCcTTz脠LckeabDoDhᨠᨠSᰎvNgDicTTe耠
VLosDRse⸠ᤠhEaogDᄠ«VcKothtRCcᔝR脠Toes묠
ᔁcmR(Rsᠠkosa4CocDgဠ᪆taoiThȠkoKo
Cᮆ騠ᨠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTRᄠkToTRȠᨠghmRoab
ThȠᔗcKc.
2aogᔑ(RsomRဠToeᴠᨠThwcTsaoDeLc
gěmRoabThgDᬂ \boeCT邁‗᠆hDTRshi \rieS-
RaR \fLcSeLhiࠛi᠐, LRиw \fLcSeLhiࠛi᠐
ᔑgDcwᠠcgDଠTᬠiᰠigc脠ᔁcmRoabThgDvS.
ᦆഛNgDie4鴛ȠᨠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠThwcT
saoDeLᬠcgDଠc鴛‑“DgeDgDihioiIoဠLoTcc
ToഖLhiࠛi᠐”a᠕gR(RsomRv,‚zKcav4
UoဠtLeVV造ᔁcmRoabThgDcȠ騠«%ewoTR
DoLTzᬠToesR»Ⱐ«MᔝeggDihicKcTRᬠᄠseab
DeLhጜtRv»,₫9hmRoabࠜ-谝hࠜwRCcgᴑc
ᆆhE鴛gDicTTzᬠToesR».
dLᄄcLTov―Scwo”aoggR(ᄝomᄑ Lᄚc
ഛTᠠᨠDoEa. 6⸠dhKLhETᰠജ‌LcDbctᰠeLhiTဠ
i \foE጑mc LᄚcKc࢐ \fhጋsh―VcmRoጋThgDR
i“EጘgDR oDcИDRsR.
yhwcTsaoDeLo’Ẃ cLck₅fy鬏―hVLvघ
cDgဠᔠwcGKeToLhKThȠsaogᔑ(RsomRcȠkTo
TRဠOB2ⰠhKTosᰠegDoThiRDଠVhaThᬠghhDicD
gDiRc“ᴘk通ocDgv‚cg଄o‎oDLeKࠑDcጋTh.
༎ \boREhጛc ᠕Dh‖VhDLcEaရw邁 cGഖ
ToLhK࢐S”aoggR(ᄝomᄂ \bchEShKᄄh‖Vh
wvTeDଠsaogᔑ(RsomR耠ToeCTz脠hEaogDcȠ
rᜉoTRkomRR₌shࠜwRCcgshth―hDLeKTRCc
gDio‑‗okiRDRv,”hDh᜘v‚ hgጛKࠛc‚Lᬄv
RᔁhabkecDgဠigᬠCo鴛‍aဠᔗoiTRDcabThtᰠ
oToaRkᠠLokiRDRဠToesᄠᨠLokTz脠gDLoTo脠
(Frascati Fields of Science)⸠ᤠsoCcgDiᬠicLS
ࠛth‖LhiTv”a᠕gR(RsomRR‚ ᬂ‚zKcጛTh
缛gDb“gThiT邁“Ea᠕Dᬂ:
1.
gDcgDicTTzᬠToesᄠ(Natural sciences).
cSTRsᠠᄠDcSThahtRဠ(Engineering and
technology).
3.
cKRmRTᔝRᬠToesᄠ(Medical sciences).
cabᔝhSᰎvNgDicTTzᬠToesᄠ(ugr椕ultu-
rol sciences).
E鴛gDicTTzᬠToesᄠ(Social sciences).
6.
eИTRDoLTzc‎࠘TRv (Humanities).
ᤠVhgacKTcȠicLᔑᄠ/DhtᰠLeELRsoDh
LoⰠeDicLGഛTThȠᨠ200㚆t., \bᠠiDhLhw
eLhiTᬠesokoTTzᬠhEaogDᄠഛavDgဠc鴛
Tᠠ42 eLhiTv, shDhLzc, ᨠᔚh耠hCcLcKb,
KcఘaRฑLhioTz‛Uc habIc.—gࠜᨈhN
VLᄈmᄁ \roࠈhth‗eELᄝoDhLo―hgDh
Rఠ᪆VhVzDsᬠgKcaoDଠsaogᔑ(RsomR4,
i)wosgᄄoጋThN―DcVcࠑ―hiwcgDᄄe4
g)ᄄc4UᄄRgv cGKeToLhK࢐Б R To
mRhToጋ࢐Б―RgDcwoБ”aoggR(ᄝo
mRR‎ToTRN \rav oLoTDRR―hVhgఘᨑМ
gDR LR―᜘iࠛTRR \roTT邁,”᠕o4Uᆁgv
Research &†Development.
9hVhgDoiᄄhgDb‗ok጑C࢐S‗eELᄝoDh
LhᨠviavcDgဠhKThȠRภhᔈhiTz脠VLhEacw
VLR LhicKᬈRR \boeshЛDLRиgsᆁ‑ggጛ
ജioTRȬ hᔝhabsᘠkoDLeKTvcఠᔗoiTcTRc
KoTT邁, haeиTT邁‑k‗okT邁‑gDhCTR
shi⸠舘GKoဠRภge鴛gDie4UR脠EoภKoTTzS
VhabkecDgဠᔚhRРLeELRsoDhLhw,  \bcLcK
sᰠRᔁhabkecఠᄠTcᔝhabsᰠLeELRsoDhLhi
Kav‗okT邁₍cጛN.
Bav LRЛ᜘‗᠕gwhDLRw‑gVhabkeᬄ逛
KaဠLokTz脠贛acȠsaogᔑ(RsoDhL造LokaRC
Tz脠LcgeLghᨬ‗okwc鴛TTz脠TᠠVaoD(hLwᬠ
Web of Science.
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MOLECULAR BIOLOGY & GENETICS
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NEUROSCIENCE & BEHAVIOR
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137
Web of Science Categories
records
% of 7021
Research Areas
records
% of 7021
ANTHROPOLOGY
1381
19.670
ANTHROPOLOGY
1381
19.670
BIOCHEMISTRY
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1578
22.475
BIOCHEMISTRY
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1578
22.475
BIODIVERSITY
CONSERVATION
0.555
BIODIVERSITY
CONSERVATION
0.555
BIOLOGY
930
13.246
LIFE SCIENCES
BIOMEDICINE
OTHER TOPICS
930
13.246
CELL BIOLOGY
0.470
CELL BIOLOGY
0.470
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
165
2.350
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
165
2.350
ENTOMOLOGY
0.869
ENTOMOLOGY
0.869
ECOLOGY
3050
43.441
ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES ECOLOGY
3050
43.441
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
7021
100.000
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
7021
100.000
GENETICS HEREDITY
2147
30.580
GENETICS HEREDITY
2147
30.580
MATHEMATICAL
COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
0.570
MATHEMATICAL
COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
0.570
MEDICINE RESEARCH
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0.299
RESEARCH E
ERIMENTAL
MEDICINE
0.299
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0.100
SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY
OTHER TOPICS
0.100
NEUROSCIENCES
0.328
NEUROSCIENCES
NEUROLOGY
0.328
PALEONTOLOGY
0.983
PALEONTOLOGY
0.983
PHYSIOLOGY
0.940
PHYSIOLOGY
0.940
PLANT SCIENCES
472
6.723
PLANT SCIENCES
472
6.723
ZOOLOGY
195
2.777
ZOOLOGY
195
2.777
2ᬋጒI 7
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records
% of 55671
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records
% of 55671
ACOUSTICS
0.052
ACOUSTICS
0.052
AGRICULTURE
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80
0.144
AGRICULTURE
80
0.144
ASTRONOMY
ASTROPHYSICS
0.120
ASTRONOMY
ASTROPHYSICS
0.120
AUTOMATION
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979
1.759
AUTOMATION
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979
1.759
BIOCHEMICAL
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1017
1.827
BIOCHEMISTRY
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
1077
1.935
BIOCHEMISTRY
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
0.108
BIOLOGY
269
0.483
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BIOMEDICINE
OTHER TOPICS
269
0.483
BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLIED
MICROBIOLOGY
842
1.512
BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLIED
MICROBIOLOGY
842
1.512
BUSINESS FINANCE
241
0.433
BUSINESS ECONOMICS
1134
2.037
ECONOMICS
1051
1.888
CHEMISTRY ANALYTICAL
225
0.404
CHEMISTRY
957
1.719
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296
0.532
CHEMISTRY PHYSICAL
436
0.783
COMPUTER SCIENCE
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
490
0.880
COMPUTER SCIENCE
5465
9.817
COMPUTER SCIENCE
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
0.111
COMPUTER SCIENCE
INTERDISCIPLINARY
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2908
5.224
COMPUTER SCIENCE
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
1231
2.211
COMPUTER SCIENCE
THEORY METHODS
1306
2.346
DEMOGRAPHY
0.029
DEMOGRAPHY
0.029
2ᬋጒI 8
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Web of Science Categories
records
% of 55671
Research Areas
records
% of 55671
ENERGY FUELS
0.090
ENERGY FUELS
0.090
ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL
0.137
ENGINEERING
3684
6.617
ENGINEERING CHEMICAL
0.090
ENGINEERING CIVIL
0.151
ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL
ELECTRONIC
552
0.992
ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL
0.151
ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL
141
0.253
ENGINEERING
MECHANICAL
0.119
ENGINEERING
MULTIDISCIPLINARY
2912
5.231
ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES
204
0.366
ENVIRONMENTAL
SCIENCES ECOLOGY
204
0.366
GEOSCIENCES
MULTIDISCIPLINARY
0.092
GEOLOGY
0.092
HEALTH CARE
SCIENCES SERVICES
0.079
HEALTH CARE
SCIENCES SERVICES
0.079
HISTORY PHILOSOPHY
OF SCIENCE
0.137
HISTORY PHILOSOPHY
OF SCIENCE
0.137
IMAGING SCIENCE
PHOTOGRAPHIC
TECHNOLOGY
63
0.113
IMAGING SCIENCE
PHOTOGRAPHIC
TECHNOLOGY
63
0.113
INSTRUMENTS
INSTRUMENTATION
225
0.404
INSTRUMENTS
INSTRUMENTATION
225
0.404
LOGIC
601
1.080
MANAGEMENT
0.124
MATERIALS SCIENCE
MULTIDISCIPLINARY
134
0.241
MATERIALS SCIENCE134
0.241
MATHEMATICAL
COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
1883
3.382
MATHEMATICAL
COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
1883
3.382
MATHEMATICS
24555
44.107
MATHEMATICS
55671
100.000
MATHEMATICS APPLIED
24900
44.727
Web of Science Categories
records
% of 55671
Research Areas
records
% of 55671
MATHEMATICS
INTERDISCIPLINARY
APPLICATIONS
8994
16.156
MECHANICS
2774
4.983
MECHANICS
2774
4.983
MEDICAL INFORMATICS
402
0.722
MEDICAL INFORMATICS
402
0.722
MEDICINE RESEARCH
ERIMENTAL
358
0.643
RESEARCH E
ERIMENTAL
MEDICINE
358
0.643
MULTIDISCIPLINARY
SCIENCES
857
1.539
SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY
OTHER TOPICS
14582.619
MUSIC
22
0.040
MUSIC
22
0.040
OPERATIONS RESEARCH
MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
1391
2.499
OPERATIONS RESEARCH
MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
1391
2.499
PHARMACOLOGY
PHARMACY
158
0.284
PHARMACOLOGY
PHARMACY
158
0.284
PHILOSOPHY
130
0.234
PHILOSOPHY
130
0.234
PHYSICS APPLIED
0.117
PHYSICS
3543
6.364
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0.783
PHYSICS FLUIDS PLASMAS
831
1.493
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432
0.776
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55
0.099
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227
0.408
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0.111
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192
0.345
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560
1.006
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560
1.006
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0.022
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0.022
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126
0.226
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126
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records
% of 55671
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% of 55671
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MATHEMATICAL METHODS
1634
2.935
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IN SOCIAL SCIENCES
1634
2.935
SOCIOLOGY
0.020
SOCIOLOGY
0.020
STATISTICS PROBABILITY
9369
16.829
THERMODYNAMICS
144
0.259
THERMODYNAMICS
144
0.259
WATER RESOURCES
0.151
WATER RESOURCES
0.151
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2ᬋጒI 9
\n\b\b  € Essential Science Indicators
Research Areas
Rank in
Research Area
Journals
Web of Science
Documents
Cites
Cites/Paper
MULTIDISCIPLINARY
PLOS ONE
5888
39861
6,769871
MICROBIOLOGY
PLOS ONE
4909
33427
6,80933
IMMUNOLOGY
PLOS ONE
706
46299
65,57932
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
& GENETICS
PLOS ONE
12899
95157
7,377083
NEUROSCIENCE
& BEHAVIOR
PLOS ONE
9942
60119
6,046972
PLANT & ANIMAL SCIENCE
PLOS ONE
7123
3446
0,483785
CLINICAL MEDICINE
PLOS ONE
24375
118063
4,84361
BIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
PLOS ONE
9825
5328
0,54229
ENVIRONMENT/ECOLOGY
PLOS ONE
3621
16147
4,459265
SOCIAL SCIENCES,
GENERAL
PLOS ONE
18178235
4,532196
PSYCHIATRY/
PSYCHOLOGY
110
PLOS ONE
2543
8591
3,378293
PHARMACOLOGY
& TO
COLOGY
152
PLOS ONE
951
4431
4,659306
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
192
PLOS ONE
477
1256
2,633124
GEOSCIENCES
200
PLOS ONE
541
2388
4,414048
COMPUTER SCIENCE
214
PLOS ONE
372
976
2,623656
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shࠝLcDTh okc \roࠈzS haeCc࢐ \roࠈzc.
2LhЛ₌Dhth, ᬗcK‗᠕иDhw hsokoDcጛN
V Web of Science Core Collection \bchESh
KRwᰠDosGᬠVLhicLRDbⰠജgDoDhCTᠠaᄠtae
ERTᠠoLSRiᠠEok造KoTTz脠Web of Science
Core CollectionⰠkoiRgvUoဠhఠegahiRN
VhKVRᔝᄠhLtoTRkomRR, \raဠhSioDᠠigcS
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ \roࠈhth‘iDhLo.
fokwc鴛TRᬠTᠠVaoD(hLwᬠWeb of Science
fhggᄂgshth‑TKcsgo₍RDᄗhioࠑာ aoࠑ
LecwhᬠᨠTcKoacshРEeKe鴛Ь hGcఠegete
ERDଠTchVLcഛacTThgDbⰠcgaᄠTᬠEeഛ\f \fhC
ThtᰠesokoTRvⰠsosRᬠshTsLcDTᰠᔚcഛTRဠᰠ
VeE጑ᴘmRvS TchEShKᄄh VLᄚhKRDb i kovi
so脠TᠠshTseLᖐ‑aᄠhDCcDTz脠ജsewcTDoS.
3.9.
“DMUBࠈMDbw₏RU܄vOSҭ
ҐSЋwtMkOTw缠ภऊ4Tf茠TORCTf茠
MU܊D
b羃
dLcGഛ CcРLogᔄoDLRioDଠiᰎwhGTzᬠ
ᔁhghE造ᔗoiTcTRဠLckeabDoDRiThgDᄠTo
eCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠToesh
ЛDLRиgsᆁ hsokoDcጛN, chEShKRwh‗᠕
ᔄhDLcDbⰠᨠCcРGᬠshTsLcDTᰠkosa4Co4Dgဠ
LokaRCRဠᨠVeEaRsomRv脠VLcകDoiRDcacȠ
145
ꀑᔮ′4⸠ሜᄕᴠĜ⁗eb of Science Core Collec瑩潮 ᜑ‚逆ᰗᬠࠛᔝhጋᴑ脠
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ꀑᔮ′㔮‒ᰑᔝ ᰠDᰄᘠGᬠ࠘؜᜖‚᠗ᄘࠌᰚ₭᠄ᄓᄑⰠࠜ‖GᬠĜ‚gᬂ ጘD괜ᜄc
146
ꀑᔮ′㘮‒ᰑᔝ ᰠDᰄᘠGᬠ࠘؜᜖‚᠗ᄘࠌᰚ₭᠄ᄓᄑ ᰠ䉉体䥓‑⁍edline
ꀘࠉhihc‗ogėcKcacࠑc \boëzS \rRgmᄁ጑T h Rgae
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ―“Kࠑw‘iDhLhw:
ㄠ騠oTtaRNgsRȠvkzs, 2 š gDhLRv, 3 š ­Rahgh(RvⰠ㒆骆wo-
DcwoDRso, 5 š cKothtRso, 6 š gRShahtRv, 7 š ­RkRso,
㢆骆ERhahtRv, 9 š RwRv.
PoggRᨠTᬠesokoT⸠%RVhDckoⰠCDᰠKoTThᬠLogVLcKcacTRᬠ
viavcDgဠLogVLcKcacTRcР1RV(ᠠᔠꨠ꼠0,36
ᆆᦆ꾆(8/((97/17)
0,36
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icDgDie4UoဠsLRioဠ(VeTsDRLToဠTᠠtLo(Rsc⤠VahSᰠhVRgz-
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ꀑᔮ′7⸠f᠎጑̑ဠᨠ࠘ᘃ࢐脠഑ᖍᄁ጑࠘脠
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1000
х (r)
50
23
0,36
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ퟨсло⃯убкаций , %
Ранг⃭аучной⃤исцлы, r
cgDcgDicࠈzS \boes‑―hmRoጋTh-tewoࠑDoL
T邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN.
ᤠCcРGᬠLᬘabTᰠVLhviav4DgဠhghEcTTh
gDR eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑‑S₍RDᄗhioࠑv‚‗ok࢐S
࠘eCTzS“EጘgDvS?
l鴛 ᨠsTRtᬠ9⸠B⸠ХoNDeTᠠ«yoeshwc
DLRv.₄hgDhvTᄛ‑ ěLgěsDRiz» (1983)
VLᄚhKvDgv Koࠈzc h‗ok጑CRvS i”h጑Cc
gDiᬠghoiDhLhᨠᨠLokTz脠KRᖍRVaRToS⸠dh
Koࠈ逄₃cLcጋghTo [Berelson, 1960] LR
ihKRDgv \t᜘(Rs‗᠕VLcKcጛTRv \boeCT邁
KRgmᄁ጑T h Rgae eE጑ᴘmᄂ―“Kࠑw
oiDhLhР⠗Rg. 27).
rиTb hShGcc‗᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ haeC᠛D
gဠVLᄠoToaRkᬠ(osDRCcᔝR脠KoTTz脠ᰠshaR
CcgDiᬠghoiDhLhᨠVᰠEokᬠKoTTz脠fMy1⸠yᠠ
LRg⺆2㠠VLRicഛT造ᔗcKTRᬠkToCcTRဠKhaᄠ
gDoDcȠᔠhKTRРoiDhLhЬ‗oggCRDoTTzᬠVᰠ
ᔚcഛTRvРᰠ10〠oiDhLo脠阠aRഛLo脠VᰠshaR
CcgDie eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚₠My1 h―hhDicDgDie
4Uᬄe \boeCThwe \boV᜘iጛTR4.
uToahtRCTzȠoToaRภgDoDcȬ‖”hDhLz脠
shaRCcgDiᰠoiDhLhᨠEhabIᬠ10, \rocఠVLos
DRCcgᴑ LvМ LhDRihVhጜGTzN‗ckeab
Doఠ⠗Rg⺆29)⸠ᤠgDoDbv脠Vᰠ(RkRsᬠshaRCc
gDiᰠoiDhLhᨠwhGc\f \rhShKRDଠ\r 3 Dzgv̠
ꀑᔮ′㠮₠᠎጑̑ဠᨠ࠘ᘃ࢐脠഑ᖍᄁ጑࠘脠Ĝ”h጑иᔌᨖ eE጑sᢍᄂ
ᔠhഈᄄ‘ᨌᰗᰄ ᰠഘࠈ逄₠ྉ1
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148
ꀑᔮ″1.  ᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠVeE጑sᢍᄂ ᰠ఑ĘР
2010–2012 \t\t. Web of Science CC SCI-E
PANDED,
CPCI-S, BKCI-S
ꀑᔮ″0⸠f᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠVeE጑sᢍᄂ ᰠ఑ĘР
2010–2012 \t\t. Web of Science CC SSCI, A&HCI,
CPCI-SSH, BKCI-SSH
(ToVLᄄcL, hጋ缑c”haaoEhLomᄑ₊lꂉo),
ᨠDᰠiLcwဠsoᴠᨠgDoDbv脠VᰠwoDcwoDRsᬠᄠwc
SoTRsᬠCo鴛‚gctᰠigDLcCo4DgဠgDoDbᄠᔠ2–5
oiDhLowᄬ‘ osᔑwoabThᬠshaRCcgDiᰠgDo
DcȠᔠ6–1〠oiDhLowᄠ騠ᘠSRwRshᨬ Rhahthᨠ
R \tchጜthi.
ТosRРhELokhЬ cLihᬠhDaRCRᬠkosa4
C᠛Dgv‖Gc‚‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTRR―hoiDhL
gDio‚)Lok጑C࢐S \boeC࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑ToS.
rCciRKThⰠCDᰠiTeDLᄠsoGജȠKRᖍRVaR
T造DosGᬠRwc4DgဠLokaRCRဠ騠ᨠ(RkRsc
ToREhabIcᬠshaRCcgDiᰠghoiDhLhᨠᘠ/sg
VcᜑwcTఘDhLhi‚“EaogDR‐KcᜈhN₭Rฑ
sR,₭RkRsR₌ጛЛTDoLT邁 ᠕DRm,‘ ᄕah
ghoiDhLhᨠ᪆DchLcDRCcᔝR脠LoEhDo脠Raᄬ
ToVLRwcLⰠᨠhEaogDᄠwoDcwoDRCcᔝhȠ(R
kᄝR‎ToCRDcጋTh cࠋIcₚ LᄄcLTh”os
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Vo᜘ЛDLe cGഖ‛gDcgDiᬈTh-ToeCTzwR
KRgmᄁ጑ToБ‑―hmRoጋTh-tewoࠑDoL࢐
wᄠToVLoiacTRvwᄠ᪆贛ahРiRKTᠠTcih
hLeGcTTzРtaokhРeGᬠRภLoᔁLcഛacTRv
gDoDcȠᔠhKTRРoiDhLhw.
5ToCRDcabTᰠLokaRCocDgဠᄠLoᔁLcഛac
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Web of Science Core Collectio渠VLᄠoToaRkc,
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RTഛsᔑLhioTTz脠ᨠ卓CI, A&HCI, CPCI-SSH,
BKCI-SSHⰠVhaeCocРgacKe4鴛ᬠLoᔁLcഛ
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uToጜtRCTzN VhRgs Vh SCI-E
ANDED,
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⠗Rg. 31).
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而‚―hmRoጋ࢐S \boeᴘS‑ \tewoࠑDoL࢐S
ToVLoiacࠑvS‎ToCRDcጋTh hጋIe4‗hጋ,
Ccw‚‛gDcgDicࠈh-ToeC࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑ToS,
tKc hKoiav4Ucc hጋ缑TgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ
ghgDoiav4ఠgDoDbᄠᨠGeLToao脠ᄠwoDcLRoa造
shT(cLcࢍᄂ.
9acKe4鴛ᬠhDaRCRᬠkosa4CocDgဠᨠDhЬ
CDh‑wcࠈh₍RDᄗe而‘iDhLz‚‗ok጑C࢐S
ToeCTz脠hEaogDvS.  \tewoTRDoLTz脠ᄠhE
鴛gDicTTz脠Toeso脠ᨠᔁRᔝo脠aRDcLoDeL造
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ᢆ«cgDcgDicTTRsR묠gᖐao4DgဠᨠhᔈhiThР
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geDgDiRဠᴠTRРwcGKeToLhKThtᰠRTDcLcgo.
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TvDzS‖gDhvi缑Sgv \bhLwoS₍RDᄗhioࠑN
i)GeLToጋ࢐S VeE጑ᴘmRvS i ghmRoጋTh-
tewoࠑDoL࢐S \boeᴘS LcKgDoiacT‚)sࠑtc
Х/TsᠠPeKᠠ[Moed, 2005]⸠rDwcCo4DgဠTc
DhabsᰠhDaRCRᬠᨠgDRaᬠmRDRLhioTRဠ᪆cgDc
gDicࠈzS \boeᴘS‑‎ToCRDcጋ࢐c‗ok጑CRv
Tc \fhጋsh cGKe‗ok࢐Б \boVLoiacࠑvБ
ghmRoabࠜ-tewoTRఘᜈzS \boes, h \roGc
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ᆆDhȠGᬠToeCThȠhEaogDR⸠ТosⰠ᪆ghmRhahtR
CcᔝR脠GeLToaoSⰠVeEaRse4UR脠VLcRwe鴛
gDicTTᰠgDoDbᄬ‚”hDhLz脠Rᔁhabke4Dgဠsh
aRCcgDicTTzᬠwcDhK造ghmRhahtRᄬ hLokജ
EhጋIc₍RDᄗe而gv₏eLToጋ࢐c―DoD଑, Ccw
whThtLo(Rᄬ‘)᪆GeLToao脠ᖆ«soCcgDicTTz
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2LhwᬠDhthⰠᨠ«shaRCcgDicTTzS묠gDoDbvS
mRDᄗe而gv‚“gThiThw₫sh጑CcgDicࠈzc»
GeLToa逬‌htKᠠsoᴠᨠgDoDbv脠«soCcgDicT
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VLcKgఘiacTRv \bomᄜToabTzS₏eᜈoጜi Vh
ghhDicDgDie4URРhEaogDvРᨠwcGKeToLhK
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somRᄠᄠhఠshTsLcDThtᰠToVLoiacTRဠToesR.
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᪆Web of Scienc攠9萠Toജ‚cᔋwᠠhgDhLhGTh.
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Mb܄̈fB‏b \nTO܄4O₁wbЉMkOࠄI
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LokiRioDbgဠᔁhghE造h贛TsᄠVeEaRsomRN,
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somRȠTᬠVᰠCRgaᘠR脠mRDRLhioTRȠᨠEoko脠
KoTTzSⰠᠠVᰠR脠LᬘabThwᘠRᔁhabkhioTR耠
RaᄠVᰠeLhiT耠RTDcLcgᠠᴠVeEaRsomRvЬ
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hEaogDcȠToesᄬ‚”hDhLz脠mRDRLhioTRv,
soᴠVLoiRahⰠwhte\f \bᬠEzDଠLᬘabTzРhDLo
GcTRcРR脠贛TThgDR.  2010 \t⸠EzጠVLRTv\f
woࠑ(cgD‘ጋDwcDLᄝR
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cDgv LcKhgDoiጛTᄛ‖иTzw‑ࠕDLeЛTDhi
EzgDLhth‘ToaRko hVeavᜈhgDR \boeCࠜN
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1976防014
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aRDcLoDeL逬 hwhto4鴛ȠgഛaoDଠizEhᜠ
ᨠVhabkᘠDc脠RaᄠRTz脠RภhtLhwThtᰠshaR
CcgDio“VeEaRshioTTzS―ఘDcN.‒ᜑ hRg
sc eE጑ᴘmᄂ cLck okz₍RDᄗhioࠑN
CRDoDcaଠhLRcTDRLecDgဠTᬠᨠVhgacKT4耠
hCcLcKଠTᠠmRDRLhioTRᬠgDoDcȠRaᄠRw
VosD-(osDhថ Geᜈoጜi,“KTosh“D МwcT
Do eE጑ᴘmᄑ \rh hviacࠑv₍RDᄗhioࠑN
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wzᬠᨠoabDwcDLRscⰠwhteఠhsokoDbgဠicᔋwᠠ
VhackTzРRTgDLewcTDhw⸠2LhwᬠDhthⰠCDᰠ
hCcࠋ―eUcgDicࠈh, \fosRc hᴘkoDc጑ ᄝos
TᬠkoiRgv\f h\f ToeCThȠhEaogDR,  hDaRCRᬠh\f
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28,1㤠mRDRLhioTRȠTᠠㄠgDoDb4⸠ЭDᰠᔗcKTc
wRLhihN hsokoDcab.‒ᜑ₌Dhw―ఘDbR‖Cc
Tz脠Rภ9ШḠ(2261 h؎hL) VLhmRDRLhioT造
7㖆01㘠Loภ(ᔗcKTcᬠkToCcTRᬠ33,18)Ⱐ%cL
woTRᄠ(49㠠gDoDcN) š 16 70㠠Loภ(ᔗcKTcᬠ
kToCcTRᬠ33,55)Ⱐ2RDoဠ(25㘠gDoDcN) š 5373
Lokᠠ(ᔗcKTcᬠkToCcTRᬠ20,99), fhgᔑᄠ(116
gDoDcN) š 118㘠Loภ(ᔗcKTcᬠkToCcTRᬠ10,22).
uToahtRCTzᬠVhകCcD造VᰠKoTTzРKaဠhE
khLhᨠ2012 \t⸠VLRicഛT造ᨠDoEa. 10.
ТosRРhELokhЬ“؎hL造owcLRsoTᔝR脠
R)ࠛЛmsᆁ eиT邁 i hEa᠕DR ERhSRwRR
R)МacseavᜈhN ᄜጜtRR₍RDRLe4Dgv–eC
Ic, CcРᨠᔗcKTcРVᰠwRLe, ᠠsRDoNᔝR脠
ᆆLhgᔑNᔝR脠騠SeGcⰠVLRCcРVhTvDRဠ«aeC
Ic묠ᄠ«SeGc묠Rwc4ఠshTsLcDThᬠCRgahihᬠ
kToиTᄛ.
lgaᄠgഛaoDଠDosRᬠLogCcD造KaဠsoGജ
th Dᄁo VeE጑ᴘmᄂ (hLᄉᄈoጋ࢐c gDoD଑,
h؎hL逬 oDcLRoa造shT(cLcTmRȠᆆD⺆K.)
Kaဠigc脠hEaogDcȠkToTRȠᄠVᰠigcРthKoЬ
Dh‖gLcKࠛTᄛ haeиTT邁‎ToиTRN \bhL
woaRkhioTࠜN mRDRLecМgDR KhgఘDhCࠜ
oഛsioDTᰠhDLo輘cఠ«soCcgDih묠igctᰠTo
EhLᠠVeEaRsomRȠeCcThth, \boeCThȠtLeVV逬
hLtoࠑkomᄑ,―DLo࢐.„ToahtRC࢐w“ELo
khw h輈h LhicgDR―᜘iࠛTᄛ, \boVLRЛL,
LhggRнᴑS“ᜉoTRkomRN h“DࠜIcTR4
ᶆᔗcKTcLhgᔑNᔝhwᘠeLhiT耠RaᄠᔗoiTcTRc
LoจzS hKLokKcacTRN‚TeDᜑ“KࠜN“ᜉo
ࠑkomᄑ h“DThIcࠑ4”―LcKࠑw hᴘkoDc
avРVᰠhLtoTRkomRᄠᨠ贛ahw⸠lgDcgDicTTh,
CcРhEIRLTcᬠEokᠠKoTTzSⰠRภshDhLhȠVh
aeCo4DgဠᔚcഛTRဠᰠmRDRLhioTRR, \fcРEh
ጛc”hLLᬝDTzwR eഖD \fosᄛ‗᠕иDz.
rKTosᰠᄠVLᄠDoshРᔁhghEᬠoToaRkᠠLc
keጋDoDz hteD“ᴘkoDbgv‚cg଄o―VhL࢐Б.
ᤠgaeCocⰠcgaᄠgDoDcȠᘠeCcThtᰠRaᄠhLto
TRkomRᄠwoahⰠge鴛gDiecఠicLhvDThgDଠDh
th, Dh‛KᄈRC࢐c―DoD଑“ᴘGeDgv‚zghsh
mRDᄗecҐБ, Dh hGcD‑gᴘkRDb”oLDᄈe.
Тos, \boVLRwcLⰠigctᰠ㌠gDoDbᄠPMФMⰠhVe
E጑shioࠈzc h‗ckeጋDoDow‑ggacKhioࠑN
lfyᬠ᪆ghgDoiᬠEhabIR脠shaaoEhLomRȬ
Rภ1,5 \fzgvCⰠhVeEaRshioTTz脠kᠠ㖆acDⰠVLRic
጑”)Dhwe, Dh \bhLwo጑khioࠈ适 hᴘkoDcጋ
mRDᄗecwhgDR‟MФM“ᴘkoagv \bogDhጋsh
izghsⰠCDᰠ/DhఠeTRicLᔑDcఠhVcLcKRጠVᰠ/Dh
wᘠVhsokoDca耠igᬠiek造wRLᠠ᪆LcNDRTtᬠTHE
World University Ranking 201ゆt⸠ЭDᄠ㌠gDoDbR
ghgDoiRaᄠEhacᬠCcDicᜌᄠhఠigc脠mRDRLhio
ࠑN gDoDcN hLtoࠑkomᄑ ko Koࠈ适 VcLRhK
(VᰠghgDhvTR耠Tᠠoiteg\f 201㒆t⺆騠666㤠mR
DRLhioTRȠRภ21
41)⸠ngctᰠGᬠkᠠ/DhఠVcLRhK
i)shaaoEhLomRvS₊lꂉo―hDLeKࠑᴘБ PM
Ф༠hVeEaRshioTᰠhshaᰠghDTᄠgDoDcȠᖆEhacc
CcР10 \fzg⸠mRDRLhioTRȬ‌⸠c⸠hshaᰠ㚆┠igcS
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ Lᄈcg጑ hahiᄈe₍RDᄗh
ioTRN. uiDhLowR ᔘМN ᪐ghshmRDRLecМN
gDoD଑ (hshah 4 \fzg.₍RDᄗhioࠑN)‐iav而gv
17〠CcahicᴠRภ13ㄠhLtoTRkomRᄬ‑ภshDhLzS
Dhጋsh 1ₚ―hDLeKࠑs‟MФM.
ТosRРhELokhЬ‍aဠshLLcsDThȠh贛TsR
hLtoࠑkomᄑ‑‘iDhLo h eE጑ᴘmRvw₏c
aoDcabTᰠeCRDzioDଠDosGᬠᄠisaoഠoiDhLo
(RaᄠhLtoTRkomRR⤠ᨠDhȠRaᄠRThȠgDoDbc.
dhgshጋse‚‗ok࢐S“EaogDvS‎ToࠑN 通o而
oEghᎀDTh‗ok࢐c \fLoKᆍᄑ‚ aoTc‖ᴘko
TRဠVhLvKsᠠoiDhLhᨠ(taoiTzȠoiDhᜠwhGcD
gDhvDଠVcLizЬ hgacKTRЬ‖sokoࠠsoᴠreprint
authorⰠoiDhL造whteఠEzDଠLoᔁhahGcTz
VLhgDᰠᨠoa(oiRDThРVhLvKsc), \fᰠ᪆gowhw
VLhgDhРgaeCoᬠisao\r hVLcഛavcDgဠsoᴠജ
aဠhఠhE鴛tᰠshaRCcgDiᠠoiDhLhᨬ‚)gaeCoc
hLtoTRkomRᄠ騠ജaဠoiDhLhᨠᔠhVLcഛacT
ThȠo((RaRomRcȠh\f hE鴛tᰠshaRCcgDiᠠoi
DhLhi.ₛoshN Lᄈmᄁ hKgCcDo eE጑ᴘmᄂ
R₍RDᄗhioࠑN \bok通ocDgv₭LosmRhࠑLhio
TRcw⸠ТosⰠcgaᄠ᪆gDoDbᬠRwc4DgဠKiᠠoiDhLo
RภKie脠LokTz脠hLtoTRkomRȬ‌ᰠsoGജȠhL
toTRkomRᄠᨠkoCcఠRഛ\f 0,㔠gDoDbᄠᄠghhDicD
gDicTTᰠ0,㔠hఠigc脠mRDRLhioTRN⸠lgaᄠhLto
TRkomRȠEhabIc, \fᰠgDoDbဠiwcgDᬠgᰠigcwR
VhaeCcࠈ逄R₍RDᄗhioࠑvБ‗ogVLcKc
avcDgv Vh hᜉoTRkomRvw VLhVhLmᄜToabࠜ
R脠isaoKe⸠ТosRРhELokhРeKocDgဠRkEc輘Db
oᜌc(osDhᨬ―ivkoTTz脠ᔠLhgDhРCRgaᠠoiDh
LhᨠᨠgDoDbvSⰠCDᰠhghEcTTᰠosDeoabTᰠVLR
egRጛTRR cGഖToLhKThth―hDLeKTRиgDio
R₭hLБLhioࠑR hጋ缑S‗ogVLcKcacࠈzS
ᄕgጛKhioDcabgsᆁ”haጛsDRihi.
ᤠ2010 \t⸠shTghLmReРELRDoTᔝR脠eTRicL
gRDcDhi‗ok᜘EhDoa―ᄕDᬄe cDLRs, ckoiR
gᄄzS“D‑gDhCࠑᴘ \roࠈzS, hkihav4URS
VLhihKRDଠhEъcsDRiTe耠h贛TsᘠToeCThȠ
ഛvDcabThgDᄠeTRicLᔑDcDhᨠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠ
hEъcsDRiThȠRT(hLwomRᄬ”hDhLzᬠEzaᄠ
࠘kioTz Snowball Metrics
.₊cጋ4 \roࠈh
tᰠVLhcsDᠠEzaᠠLokLoEhDsᠠVLᰎLoCThȠ
wcDhKhጜtRR‖Ccఘ hsokoDcacN ToeCࠜN
ഛvDcabThgDᄬ”hDhLzᬠwhteఠVLRwcTvDbgဠ
᪆LokTz脠gDLoToSⰠhEcᔁcCRio4ఠVLᰎLoC
ThᬠᄠshLLcsDThᬠᔗoiTcTRᬠgShKTz脠Vᰠ
gDLesDeLᬠᄠToVLoiacTRvРഛvDcabThgDᄠ
hLtoTRkomRȬ”hDhLzᬠwhteఠEzDଠRᔁhabkh
io࢐ \rav‗ok጑C࢐S₍cacN―oББ“Ltoࠑ
komRvБ, \tLoTDhKoDcavБ,‚避cgDhvUᄄR
hLtoTRkomRvwᄠᄠD. \r.
.habI᠐ ᠕Db VLcKaot᠛w邁 ЛDLRs―iv
koTo―“mcࠝhN eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖ࠑicLgRDcDhi.
n”oиgDic“gThiT邁 cDLRs,₁o᜘sDᬗRke
4UR脠LckeabDoDRiThgDଠRggacജioDcabᔝhȠ
ഛvDcabThgDᄬ LcKaoto4DgဠgacKe4URᬺ
afmj_pjw
srnsr
чхуыпнюуюя
уэ
Toጋ࢐c eE጑ᴘmᄑ,―cLᄂ࢐c‑kKoࠑာ
sTRtᄬ‚sa4CoဠwhThtLo(RᄠᄠeCcETRsᄬ
᪆DhРCRgaᬠcgaᄠghDLeKTRsᄠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠ
viav4DgဠTᬠDhabsᰠoiDhLowᄬ ᰠᄠLcKosDh
Lowᄬ VLhRkicഛTRဠRᔝeggDioⰠshwVb4DcL
TzᬠVLhtLoww造ᄠD. \r.  \roTThРVhsokoDcaᬠ
TᬠeCRDzio4DgဠVoDcTD造ᄠKRggcᜌomRR⸠ЭDᄠ
VhᴘkoDc጑‖CRD通o而gv‎o“VLcKcacࠈ适
VLhЛGeDhs‚LᬄᬈR‑ \rav”hwěࠕomRR
Lok጑C࢐S‗okwcLhi‚eko \bhLБLe而gv \bo
shaRиgDih ᬗghToao (i haT邁―DoisoS).
gr_rgml
mslr
чхуыпнтуюя
ышхчтюупы
RDᄗhioࠑN \bo‛Kᄈᆍe cLghToao (i ha
T邁―DoisoS)‎o“VLcKcጛTTzN ᬗRhK.
http://www.snowballmetrics.com/
gr_rgmls
cp
srnsr
теотт
хухэы
ioࠑc hKThN VeE጑ᴘmᄑ‎o“VLcKcacࠈ适
VcᜑhK.
inde砠騠RᔁhabkecDgဠDhabsᰠKaဠᔗoi
ࠛTRv ᄕgጛKhioDcጛN i“KThN KᄕmRVaR
ToᜈhN“EaogDR.
gcjb+Wcgefrcb
gr_rgml
mn_ar
ыэнн
጑khioࠈ适 h \boeC࢐w“EaogDvw hᴘko
DcaଠmRDRLhioTRv. OCRDziocDgဠkᠠhVLcKc
ጛTTzN iLᬄᬈThN VLhЛGeDhs (ToVLRЛL,
kᠠDLᄠVhaTz脠soacTKoLTz脠thKo⤠ᔠeCcDhР
Dᄁo eE጑ᴘmᄑ.
srnsrs
mn
cpaclrgjcs
ышхчтюупы
eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑጑ \rhav eE጑ᴘmᄂ, hVoKo
4UR脠ᨠhVLcഛacTTzȠVLh贛Tఠgowz脠mR
DᄗecҐS h”hࠝLcD࢐w \boeC࢐w“EaogDvw
(1Ⲇ5, 1〠ᆆ2㖆%⤠kᠠhVLcഛacTTzȠVLhwc
GeDhs‚LᬄᬈR. gaR‖CRDzi᠛Dgv‑ЛTTh
shaRCcgDiᰠDosR脠VeEaRsomRȬ‌ᰠ/DᰠkToCc
TRᬠThLwRLecDgဠTᠠshaRCcgDiᰠVcLghToaᠠ
(i)VhገzS―DoiᴘS).
Psbjga_rgmls
gl
Rmn
Jmspl_j
Pcpaclrgjcs —
нон
ጜtRCࠜ LcKzKeUcwe hsokoDca4, h‚)hDࠜ
IcࠑR eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚₏eLToaoS, hVoKo4URS
ghhDicDgDicTTᰠᨠ1–2㖆┠VᰠGeLToabTzРVh
sok᠌cavw (RwV᠝D-(᠝DhL, SNIP, SJR).
ычнинутшх
ыуэуеохчтюупн
Cmjj_bmp_+
tion⤠騠LoggCRDzio4DgဠVᰠshaRCcgDiᘠRaᄠ
Khac VeE጑ᴘmᄂ, VhKthDhiacࠈzS‚ ghDLeK
ࠑCcgDic― \rLetᄄR“LtoࠑkomRvБ,“VLc
ഛavcwzwᄠVᰠo((RaRomRᄠoiDhLhᨬ Lᄠ
/DhРhDഛabTᰠeCRDziocDgဠwcGKeToLhKThᬠ
R \bomRhToጋThc―hDLeKࠑCcgDih. g጑‖CR
DziocDgဠshaRCcgDih, \fhⰠsoᴠᄠᨠVLcKzKeUR脠
VhsokoDcaႁ, LhRgShKRD hᜄRLhioTRc \bo
sh጑CcgDih―hDLeKࠑshi“Ltoࠑkomᄑ.
mjj_bmp_rgml
mn_ar
пшхяохт
ыуэуе
TRCcgDio⤠騠LoggCRDziocDgဠᔗcKTcᬠmR
Dᄗhioࠑc eE጑ᴘmᄂ, hKthDhiacࠈzS
i)wcGKeToLhKࠜw‑aR \bomᄜToabࠜw―h
DLeKࠑCcgDic,‎o“VLcKcacࠈ适 LhwcGe
Dhs‚LᬄᬈR.
a_bcmga+Cmpnmp_rc
mjj_bmp_rgml
юы
DLeKTRCcgDiᰠeTRicLᔑDcDhᨠᔠERkTcghw)
R)Academic-Corporate Collaboration Impact)—
oToጜtRCࠜ LcKzKeURw hsokoDcavw, h
i“DTh缛TRR―hiЛgDT邁― LhwzIጛT
࢐Б LcKVLRvDRvБ eE጑ᴘmᄂ, Dh
SoLosDcᜑkecD hDcTmRoa‗coabࠜth ᜑ
ЛࠛTRv‗ckeabDoDhi‑ggጛKhioDcabgshN
KcvDcጋThgDR.
?jrmcrpgas
ычтохпнтуюя8
- Scholarly Activityₚ \bo጑CRc eE጑ᴘmᄂ
hLtoTRkomRR‚‗okaRCT邁 ᬈcKGᬗoS₍R
DRLhi᠈Rv, \f᠝RS”᠝ Mendeley,
iteULike,
Google Scholar Library, QUOSA, Papers,
ScienceScape, MyScienceWork, colwiz,
zotero, Academia.edu, ResearchGate‑ \f. \r.;
- Scholarly Commentary 騠gᖐasᄠTᠠVe
EaRsomRᄠᨠToeCTz脠EahtoS, \bᠠgoNDoS,
LcmcTkᄑ‑”hЄcTDoLᄑ” eE጑ᴘmRvw
᪆PubMed, Faculty of 1000, Wikipedia  \rL.;
- Social Activity — eVhБToࠑc VeE጑ᴘmᄂ
hLtoࠑkomᄑ‚‗ok጑C࢐S―hmRoጋ࢐S
gᬌvS;
- Mass Mediaₚ‖VhБToࠑc VeE጑ᴘ
mRȠhLtoTRkomRᄠᨠᔗcകDio脠wogghihȠ
ᄈ(hLwomᄑ.
ЭDR hᴘkoDc጑‗oggCRD通o而gv‎o“VLc
KcጛTTzN ᬗRhK‚LᬄᬈR”os \bo”haRи
gDiᰠghDLeKTRshᨠhLtoTRkomRᄬ DoᴠᄠTᠠsh
጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ.
舠VhsokoDcavЬ‑ᔁhabkecwzРᨠSnowball
Metrics,“ఈhgဌgv \fosGc‗okaRCTzc₭R
Toࠕhi逛 hsokoDcaR,₁o᜘sDᬗRke4Uᄛ
ToeCTe4 \rcvDcጋThgDb (VhaeCcࠈzc \tLoT
D逬 oVLRwcL)ⰠeCogDRᬠᨠshT(cLcTmRvS,
sh጑CcgDih“EъcsDhi‑TDcaacsDeoጋThN
ghEgDicTThgDᄠᄠജShK造h\f iTcKLcTRဠVo
DcTDhᨬ”haRCcgDiᰠgᰎKoTTz脠shwVoTRȬ
iࠛKLv4Uᆁ \boeCT逛 \rhgDᆏᬈRv‖TRiᬗ
ᔑDcDoⰠR脠(RToTghihᬠghgDhvTRc.
ТosRРhELokhЬ‍aဠoഛsioDThȠh贛T
sᄠToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠVLcKaotocDgဠ
RᔁhabkhioDଠicᔋ―VcsDᜠVhsokoDcacȬ
eCRDzio4UR脠soᴠLokaRCRဠVᰠhEaogDvР
kToTRN, \foᴠᄠLokwcL造hLtoTRkomRȬ‍h
Vhገvv‑S hᴘkoDcavБ,‘ጋDcLToDᄚ࢐Б
EREaᄜwcDᜑCcgᴑw.
3.12.‒D輏lE4༎ਈwB
鴄U܄MVBbtwCBDvw. \rOࠈf.₏tw
GMDଉMBTwРtB괋wTNMภkR4MภРTORCTf茠
MtNOࠄ4OSҭ
n wcGKeToLhK࢐S LcNDᄈtoS eࠑicLgR
DcDhᨬ‌osR脠soᴠAcademic Ranking of World
Universities (ARWUⰠRaᄠШoTSoNᔝRȠLcN
DRTt), Times Higher Education World University
Ranking (THE WUR)  QS World University
Ranking, hᴘkoDc጑,―ivkoࠈzc― eE጑ᴘ
mRhTThȠosDRiThgDb4, ghgDoiav4\f h\f 20 ജ
60 % ఠhshTCoDcabThtᰠEoaaoⰠCDᰠthihLRD
ᲆCLckizCoNThȠioGThgDᄠToeCTz脠VeEaR
somRȠKaဠh贛Tsᄠigc脠gDhLhࠠഛvDcabThgDR
eTRicLᔑDcDᠠ騠hELokhioDcabThȠᄠToeCThȬ
o‌osGc cGKeToLhKࠜN―hgఘiav肝cN.
ᤠШoTSoNᔝhРLcNDRTtᬠRᔁhabke4Dgဠsoᴠ
«ioጜ᪐c» hsokoDcaR LhKesDRᨈhgDR (sh
጑CcgDih \fcS‑጑‑࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ‎o“VLc
KcጛTT逛 ᬗRhKz‚LᬄᬈR), \fos‑―ihᬉh
LhKo₫ᴘCcgDicࠈzc» hᴘkoDc጑,₁oLos
DᬗRke4Uᄛ soиgDih VLᬁhKoioDcabgsh
tᰠghgDoiᠠᄠToeCTe耠VLhRkihKRDcabThgDଠ
eࠑicLgRDcDo.ₗDR hᴘkoDc጑―hgDoiav而
ᨠhE鴛ȠgahGThgDᄠ60 % ఠhE鴛tᰠEoaao:
ышхчтюупы
ыюычычхухэутных
чтоых
ภCRgaᠠLoEhDTRshᨠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠ(20 %);
ышхчтюупы
унутц*
ьуошхчыпнооых
GeLToao脠Nature  Scienc攠kᠠVhgacKTRᬠ
VvDଠac\f (20 %);
ощтт
хюшы
унутц*
ыштешхх
оетч
ᖐ oeCTh
₍RDRLecwhgDᄠScience Citation
Index Expanded  Social Science Citation Index
ᨠVLcKzKe鴛РthKᘠ(20 %).
ЭDᄠVhsokoDcaᄠLoggCRDzio4DgဠVᰠEokᬠ
K᠈TzS Web of Science Core Collection.
rDࠛgᬈᄛ eиThth” soDᬉhLRR i逕hshmR
DRLecwz脠ᰎToCocDⰠCDᰠVᰠshaRCcgDiᘠmRDR
LhioTRȠᔚhR脠gDoDcȠh\b VhVoKoc\f ᨠtLeVVᘠ
25〠gowz脠mRDRLecwz脠eCcTz脠Vᰠ2㈠VLcK
wcDTzРhEaogDvРVᰠsaogᔑ(RsoDhLe, VLR
wcTvcwhwᘠ᪆Essential Science Indicators⸠yᠠ
hEThiacTThȠᨠ2014 t. icLᔑᄠgoNDo
ėcK
gDoiac࢐ \roࠈzc―)eᴘkoࠑcw‘((R጑omᄑ
oiDhLhi (isᎀCov \rhVhገRDcጋTe4).
BaဠLogCcDᠠVhsokoDcavⰠᔚvkoTThtᰠgᰠ
gDoDbvwᄠᨠGeLToao脠Science & NatureⰠRg
VhabkecDgဠജihabTᰠgahGToဠᔑgDcwᠠ
LogCcDᠠicghᨠKaဠghoiDhLhᨠᔠiicഛTR
cРLokaRCTz脠icghᨠKaဠVcLihtᰠoiDhLo,
iDhLhtᰠᄠKaဠhgDoabTz脠oiDhLhᨬ D⸠c. Vh
viav4Dgv₌acwcTDz₭LoᶍᄜTRLhioTࠜ
tᰠVhകCcDo⸠ᦆKoTThРgaeCoᬠDoshȠLog
Cc\f whGTᰠLogᔄoDLRioDଠsoᴠᔚhchELok
TzȠioLRoT\f «KLhEThtᰠgCcDo», fractional
countingⰠhVRgoTThtᰠᨠVLcKzKe鴛Ƞtaoic.
ሗR₌జw‚)RTgDLesmRR \rav‘iజLhi“కeD
gDiecఠCcDshᬠesokoTRᬠTᠠVLcKwcఠVhLvK
sᠠesokoTRဠoiDhLhᨠ(ᔄ., ToVLRwcL, http://
www.sciencemag.org/site/feature/contribinfo/
prep/index.xhtml), \f⸠c. \roTTzȠᔁhghؠLog-
CcDᠠ«oiDhLᔝhȠജaR묠viavcDgဠᨠsoshN-Dᰠ
wcLᬠRᔝeggDicTTzЬ hᔝhabsᘠwhGc\f \bᬠ
eCRDzioDଠLᬘabTzȠisaoഠoiDhLhᨠᨠTo
VRgoTRᬠgDoDbᄬ”hDhLzȠᨠLokTz脠hEaogDv脠
ToesᄠᄠᨠLokTz脠GeLToao脠egDoToiaRio
cDgဠVh-LokThwᘠᨠkoiRᔑwhgDᄠhఠgahGRi
IcNgဠVLosDRsᄠᄠDLoKRmRN⸠ᤠLvഛ“Eao
gDcȠ«taoiTzN묠oiDhᜠesokziocDgဠVcLizЬ
᪆KLetR脠騠VhgacKTRЬ LᄠEhabIhРshaR
CcgDiᬠoiDhLhᨠCogDᰠRᔁhabkecDgဠVLhgDᰠ
oᎭoiRఈzN hLvKhs.
dLᄠVhകCcDᬠhE鴛tᰠshaRCcgDiᠠgDo
DcN‖CRD通o而gv \fhጋsh \fᄁz eE጑ᴘmᄂ
articles  proceeding paper猠ᔠeKihcTRcР
icgᠠgDoDcȠRภSocial Science Citation Index.
http://highlycited.com/
157
ЭDᰠᨠsoshN-DᰠwcLᬠwhGcఠshwVcTᔑLhioDଠ
hDgeDgDiRᬠᨠwcDhKRsᬠeCcDᠠVeEaRsomRȬ
ᄈKcsgᄗecҐS‚ \fLcDbcw₏eLToጋThw‑T
ഛsgᬠWeb of Scienc攠9蒆騠Arts & Humanities
Citation Index.
Тosᄄ“ELokhw,‛g጑”h጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘ
mRȠᨠKoTThРgaeCoᬠwhGTᰠLogᔄoDLRioDଠ
ᴘs RgDh”h጑CcgDicࠈ适 hᴘkoDcጋ, \fh
ᔚcഛTRဠVᰠizghshmRDRLecwzРoiDhLoР
ᆆVeEaRsomRᄠᨠScience & Nature, ᔝhLcc, vi
av而gv hᴘkoDcavБ”oCcgDio eE጑ᴘmᄂ
eࠑicLgRDcDo.
2Lhwc“gࠜᨈhth‗cNDRTघ―hgఘiav4Dgv
DosGᬠVLcKwcDTzᬠLcNDRTtᄬ‖CRDzio4URᬠ
hghEcࠈhgDR“DKcጋ࢐S \boeC࢐S‑጑ LcK
wcDTz脠hEaogDcN⸠Тos, \raဠLcNDRTthᨠARWU-
FIELDⰠshDhLzᬠLoggCRDzio4DgဠKaဠNatural
Sciences and Mathematics, Engineering/
Technology and Computer Sciences, Life and
Agriculture Sciences, ghigcРTᬠeCRDzio4Dgဠ
VhsokoDcaᄠVᰠgDoDbvРᨠScience & Nature,
Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy R Social
Sciences,”Lhwc”h጑CcgDio VeE጑ᴘmᄂ h
shTᴗcDࠜN“EaogDR‎ToTRN,‖CRDziocD
gဠshaRCcgDiᰠVeEaRsomRȠᨠ20 % \fhVhiz脠
Geᜈoጜi―hhDicDgDie肝cN LcKwcDࠜN
hEaogDR⸠BaဠLcNDRTthᨠARWU-SUBJECT
(Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Computer
Sciences and Economics/Business)Ⱐsoᴠ
ᆆ᪆LcNDRTtᬠARWU-FIELDⰠeCRDziocDgဠsh
጑CcgDih eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚ 20 % \fhVhizS₏eL
Toጜi―hhDicDgDie肝cN LcKwcDࠜN“Eao
gDR⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ LcKwcDTzᬠLcNDRTtᄠ
ARWU i kToCRDcጋThN gDcVcࠑ‖CRD通o而
ᴘs”h጑CcgDicࠈzc, \fos‑”oCcgDicࠈzc
VhᴘkoDc጑.
萠200㐠Vᰠ200㦆t⸠VLRahGcTRᬠᴠtokc
DᬠTime猠騠cGcTcഛabTRᴠTimes Higher
Education – ᨠghDLeKTRCcgDiᬠᔠshwVoTRcN
Quacquarelli Symonds (QS⤠VLcകDoiava
gihN―hEgDicࠈ适‗cNDᄈt‚cKeURS‖ࠑ
icLgRDcDhi ᄗo. oࠈ适‗cNDᄈt‚”oCc
gDic‑gDhCࠑᴘ \boeshwcDLRCcgsRS \roࠈzS
RᔁhabkhioጠEokᘠKoTTz脠ScopusⰠhKTosh
ᖆ200㤠Vᰠ201㒆t. Times Higher Education
ghgDoiava‗cNDᄈt‚―hDLeKࠑCcgDic
ᖆThomson Reuter猠eGᬠTᠠhᔈhiᬠKoTTzS
Web of Science, ᠠQS VLhജa輘c\f ghgDoi
avDb―hEgDicࠈzc‗cNDᄈtR,‑gVhጋkev
Vh-VLc輈ᬄe \roTT逛‑k Scopus.
PcDhKᄝo―hgDoiacࠑv‗cNDᄈto QS Lc
KeᔄoDLRiocఠh贛TsᘠToeCThȠഛvDcabThgDᄠ
eTRicLᔑDcDᠠRgShKဠRภshaRCcgDiᠠmRDRLh
ioTRȠgDoDcȠiekᠠᨠEokᬠKoTTz脠ScopusⰠCDᰠ
LoggwoDLᄚocDgv”os hᴘkoDcጋ”oCcgDio
ėcVhKoioఛabgshth―hgDoio. \n̑DziocD
gv”h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN, haeCcࠈzS
gDoDbvwᄠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠkᠠ㔠acఠVᰠKoTTzР
Eok造Scopu猠ᨠLogCcDᬠTᠠㄠVLcVhKoioDcav.
dLᄠ/DhРᔠ2011 t. shaRCcgDiᰠmRDRLhioTRȠ
eCRDziocDgv Eck―oМmRDRLhioTRN“ᜉoTR
komᄑ, \f.‛. hᴘk通ocD‗coጋ࢐N‚Tc缈ᄂ
RTDcLcᔠᴠLoEhDoЬ‚zVhaTcTTzРᨠiekc⸠Mg
sa考cTRc ᔘМmRDRLhioTRN gఘጜ ᔘwzw
geUcgDiᬈTzw‑kЛࠛTᄛw‚ cDhKRsc―h
gDoiacTRဠLcNDRTtᠠVhgaᬠ2009 \t⸠ЭDhఠVh
sokoDcaଠghgDoiavc\f 20 %  E鴛РEoaac.
rKThiLcwcࠈh―“EUᄄ‗cNDᄈthw‖ࠑ
icLᔑDcDhᨠ(ᨠgcTDvELc-hsDvELᬠsoGജtᰠ
thKo) eE጑se而gv‗cNDᄈtR h \boeC࢐w
hEaogDvР騠QS World University Rankings
by Faculty⸠ЭDᄠLcNDRTtᄠghgDoiav4DgဠVᰠ
㖆sLeVTzРhEaogDvРVᰠgacKe4鴛ȠwcDhKR
sc, VLcDᬗěi缛N kToCRDcabT逛‑kЛࠛTRv
ᖆ2013 \t. (DoEa. 11).
9e鴛gDicTTzРhDaRCRcРhఠhᔈhiThth
LcNDRTtᠠviavcDgဠDhⰠCDᰠmRDRLhioTRဠLog
gCRDzio4DgဠTᬠTᠠshaRCcgDiᰠVLcVhKoioDc
acȬ‘ ᠠgDoDb4,  \fosGᬠeCRDziocDgဠRTഛsg
ХR᝿o―ఘDcN“ᜉoTRkomRR h―hhDicDgDie
4鴛ȠhEaogDᄠkᠠhVLcKcacTTzȠVcLRhK.
萠2011 t. QS VLcകDoiavc\f DosGᬠLcNDRT\t
eTRicLᔑDcDhᨠVᰠEhacᬠeksRРVLcKwcDTz脠
hEaogDvР騠QS World University Rankings by
Faculty Area
Academic
Employer
Citations
Arts & Humanities
60 %20 %10 %10 %
Engineering & Technology
40 %30 %
15 %15 %
Life Sciences & Medicine
40 %10 %25 %25 %
Natural Sciences
40 %20 %20 %20 %
Social Sciences & Management50 %30 %10 %10 %
2ᬋጒI 11
P֭଄ࠂР輏 OᄃࢠĠྜྷ܊ఋ缁
Subject⸠fcNDRTtᄠghgDoiav4DgဠVᰠ3〠hD
Kcጋ࢐w LcKwcD࢐w“EaogDvw‑ eE጑
se4DgဠDhV-20〠eTRicLᔑDcDhᨠVᰠsoGജȠ
hEaogDR.‟cDhKᄝo―hgDoiacࠑv \roࠈzS
LcNDRTthᨠVLosDRCcᔝᄠoToahtRCTᠠwcDh
KRsᬠQS World University Rankings by Faculty
g hacc‐Lsh‚逗oGcࠈ逄R‗ok጑CRvБ
᪆icgo脠VhsokoDcacȠKaဠsoGജȠRภ30 h贛
TRi᠛w邁“Ea᠕Dᬂ.
Q匠ghgDoiavc\f \fosGᬠᄠLctRhToabTzᬠLcN
DRTtᄠ騠VᰠgDLoToРukRᄬ ЛoDRTᔝhȠuwc
LRsᄬ₃fM29ⰠᢆDosGᬠജihabTᰠRTDcLcᔈzȠ
LcNDRTठwhahKz脠eTRicLᔑDcDhᨠ騠Top 50
under 50⸠BaဠfhgᔑᄠᨠKoTThРoᔁcsDᬠRT
DcLcgcࠠLcNDRTठeTRicLᔑDcDhᨠ.fM29Ⱐgᰎ
KoTTzȠQS ᨠ201㎆t. Baဠ/DhtᰠLcNDRTtᠠEo
khihȠwcDhKRshȠKaဠghgDoiacTRဠviavaoᔋ
hᔈhiToဠwcDhKRsᠠghgDoiacTRဠhE鴛tᰠ
LᬂDRTto, \bh― ᬝhDhLzwR‚RKhRkЛࠛTR
vwR)— hiz缛T‚cg ࠛTRv‗᠆hDhKoDcጛN,
eCRD通ocDgv Tc Dhጋsh sh጑CcgDih mRDᄗh
ioࠑN (i₌Dhw‗cNDᄈtc₍RDᄗhioࠑv eCR
Dzio4DgဠᨠLogCcDᬠTᬠTᠠVLcVhKoioDcav,
ᠠTᠠgDoDb4), \bᰠᄠshaRCcgDiᰠVeEaRsomRȠ
᪆Scopus, TcᔝhabsᰠᔈRGc\b icᔠVhsokoDcacȠ
RTDcLTomRhToaRkomRᄠᄠജEoiac\b \foshȠ
VhᴘkoDcጋ”oCcgDio LcVhKoioDcጋgshth
ghgDoioⰠsoᴠജaဠVLcVhKoioDcacȠᔠeCcTz
wᄠgDcVcTvwR⸠dhsokoDcaᄬ―ivkoTTzᬠᔠVe
E጑ᴘmRvБ,‚)Koࠈhw‗cNDᄈtc―hgDoiav而
15 % ఠhE鴛Ƞh贛Tsᆆ騠5┠mRDRLecwhgDଠ
᪆LogCcDᬠTᠠㆆgDoDb耠ᄠ10 % š haRCcgDiᰠ
gDoDcȠ᪆LogCcDᬠTᠠㄠVLcVhKoioDcav.
fcNDRT\t Times Higher Education World
University RankingⰠghgDoiavcwzȠᔠ200㤠Vᰠ
201㒆t⸠ᨠghDLeKTRCcgDiᬠᔠThomson Reuters,
VLcDcLVcጠVᰠᔗoiTcTR耠ᔠDcЬ shDhLzȠgh
gDoiavagဠiwcgDᬠᔠQS, \thLokജ hacᬠᔑab
T逛 RkЛࠛTRv, hghEᬈTh i hDTh缛TRR Vh
ᴘkoDcacN,―ivkoࠈzS― eE጑ᴘmRvБ.
2h጑CcgDicࠈzc‑”oCcgDicࠈzc \roࠈzc
h eE጑ᴘmRvS‚ShKvD‚‑TDctLoጋ࢐c hᴘ
koDcaR,₁o᜘sDᬗRke4Uᄛ”oиgDih‑ggጛ
ജioTRȠ(ᨠ贛ahР30 %)ⰠiaRvDcabThgDଠRg
gacജioTRȠ(30 %⤠ᄠRTDcLTomRhToaRkomR耠
eTRicLᔑDcDᠠ(7,5 %)⸠ᤠEahsᬠVhsokoDcacȬ
ᔚvkoTTz脠ᔠsoCcgDihРRggacജioTRȬ“贛
ࠑiocDgv”h጑CcgDih―DoDcN,“VeE጑shioT
Tz脠eTRicLᔑDcDhР᪆GeLToaoSⰠRTഛsᔑLe
cwz脠ᨠWeb of Scienc攠99ⰠVLRCcРKoTTzȠ
VhsokoDcaଠLoggCRDziocDgဠᔠeCcDhРsoᴠ
CRgacTThgDᄠVLcVhKoioDcacȬ‌oᴠᄠᔠThL
woaRkomRcȠVᰠhEaogDvРkToTRȠ(6 %).
n጑vDcጋThgDb‑ggacKhioࠑN‗oggCRD通o
cDgဠVᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDcȠeTRicLᔑDcDo.
1RDᄗecwhgDb‗oggCRD通ocDgv”os hገh
gD஀ ThLwo጑khioࠈ适 VhᴘkoDcጋ, eCRDz
io4Uᄂ“ghEcࠈhgDR₍RDᄗhioࠑv‚)Lok጑C
࢐N“EaogDvS‎ToࠑN,‗okࠑme‚)mRDᄗhio
ࠑR―DoDcN,“VeE጑shioࠈzS‚)Lok࢐c \thKz,
Lok࢐S \fᄁhi eE጑ᴘmᄂ (ToeC࢐c―DoD଑
ᄠh؎hL逬 oVLRwcL)⸠2LhwᬠDhthⰠiihKvDgv
2ᬋጒI 12
ᤎMഈꀅ‍ਈࢠԠ輏‎BDਁ ऑ辏₏༐઀਋B܅(
ЧtRGGO₏༐O4਋BlB(/
TORCTOI‏UlODbE
ᴊCBDbkM‏U
tO4༎ਈѿ
dఌlBKM
k਋BlEDvOI
tBGRbઁѿ
mЋwtMkO
ࠄB
iM.MഠMଠ
GtMВylBT
TMD଄
ለbBtTOSw
༈Olw4ઁѿ
Arts&Humanities
37,537,5
2,5
7,5
Clinical, Preclini-
cal&Health, Life Sciences
and Physical Sciences
27,527,5
2,5
7,5
Engineering & Technology
27,5
7,5
Social Sciences
32,532,5
2,5
7,5
Vh᪐Io肝Rc‑aR hTRGo肝Rc hVLo᨝R
To gLcKࠑN eLhicࠋ₍RDᄗecwhgDR gDLo࢐
᪆贛ahw⸠ТoshȠVhKShഠVᰎihavcఠജgDoDhCTh
shLLᬝDTh g᜘iTRioDb mRDRLeᬄhgDb gDoDᬂ
ᨠLokTz脠hEaogDv脠ToeᴠᔠeCcDhРTomRhToab
T邁“ghEᬈThgDᬂ ckoiᄕRwh“D‑S”haRи
gDio‑‗okЛ᜘‖TRiᬗgRDcDo.
n VhsokoDcaႁ RTDcᜈomᄜToaRkomRR
eTRicLᔑDcDᠠDLcDb, \f⸠c. 2,5 %ⰠVLRShKRDgဠ
TᠠKha耠gDoDcȬ oVRgoTTz脠ᨠwcGKeToLhK
Thw―hoiజLgDiᬮ
ngc hᴘkoDc጑,―ivkoࠈzc― eE጑ᴘmR
vБ,‗oggCRD通o而gv‎o 5-acDࠑN cLRhK
ᆆghgDoiav4ఠᨠhE鴛ȠgahGThgDᄠ38,5 %.
yoLvKe― \tahEoጋ࢐w‗cNDᄈthw―hgDoi
av4DgဠDosGᬠᄠLcNDRTtᄠVᰠToeCTzРhE
aogDvЬ―hഛL輘URᬠigᬠDᬠGᬠVoLowcDL逬
CDᰠᄠKaဠhE鴛tᰠLcNDRTto, \bᰠᔠKLetRwᄠic
ghi逄R”h/((ᆍRcTDoБ.ₛos, \rav \tewoࠑ
DoLTz脠Toeᴠ(Arts & Humanities⤠ᔈRGcࠠicᔠ
mRDRLecwhgDᄠ(1㖆%⤠ᄠkToCRDcabTᰠizIᬠ
h贛TRiocDgဠsoCcgDiᰠhELokhioTRဠ(37,㖆%).
9ihKTzᬠKoTTzᬠVᰠicgoРtLeVĠVhsokoDc
acȠVLRicഛT造ᨠDoEa. 12.
ᤠ2012 \t⸠VhviRagဠLcNDRTठeTRicLᔑDcDhᨠ
ukRᄬ‘“gcTb耠2013 \t⸠ᄠLcNDRTठeTRicLᔑ
DcDhi―DLoT₃fM29‑‗oบRio肝RSgv₌shࠜ
wRs⸠rEᠠ/DᄠLcNDRTtᠠgDLhvDgဠVᰠDhȠGᬠ
wcDhKᄝc, Dh‑ \tahEoጋ࢐N‗cNDᄈt.
2Lhwc \tahEoጋ࢐S‗cNDᄈthi‖ࠑicLgRDc
Dhᨠge鴛gDie4ఠc鴛‑‗cNDRTtᄠVeEaRsomR
hTThN os఑iThg఑.ₗDR‗cN఑TtR―గhဌgv
TᠠhᔈhioTRᄠKoTTz脠soᴠWeb of Scienc攠99,
DoᴠᄠScopus.
yᠠEokᬠScopu猠RggacKhioDcabᔝhȠtLeV
VhȠSCImag漠RภeTRicLᔑDcDᠠ%LoToK造gh-
gDoiavcDgဠLcNDRTठRggacജioDcabᔝR脠hLto
TRkomRN RLo (SCImago Institutional Ranking).
n‗cNDᄈt 2014 \t.‚hI጑ 132“Ltoࠑkomᄑ
fhgᔑᄠ(igctᰠᨠLcNDRTtᬠ485ㄠhLtoTRkomRv),
RภTR脠2㤠eTRicLᔑDcDhᨠ(igctᰠ騠㈷13)⸠foT
GRLhioTRᬠhge鴛gDiavcDgဠTᠠhᔈhioTRR
KoTTz脠ᰠVeEaRsomRv脠kᠠVLcKzKeURᬠ㔠acD
R‚sa4C᠛D―ጛഖ4Uᄛ hsokoDcaR:
srnsr
ₚ“E鴛ᬠCRgaᰠhVeEaRshioTTz脠
ToeCT邁‗᠆hD;
agclrg�a R_jclr Pmmj
ₚ“E鴛ᬠshaRCcgDiᰠ
᠚DhLhi‑k“Lt᠈RkᢍRR;
xacjjclac P_rc
ₚ RgaᰠLoEhDⰠhVeEaR
shioTTz脠ᨠRkKoTRvSⰠ᪁hKvUR脠ᨠ1ゆ%
ToREhacc₍RDᄗecҐS‚ ᄗc (Vh \boeC࢐w
hEaogDvЩ;
gclrg�a Lc_bcpsfgn
ₚ Rgah“VeE጑sh
ioTTz脠ToeCTz脠LoEhDⰠhᔈhiTzᬠoiDhL造
shDhLz脠(corresponding author⤠esokzio4\f
ᔚh耠VLRToKacGThgDଠᴠhLtoTRkomRR;
xacjjclac ugrf jc_bcpsfgn
ₚ”haRCcgDiᰠ
ജsewcTDhᨬ‚sa4CcTTz脠ᨠVhsokoDcaଠ
Excellence rate, ᨠshDhLz脠hᔈhiThȠoiDhᜠ
hDࠜgRDgv”‗oggwoDᜑiocМN“ᜉoTRkomRR;
rcpl_rgml_j Cmjj_bmp_rgml
ₚ cGഖTo
LhKThᬠghDLeKTRCcgDiᰠ(VᰠshaRCcgDiᘠ
ghiЛgDT邁―‎oLeEc輈zwR oLDࠛ᜘wR
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ);
mpm_jgzcb Imn_ar
騠ᔗcKTcᬠmRDRLhio
TRᬠToeCTz脠LoEhఠhLtoTRkomRᄬ LRicഛT
Thc”―LcKTcБLhihwe₍RDᄗhioࠑ4;
gef Os_jgrw Psbjga_rgmls
ₚ RgaᰠToeCTz脠
LoEhD,“VeE጑shioࠈzS‚―oҐS‘iDhLRDcD
Tz脠GeLToao脠(RkKoTRvⰠ᪁hKvURᬠᨠicLS
TRȠsioᜌRaଠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠVᰠoiDhLRDcD
ThgDᄠᨠghhDicDgDiRᄠᔠLcNDRTthРSCImago
Journal Rank SJ删VᰠToeCTzРhEaogDvw);
ncag_jgz_rgml Ilbcx
ₚ―hhDicDgDiᄛ \fᬄoDRsR
ToeC࢐S‗oEhD―VcmRo጑komᄑ“Ltoࠑkomᄑ.
dᰠKoTTzРᰠVeEaRsomRv脠ᨠWeb of Science
9萠ghgDoiavcDgဠЛcNഛTᔝRȠLcNDRTtⰠhᔈhi
ࠜN“ghEcTࠜgDb4”hDhLhth‐iavcDgv‚hคhG
ThgDଠLogCcDᠠigc脠VhsokoDcacȠᖆeCcDhРജaR
ghoiDhLgDio‖иT邁‑k‗okT邁‖TRiᬗgRDcDhi.
BhaဠghoiDhLgDiᠠᨠKoTThРgaeCoᬠeCRDzio
cDgv gDLhth VLhVhLmᄜToabࠜ oiDhLow Rk
LokTz脠hLtoTRkomRȬ cภeCcDᠠR脠VhLvK
sᠠ(soᴠᨠШoTSoNᔝhРLcNDRTtᬠKaဠScience
& Nature⤠Raᄠ«taoiThgDR»ⰠhEᰎToCocwhN
Kaဠ“corresponding author鐠(soᴠᨠVhsokoDc
ac Scienti8c Leadership‚)SciMago Institutional
Ranking)⸠dhsokoDcaᄠᨠ/DhРLcNDRTtᬠwhGTh
VhKLokഛaRDଠTᠠKiᬠhᔈhiTzᬠtLeVV造騠Vh
ᴘkoDc጑‚጑vDcጋThgDR (Impact Indicators)
R)ghDLeഈRCcgDio (Collaboration Indicators).
2 ᬗihN \tLeVě“DThgvDgv―ጛഖ4Uᄛ:
c_l agr_rgml sampc (MCS)
. 9LcKTcᬠshaRCc
gDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖ࠑicLgRDcDo.
c_l lmpm_jgzcb agr_rgml sampc (MLCS)
9LcKTcc₍RDᄗhioࠑc eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖ࠑicL
gRDcఘ, hᜄoaRkhioTࠜc h“EaogDR‎To
ࠑN,‚RKe eE጑ᴘmᄂ, \thKe eE጑ᴘmᄑ.
pmnmprgml rmn C. % nsbjga_rgmls (PPrmn
C. %)
. hav eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖ࠑicLgRDcDo,‚Sh
KvUR脠ᨠ10 % gowz脠mRDRLecwzS, ᨠhE鴛Р
CRgac eE጑ᴘmᄂ.
nDhLoဠtLeVVᠠSoLosDcLRkecఠsoᴠghDLeK
TRCcgDiᰠᔠKLetRwᄠhLtoTRkomRvwᄬ‌oᴠ
ᆆwcGKeToLhKThᬠghDLeKTRCcgDih:
pmnmprgml amjj_bmp_rgtc nsbjga_rgmls
(PPamjj_b)
. hav eE጑ᴘmᄂ‖ࠑicLgRDcDo
᪆ghoiDhLgDiᬠᔠKLetRwᄠhLtoTRkomRvwR.
pmnmprgml glrcpl_rgml_j amjj_bmp_rgtc
nsbjga_rgmls (PPglr amjj_b)
. hav eE጑ᴘmᄂ
eTRicLᔑDcDᠠᨠghoiDhLgDiᬠᔠKiewဠᄠEhacᬠ
gDL᠈᠄R.
c_l ecmep_nfga_j amjj_bmp_rgml bgsr_lac
(MECB)
.₄LcKࠛc \tcht᜘(Rиgshc‗᠕gDhv
Tᄛ cGഖ―hoiDh᜘wR.
pmnmprgml jmle bgsr_lac amjj_bmp_rgtc
nsbjga_rgmls (PP > C... im)
. hav eE጑ᴘmᄂ
eTRicLᔑDcDo, \boVRgoTTz脠ᨠghoiDhLgDiᬠ
g)hLtoࠑkomRvБ, LogVhahGcࠈ逄R To Log
gDhvTRᄠEhacᬠCcР100〠sw.
n‗cNDᄈt‚sᎀCo而gv‖ࠑicLgRDcDz,‎o
TRwo4Uᄛ ᬗi逛 500 cgD h”haRиgDie
VeEaRsomRȠk 4 \thKᠠᨠ贛ahР(eCRDzio4D
gv Dhጋsh Dᄁz VeE጑ᴘmᄂ Article‑ Review)
g)ihคhGࠜgDb4 VLhihKRDb‗oTGRLhioTRc
Vᰠa4EhwᘠRภVhsokoDcacȠsoᴠᔠeCcDhРജaR
ghoiDhLgDio (D.‛. (LoᶍᄜTRLhioTTzc Vhso
koDcaR), \foᴠᄠEcภeCcDo, \f⸠c⸠VᰠigcwᘠToEhLe
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ.₄ 2014 \t. cLiRC࢐N“DEhL‖ࠑ
iᬗgRDcDhi \rav \roabࠛN缛th‗o࢏RLhioTRv
hgeUcgDiavcDgv h”h጑CcgDie eE጑ᴘmᄂ
Tᬠiᰠigc脠GeLToaoS, RTഛsᔑLecwz脠Web of
Scienc攠99,  \fhabsᰠ᪆hᔈhiTz脠(core journals),
VLoiRaᠠhDEhLᠠshDhLz脠ᄠᔁRghᴠVLRicഛ
Tz \bo―᠂Dc http://www.leidenranking.com/
methodology/indicators#core-journals.ₛ᠝Rw
hELokhЬ‑ภRgShKThtᰠVhകCcDᠠVeEaRsomRȬ
Vh‗᠕иDow―hgDoiRDcጛN‗ᬂDRTto,‑gsa4Co
cDgဠVhLvKsᠠ16 % gc脠VeEaRsomRȬ LhRTഛs
ᔑLhioTTz脠ᨠEokᬠKoTTz脠Web of Science CC.
l鴛“KRࠠLcNDRT\t Performance Rank
ing of Scienti8c Papers for World Universities
161
2ᬋጒI 13
ᐅbMഏ܏Ȅ缠अ괋ЈN\n Performance Ranking of Scienti—c Papers
for World Universities (HEEACT)
sऄbBऄ(
dTKwv਋Mtf 2013
cBD TKАObMtO
MggacജioDcጋgᴘv
VLhഖsDRᨈhgDb
2haRCcgDiᰠgDoDcȠkᠠVhgacKTRᬠ1ㄠac\f (2002–2012)
2haRCcgDiᰠgDoDcȠᨠDcseUcРthKᘠ(2012)
n጑vDcጋThgDb
RggacജioࠑN
2h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN
kᠠVhgacKTRᬠ1ㄠac\f (2002–2012)
2h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN
kᠠVhgacKTR 2 \thKᠠ(2011–2012)
9LcKTcc”h጑CcgDih₍RDᄗhioࠑN
kᠠVhgacKTRᬠ1ㄠac\f (2002–2012)
MggacജioDcጋgshc
VLc᨜gShKgD᨜
-inde砠kᠠVhgacKTR 2 \thKᠠ(2011–2011)
2h጑CcgDih‚zghshmRDᄗecҐS―DoDcN (2002–2012)
2haRCcgDiᰠgDoDcȠᨠ
zghshLcNDRTthiz脠
GeL࠘ጘ脠ᨠDcseUcРthKe* (2012)
*ЖeLToazⰠiShKvURᬠᨠicLSTR 5 % ᰠRwVosD-(osDhLᘠᨠsoGKhȠVLcKwcDThȠsoDcthLRR.
(HEEACT)ⰠshDhLzȠgDLhRDgဠTᠠhᔈhiᬠVeEaR
somRȬ VLhRTഛsᔑLhioTTz脠ᨠWeb of Science,
g 2007 \t.―hgDoiavcD₉omRhToጋ࢐N‖ࠑicL
ᔑDcఠТoNioTv⸠2LRDcLRvwᄠhDEhLᠠeTRicLᔑ
DcDhᨠKaဠKoabTcNIctᰠoToaRkᠠᆆghgDoiac
ࠑv‗cNDᄈto‐iav而gv―acKe4URc:
1. dhVoKoTRᬠᨠТhV-70〠hLtoTRkomRȬ
VLcകDoiacTTz脠ᨠoToaRDRCcᔝhРLokഛ
ac Essential Science Indicators o ጘD(hL
wc InCites.
2⸠dLRgeDgDiRᬠᨠLcNDRTto脠ARWU, QS,
THE, U.S.News.
dhaeCRiIRNgv ᬗᬃᬈb‖TRiᬗgRDc
DhᨠoToaRkRLecDgဠVᰠVoLowcDLoЬ LRic
ഛTTzРᨠDoEa. 13ⰠshDhLzᬠDosGᬠEcLeDgဠ
aREᰠRภEssential Science IndicatorsⰠaREᰠ
TcVhᔗcകDicTTᰠVᰠEokᬠKoTTz脠Web of
Scienc斆99ⰠᄠghgDoiavcDgဠhshTCoDcabTzȠ
LcNDRTtⰠghഛL輘URȠ50〠eTRicLᔑDcDhi.
2Lhwc“EUcth‗cNDᄈtoₛoȚoࠋgsᄂ‖ࠑ
icLᔑDcఠghgDoiavcఠᄠLcNDRTtᄠVᰠIRLh
sRРhEaogDvР(㘠hEaogDcN⤠ᄠVLcKwcDTzР
soDcthLRvР(1㐠soDcthLRȬ“DThgvURSgဠ
s)cgDcgDicࠈ逄‑ \fcSࠑCcgsᄄ \boeᴘw).
rVᄕoTT逛‚z缛‗ᬂDRTtR c‑gиLVz
io4\f icᔋ ᔁcsDᜠge鴛gDie4UR脠LcNDRT
thᨠeTRicLᔑDcDhᨬ ᰠviav4DgဠToREhacᬠ
RkicgD࢐Б.
ТosRРhELokhЬ‚“VRgoTTz脠LcNDRTto脠
VLRgeDgDiecఠVLosDRCcᔝᄠicᔋ―VcsDᜠiᰎ
whGTz脠VhsokoDcacȬ“ఠVLhgDhtᰠshaRCc
gDio VeE጑ᴘmᄂ Kh gahG࢐S VhᴘkoDcacN
ࠜᜄoaRkhioTࠜth₍RDRLhioTRv‑‑gVhab
khioࠑv₭LosmRhࠑLhioࠑv”h጑CcgDio e
E጑ᴘmᄂ‑₍RDᄗhioࠑN \rav”hLLcsDThth
eCcDᠠisaoജᨠshTsLcDTz脠eTRicLᔑDcDhi.
fokwcᜠhLtoTRkomRᄠVLosDRCcᔝᄠickKᬠ
eCRD通ocDgv eDcw \bhLБLhioࠑv hᴘkoDc
ጛN \bo”haRиgDih LᬁhKoioDcጛN (Faculty)
RaᄠAcademic Staff (ToeCTh-VcKothtRCcᔝR脠
LoEhDTRshi‚‗hggRнshN \fcᜄRࠜጜtRR).
fhgᔑNᔝRᬠeTRicLᔑDcD造ᨠwcGKeToLhK
Tz脠LcNDRTto脠VLcകDoiacT造icᔋwᠠᔝLhw
ThⰠVLᄠ/DhРhᔈhiTzᬠVLhEacw造ᔚvkoTz
ᄄcࠈh― hᴘkoDcavБ,₁oLosDcLRke4UᄄR
soᴠshaRCcgDih, \foᴠᄠsoCcgDiᰠToeCTz脠Ve
EaRsomRN⸠舘sRᬠwhGTᰠgഛaoDଠLcshwcTKo
mᄑ \rav―hDLeKࠑshi‑‘KБࠑgDLomᄑ‖ࠑ
icLgRDcDhi h‖aeCIcࠑ4 eE጑ᴘmRhࠈzS
VhsokoDcጛN―‖иDhw‚gcS‑kahGᬈT邁‚z缛
ᔁhghEhᨠeCcDᠠᄠh贛TsᄠVeEaRsomRȠᆆRS
VLRЛࠛTRv \rav―hgDoiጛTRv‗ᬂDRTthi?
yo gcthKTv缈ᄂ \rcࠋ goҐw Lcoጋ࢐w Dos
DRиgsR LcKgDoiaရDgv‗᠕IRLᬈᄛ cGഖ
T᠗hഈhth―hDLeഈRCcgDio,‖icaRCRiᢀUcth
ᴘs \rhᎀ cGKeToLhK࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ, \fos
ᆆiᰎwhGThgDଠVeEaRsomRȠLhgᔑNᔝR脠oi
DhLhi‚‗ᬂDRTthi邁 cGഖToLhKT邁₏eL
ToaoS.ₗ((csDᄚ࢐w \fosGc hGcD“ᴘkoDbgv
Log缑Lcࠑc LosDᄝR eE጑ᴘmᄑ \boeC࢐S
LckeabఘDhi‚₏eᜈoaoS“DᴗzDhth \rhgDeVo
RaᄠRᔁhabkhioTRᬠhVmRᄠhDsLzDhtᰠജgDeVo
᪆GeLToao脠ᔠtRELRKThȠwhഛab耠VeEaRso
mRR⸠rDsLzDzȠജgDeĠVhDcTmRoabTᰠᔁhghE
gDiecD hacc zgDLhwe₍RDᄗhioࠑ4 \boeC࢐S
gDoDcȬ D. c. hsokzioc\f ge鴛gDicTThᬠiaRvTRc
To VhᴘkoDc጑₍RDᄗecwhgDR,‑gVhጋkecҐc
VLR―hgDoiacࠑR‗cNDᄈthi‖ࠑicLgRDcDhi.
yo‖Lhᨈc”oGKhth”hTᴗcDࠜth‖TR
iᬗgRDcDo‚hkwh輈z―ጛഖ4Uᄛ \boV᜘i
acࠑာ―VhghEgDie4URc”os hi避cࠑ4
VeEaRsomᄜTࠜN‘sDRᨈhgDR,‌os‑–eCIc
wᘠVLcകDoiacTR耠ToeCTz脠LckeabDoDhᨠ
eTRicLᔑDcDᠠᨠwcGKeToLhKTz脠RTഛsgo脠
mRDᄗhioࠑv.
uKwRTᄕD᜘DRiT逛 ᬗz:
уэыдня
тдшннтоунчхя
чнинохя
нипн
TRဠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠsoᴠwcgDᠠLoEhD造oiDhLᠠ
ᨠVeEaRsomRvS, CDᰠVᰎihaR\f RkEc輘DଠhIR
EhᴠᄠTcDhCThgDcȠVLᄠRTഛsgomRᄠVeEaRso
mᄂ‖ࠑicLgRDcDo;
птетохт
этоыпнохц
ншхчхю
E጑ᴘmᄂ LR LhicKcࠑR”hࠝeLghi \bo
koЛUᬈᄛ \rhᎏThgDᬂ \boeCTh-ěKothtR
CcᔝR脠LoEhDTRshᨬ ᰎihav4鴛ᬠVhizIoDଠ
eLhicTb”oKLhihth―hgఘio.
9Dᄄe጑Le4URc cLz:
юуноыпштохт
ьшну
шх
этнхэыпнохт
‎oiRgᄄhgDR“D”h጑CcgDio eE጑ᴘmᄂ
᪆wcGKeToLhKTz脠EokoSⰠR脠mRDRLhioTRv;
ыньтоюнчхя
ьшнуы
уошхчнчхц
sLzDhtᰠജgDeVᠠᨠLcNDRTthiz脠GeLToaoS
ᄠD. \r.;
ыпыштохт
пншхфхчнчхх
нучоы+
ěKothtRиgsᆁ‗᠆hDTRshi, hEeиTᄛ
oᔁRLoTDhᨠᄠgDeKcTDhᨠhᔈhioРosoഛ
wRCcᔝhtᰠVRᔋwoⰠRᔁhabkhioTR耠/acs
DLhTTzS‗cgeLghi‑ \boeshwcDᜑCcgᴑS
ᄈgDLewcTDhi \rav aoࠑLhioࠑv―ihcN
ToeCࠜN \rcvDcabࠜgDR.
MT(᜘gDLesDeLT逛 ᬗzₚ‗᠕IRLᬈᄛ
VhKVRᔝᄠTᠠ/acsDLhTTzᬠLcgeLᖐⰠVᰎih
av肝Rc‖CcTzw‎ToshwRDbgv――oМN‘s
DeoabࠜN \boeCࠜN‑T(hᜄomRcN‑ aoTR
LhioDଠToVLoiacTRဠᔚhR脠RggacജioTRȠ
i)ghhDicDgDiᄑ― ᄗhi逄R \fLcTKoБ, h
ഛLTRkomRဠToeCThtᰠhEhLeജioTRဠᄠKL.
ngᬠ/DᰠVᰎihaRఠLokiRioDଠToeCTzᬠRg
gacജioTRvⰠVLcകDoiav4URᬠRTDcLcᔠKaဠ
wRLhihtᰠToeCThtᰠghhE鴛gDiᠠᄬ―acജio
DcጋTh,―VhghEgDie4URc hviacࠑ4 \boeC
࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ‚zghshth‖LhiTv.
Нчыьып Н, Х,
₉oëzc₏eLTo᎐:“EkhL \boëzS‗ok
LoEhDᰝ‑ ᰁzDso \fRĜጜtRCcgsᰂ \rR((cLcTmRomRR
To₭ᰈc―᲍Roabࠜ-谝ᰈᰄRCcgᴑS‑ Lh(cggᄜToab
Tz脠VLhEacР/⼠yoeCTh-seabDeLhahtRCcgsRȠGeLToa.
ꒆ12 (157). 25.08.2007. URL: http://www.relga.ru/
Environ/WebObjects/tgu-www.woa/wa/Main?textid=20
24&level1=main&level2=articles
Оэтехххо С, П,* uуиотчып Н, л,
‟cDhKz REaᄜwcDᜑR
R‗zࠜs₌acsDLᰈࠜN \boeCࠜN cᜑhKRᴑ.₉ᰚhgR
ERLgs㨠MnPRP蔠9ᐠfuyⰠyЭM2ry, 2012. 25㘠g.
Оэтехххо С, П,* uуиотчып Н, л,* жтэончыпн Н, Р,
uToaRภ
mRDRLhioTRဠᨠEREaRhwcDLRR⸠yhihgRERLgs㨠MnPRP蔠
9ᐠfuyⰠyЭM2ry, 2013. 34㐠g.
Рхшяэтпючхц Р, С,* еньчхо Н, П,* Отшыитэып П, Н,
₠eؗR
ᴘDhL”os‑TgDLewcTD‑T(hLwomRhࠈhN \boiᄉomᄑ.
9dE.㨠dLh(cggRv, 2008. 35㈠g.
Ннэшнчыпн Х, П,
₄ᄕDᬄo―ivkᬂ cGഖ \rhseЛTDowR,
VhgDLhcTToဠTᠠhgThiᬠggzahs㨠VᰠKoTTzРScience
Citation Index /⼠yТM⸠9cL. 2. 1973. ¤ 6⸠9. 3阸.
Нншхнып П, П,* Нушьчточы З, Н,
yoeshЛDLRv.‏keиTᄛ
LoบRDRv \boeᴑ”os‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜth L᲍cgᔘ.‟.:
yoeso, 1969. 19㈠g.
Пхюшячып П, П,* Сьячточы Т, Л,
ₗ((csఠPoD(cဠ᪆mRDR-
LhioࠑR―DoఛN‗hggᄂgsRS‖Cc࢐S,“VeE጑shioࠈzS
kᠠLeEcGhР/⼠yТM⸠9cL. 2⸠MT(hLwomRhTTzᬠVLhmcg-
g造ᄠgRgDcwz. 2009. ¤ 3⸠9. 19–24.
Пэнцю С,* Охптэ С,
₄hDLeKTRиgDih‚₫ࠛiRKRwhw
shaacKGc묠⼠VcL⸠ᔠoTta⸠P⸠2⸠dcDLhiᠠ/⼠2hwweTRso-
mRဠᨠghiLcwcTThȠToesc㨠gE⸠VcLcihKhᨠ⼠ghgD.ⰠhEU.
LcK⸠ᄠigDeV⸠gD⸠Э⸠P⸠PRLgshthⰠn⸠y⸠9oKhigshth⸠P.:
ሗhtLcgg, 1976.
Рноднонуно е
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rgThiToဠsaoggR(RsomRဠ⼠VcL⸠ᔠoTta.㬠VhഠLcK.
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п утннухчтючын* ютнноухчтючын* хэыоышыдхчтючын х дтыдэнфхчтючын ьэтеюунпштохях он
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Ccgshth‘To጑ko“DKcጋ࢐S
eиT邁, shaጛsDRihi R hLto
ࠑkomᄂ”‑S―LoiTcࠑ4‘To጑Dᄝ
gDoጝᄚocDgv― \bchEShKᄄhgD஀
᪐viavDb‎oshࠜwcᜈhgDR‚ hab
缑S hEъcwoS ᄈ(hLwomᄑ.‏g
VhabkhioTRc ᜑcМi‚RkeoaRko
mRᄠKoTTz脠VᰎihavcఠghsLoDRDb
koDLoD造TᠠToShGഛTRᬠkoiRᔑwh
gDcȠᄠᨠKoabTcNIc҆騠TᠠVLcK
gDoiacࠑc‗ckeጋDoDhi‘To጑ko.
dhБwh hgDLhcࠑv \rRotLoЄ
ᴠTRРhDThᔑDgဠDosGᬠᄠVLcK
gఘiacTRc―ጜGࠜhᜉoTRkhioT
ThȠRT(hLwomRᄠᨠ(hLwoDᬠsoᜌ
(soᜌRLhioTRc), \bᠠshDhLz脠whGTh
VhᴘkoDb―ivkR‘To጑kᄗecҐS
/acwcTDhi. 萠ihVLhgowᄠsoᜌRLh
ioTRဠToeshwcDLRCcᔝhȠRT(hL
womRᄠDcᔈᰠᔚvkoT造koKoCᄠVh
gDLhcTRဠVLhtTᰎᠠLokiRDRဠToesR
R \fc脈hጜtRR‑ koKoCR h᪐IcTRv
soCcgDiᠠge鴛gDie4UR脠ᄠLokiR
DRv Thi邁 ToV᜘iጛTRN ᄕgጛKh
ioࠑN‚ \boeC࢐S“LtoࠑkomRvS.
4.1⸠sOt଄tMkOTwԠTORvР
wzbB茈M܏Nww
舘ᜌRLhioTRcⰠviavvᔋ“KTRРRภ
VᜑcМi TotavKࠜth VLcKgఘiac
ࠑv KoࠈzS, VhKCᄈvcDgv hEUᄄ
VLᄈmᄁow‚Rkeo጑komᄑ, \f.‛.”hЁosDThwe
VLcKgDoiacࠑ4 hጋIhth“Eъcwo‑T(hL
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oTo጑ko― LᄄcLoБ \bokioࠑN‚Rkeo጑ko
mRȠVLRicഛTᠠᨠDoEa⺆14ⰠVhgDLhcTThȠTᠠ
hᔈhioTRᄠsaogᔑ(RsomRᄬ LRicKcTThȠᨠ
[Bцrner, Polley, 2014, p. 7]⸠ᦆKoTThРLokഛaᬠ
KaဠsoGജtᰠDRVᠠRภDoEa⺆1㐠w造Logᔄh
DLRРSoLosDcLTzᬠVLRwcL造oToaRkᠠᔠ贛
ab耠VhsokoDଠiᰎwhGThgDᄠᄠhtLoTRCcTRဠ
shࠝLcD࢐S \fᄁhi‚Rkeo጑komᄑ‚ Lᄄc
TcTRᄠᴠToeshwcDLRCcᔝRРRggacജioTRvw.
舘GKzȠRภVLcകDoiacTTz脠DRVhᨠToesh
wcDLRCcᔝhtᰠoToaRkᠠhDicCoc\f \bᠠhKRࠠRภ
ihVLhghᨠᰠVLcKwcDᬠRggacജioTRဠ(ihVLh
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komRȠfu褠EeഛఠhKThiLcwcTTᰠhDicCoDଠTᠠ
ihVLhᖐ: \tഛ㼠ᔠscw㼠ᄠshtKo?
n \b᠕DhvURN hЛTD \boREhጛc‑gиLVz
io4URᬠᔚcഛTRဠᰠVLRcwo脠ToeCThȠiRke
oaRkomRᄠghഛL輘DgဠᨠLeshihകDiᬠ[Bцrner,
Polley, 2014],  \fosGᬠᨠhDsLzDhРhTaoNT-seL
gᬠDc脠GᬠoiDhLhᨠ[IVMOOC, 2014]⸠dLRwcL造
iRkeoaRkomRN, LcKgDoiጛTT逛‚‚z缛
esokoTTz脠LeshihകDiᬠᄠseLgcⰠVhgDLhcT造
g)RgVhabkhioTRcw‑TDctᜑLhioTࠜN aoD
(hLҐ oTo጑ko R iRkeo጑komᄑ KoࠈzS Sci²
dLhcs\f «2oLDᠠLhggRNgshȠToesR묠PRTRgDcLgDiᠠ
hELokhioTRဠᄠToesᄠf餠(http://www.mapofscience.ru/)
viavcDgv‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜN―RgDcМN \rav‗cteavᜈh
tᰠᄠoiDhwoDRCcgshtᰠhEThiacTRဠEok造KoTTz脠eCcTz脠
R)hLtoࠑkomᄂ,‚sᎀCov hᴘkoఛ጑‑S \rcvఛጋThgDR,
hgeUcgDiጛTRv―DoDᄕDRиgshth‘ToaRko \boeCTh-ᄕ
gጛKhioDcabgshN‘sDRiThgDR‑“EcgěиTRv“gThiz
KaဠghkKoTRဠoToaRDRCcgsR脠woDcLRoahᨠᰠghgDhvTRᄠ
LhggRNgshth―ᬝDh᜘ \boeCT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN‑‗ok
LoEhDhs⸠ᤠ«2oLDᬠLhggRNgshȠToesR묠RgVhabkhioT造
hDKcጋ࢐c cDhKz”oLDᄗhioࠑာ LcKgDoiacࠈzc
᪆KoTThРLokKcac.
ToolⰠLokLoEhDoTThȠ᪆Cyberinfrastructure for
Network Science Center OTRicLᔑDcDᠠMT
KRoT造[Sci눠Tool, 2010]. Sci눠Too氠VLcകDoi
avcD―hEhN hKeጋ࢐N \boEhL LhtLoЄ
Tz脠ᔗcകDᨠKaဠRkeCcTRဠᄠhELoEhDsᄠ
ToeshwcDLRCcᔝhȠRT(hLwomRRⰠshDhLzȠ
VhKഛLGRiocఠVLhicഛTRᬠigc脠DRVhᨠToe
shwcDLRCcᔝhtᰠoToaRkᠠTᠠigc脠eLhiTvS,
hVRgoTTz脠ᨠDoEa⺆14⸠daoD(hLwᘠSci눠Tool
wh輈h‗ᬝhЛTKhioDb \rav‑keиTRv LR
ᬄhi‚RkeoaRkomRR‑ \roabࠛN缛N‗᠆hDz,
VLᄠ/DhРTchEShKRwᰠeCRDzioDbⰠCDᰠTcsh
DhLzᬠiᰎwhGThgDᄠVᰠRwVhᜌᘠᄠoToaRkᘠ
KoࠈzS“LRcTDᄗhio࢐ \bo \roࠈzc“)Toesc
9ШḠ(ToVLRwcL, \roTTzᬠᰠtLoTDo NSFⰠVLR
ivkoTTzᬠᴠ(hLwoDᘠKoD造9Шu).
dLRЛ᜘wR―DoDᄕDRиgshth‘ToaRko
ᆆVhgDLhcTRဠVLh(RacȠoiDhLhᨠgae輘\f
iRkeoaRkomRR i (hLЛ ᜘kThhE᜘kT邁 \rRo
t᜘ww‑ \f᠆aRm \roTT邁.₄ᄕDᬄoDRиgshc
iicഛTRᬠᨠiRkeoaRkomR耠ᔠRᔁhabkhio
TRcw‍R᠉L᠄w hGTh haeCRDb,“ؗ᠌Ri
IRᔋ””TRtᬠ[ЖcavkT, 2009崠ᄠeCcETRsᘠ
[ЯeⲆ2013]. 2TRtᠠ[ЖcavkT逬)2009] VLcകDoi
avcఠVLRcw造RᔁhabkhioTRဠKRotLowРKaဠ
shwweTRsomRȠᨠVLh贛ggᬠVhKഛLGsᄠVLR
TvDRဠLcIcTRN⸠ᤠeCcETRsᬠ[Яe, 2013崠VhK
LhETᰠhVRgoT造DcSTRCcᔝRᬠoᔁcsD造VhK
thDhisᄠKoTTz脠KaဠiRkeoaRkomRR⸠2LoDsᰠ
hgDoThiRЕv \bo‚o輈邁‘gěsDoS‚RkeoaR
komRRⰠVLhRaa4gDLRLhioᨠR脠TᠠVLRwcLᬠ
iRkeo጑komᄑ \rRotLoЄz‑ \foE጑mz‑gShK
࢐S \roࠈzS.
nRkeoaRkomRv ᄕao₌ጛЛTDhi‚”haR
иgDic hab缛w, ᬄ h輈h‖Kᬗ輑ioDb
i)hě᜘DRiThN owvDR, ᮍcጛghhE᜘kTo.
rEъᬄ“ě᜘DRᨈhN owvDR cahiᬝo“VLc
ഛavcఠ«wotRCcᔝhc묠CRgaᰠgcwଠVa4g-
wRTeg \rio («sh缛ጛs‟Raጛ᜘»).₄᜘iTRDc
VLcകDoiacTRᬠhKThȠᄠDhȠGᬠRT(hLwo
mRᄠTᠠLRg⺆36ᠠᆆ36ؠ(ᔄ⺆g⺆187). ᤠsoCcgDiᬠ
g᜘iTRi᠛w邁₌ጛЛTDhi‚逕DeVo4D \rcgvDb
2ᬋጒI 14
n༏ଈྉԈЅ​ҏ༎ Oᄐ༁ԋऄ̅ఐ༂༠ਈਇҀਠ⠎‌vྜྷvઃ‑v઀ਈ‎ྏएబ
ЍԈ଄蘄脄ऑ频ҭ‌RU餅ဋ⤠Рᄉ༎ࠅ괠ࠊᄐ༁ԋऄ̅ఐ༂༠ਈਇҀਠ
᠄G
TORv༁BbtwCBDv༂M
OTOlw4O
ut༎BTE \bORv༁BbtwCBDv༂M \nTOlw4O
rwvt༯
dTKЎwKRO܆ࢠ(
(1–100₀એwDB()
LtMVB%RbM̈f(/
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(101–10
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9ఘDRgDRиgᴑN
o࠘aRภ⼠dhgDLhcTRᬠ
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ᲆVcLgh࠘abThȠ࠘-
eCࠜN LhഖsDRᨈhgDR
MggacജioDcጋgsRc
mcTDL逬‖ࠑicLgRDcD逬
VLcKwcDTzᬠhEጘgDᄠ
RaR \thgeഘLgచo
ngc eE጑ᴘmᄑ
9ШḠRaᄠigᬠVᘭ
E጑ᴘmᄑ‚ ᄗc
%chVLhgD᜘ࠕDicT
࢐N‘To጑k (%ഛ?)
MTKᄚRKeoጋTov
D᜘csDhLRv cLcЛ
UcTRv‑ggጛKhioDcav
f᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ cgD
LoEhD造oiDhLhᨠ
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ‚ \bo
eCThРGeL࠘ac
ꀘgVLcഛacࠑc eE጑
somᄜTࠜN‘sDRᨈhgDR
hLtoࠑkomᄂ₠uy
ТcЁhLoጋ࢐N
oToaRk (舜ऍo?)
BᄈoБᴘ hae
Ccࠑv‑TKᄚRKe
oጋ࢐S \tLoTDhi
fokiRDRᬠDcИDRᴠ
RTgDRDeజi“DKc
aᬈRv₭RฑиgᴑS
࠘eᴠfu褠kᠠ2〠acD
11㌠acఠ(RkRCcgsR脠
RggacജioࠑN
ТcИDRCcgsRȠ
o࠘aRภ(ЧDh?)
2a4Cci逛―ahio,
esokoTTzᬠᨠkoVRgv脠
ᲆmRDRLecwz脠RgDhC-
ࠑᴘS‚ eE጑ᴘmRvS
Vh \fcЛ‑ggጛKhioTRv
ТcwoDᄝR eE጑ᴘmᄂ
RTgDRDeజi“DKcac
TRဠSRwRᄠᄠ࠘eᴠ
ᲆИDcLᄘጘ脠fuy
2oLD造sa4Cciz脠
gahᨠᄠDcИDRsᄠ
RggacജioࠑN fuy
萛DcihN
o࠘aRภ(萠scw?)
9cDb“Ltoࠑkomᄂ,
eCcT逛”hDhLzS
i送hገv而‗oEhDz
᪆ghoiDhLgDiᬠᔠKoTThȠ
ToeCTᰂ \t᜖VĜN
9ᬌb―hoiDhLgచo
ЛGKe‑ggጛKhio
DcavwᄠVᰠo࠘aRkR-
᜖cwᰂ \fcwoDRsc
2a4Cci逛
shЁcDcࢍᄑ fuy
*n―shEᴘS‖ᴘkoT‚hėhg,‑KcTDR(ᆍᄗe4Uᄂ―eEъcsD.’‐CcȝoS \foE጑mz LᄚcKc࢐ LᄄcLz \bokioࠑN‚Rke
oaRkomRN⸠ТoEaRmᠠhgThioTᠠTᠠsaoggR(RsomRRⰠVLRicKcTThȠᨠ[Bцrner, Polley, 2014, p. 7]ⰠᔠRkwcTcTRcРVLRwcLhi.
DcwoDᄝ,‘ \bc“DKcጋ࢐c₁oLosDcLRgDᄝR
i)vCcȝoS \foE጑mz. KᄈgDicࠈhc Lcᄄe
UcgDih \rRotLoЄz cLcK \foE጑C࢐w LcK
gDoiacTRcР騠/DᰠiᰎwhGThgDଠiRkeoabTᰠ
hmcࠑDb―DcVcࠋ“D጑CRv‘EghᎀD࢐S‎To
иTRN,―᜘iTRi᠛w邁₌ጛЛTDhi―᜘ke h
Tcgshጋsᄄ hᴘkoDcavw; \boVLᄄcL, Rgah
VeEaRsomRȠᨠVcLiz脠DLc脠hEaogDv脠VLR
E጑kRDcጋTh“Kᄈoshih, \bh“ࠑ“D጑Co而gv
Vh hᜄoaRkhioTࠜN₍RDRLecМgDR.
nRkeoaRkomRဠsoᴠwcDhഠVLcകDoiacTRဠ
RT(hLwomRᄠTᬠwhGcఠshwVcTᔑLhioDଠhD
geDgDiRᬠRaᄠTRkshᬠsoCcgDiᰠRgShKTz脠
KoTTzS⸠ТosGᬠiRkeoaRkomRဠTᬠwhGcఠiz
vᨑDb‎oshࠜwcᜈhgDR,”hDhថc \bc“ETo
LeGᄚo而gv sh጑CcgDicࠈ逄R wcDhKoБ
oToaRko⸠nRkeoaRkomRဠഛaocఠkoshThwcL
ThgDᄠᨠVLcKioLRDcabTᰠghELoTTz脠ᄠhE
LoEhDoࠈzS \roࠈzS hacc \rhgDeV࢐Б \rav
ihᔁLRvDRv⸠nRkeoaRkomRvⰠVᰠgeDᄬ LcK
gDoiavcD gh؜N”LoDshc h؜EUcTRc ᜛keab
DoDhᨠoToaRkoⰠshDhLhᬠVᰎihavcఠVhTvDଠ
shTDcsgఠVLᄠVcLcShഛ”‍oTTzЬ–c輘URР
ᨠhᔈhiᬠoToaRko⸠BhicLRᬠᴠVLcകDoiacT
࢐w‚)(hLwc‚Rkeo጑komᄑ‗ckeጋDoDow
oToaRkᠠEeഛఠizghsRЬ‛gaᄠhEcᔁcCRiocD
gv‚cLR(ᆍᄗecwhgDb‗ckeጋDoDhi‘To጑ko,
D.)c.)VhaeиTᄛ‚gcS₌ጛЛTDhi LcKgDoi
avcwhtᰠhDCcDᠠwhGcఠEzDଠVLhgacGcTᰠKᰠ
ěLiRCT邁 KoTT邁‑ cDhKRs‑S“E᜘EhDsR.
dLᄄcL‚Rkeo጑komᄑ, LcKgDoiacࠈ适
TᠠLRg⺆36ᠠᆆ36ؠ(ᔄ⺆g⺆187)ⰠRaa4gDLRLe
cD chEShKRwhgDb“EcgěиTRv‚ᬗR(RmR
LecwhgDR \roࠈzS LR LᄈvDᄑ‗cIcࠑN.
ԑotLowwᠠEzaᠠVhKthDhiacTᠠKaဠVLR
TvDRv‗᭿ᬈRN“‚zEhLc ᬗhVLRvDRN h
᜘kiRDR4 \rcgvDR‘ToaRkRLeᬄ邁 \boV᜘i
acࠑN (Tokioࠑv \fcwoDᄝ \rav \roጋTcɿcth
hEgeGKcࠑv \bcgeUcgDicࠈz, eE጑ᴘmᄑ
EzaᄠhDhELoT造ᨠLeCThРLcGRwᬠᔠVLRiac
иTᄛw₌sgěLDhi‚ LcKЛDThN“Ea᠕DR
ᆆVLcകDoiav4ఠeksRᬠDcwoDRCcᔝRᬠTo
V᜘iጛTRv). av‚gcS‘ToaRkRLeᬄ邁“E
a᠕Dᬂ₁o᜘sDᬗᬈ‖Lhiᬈb₍RDRLeᬄhgDR
TRGcⰠCcРᔗcKTcwRLhihȬ DᰠVᰎihavcD
Kav‚gcS \boëzS \tLeā―(hLweaRLhioDଠ
koKoCe h᪐IcTRv‚RKRМgDR‑S \boeCࠜth
LckeabDoDᠠᨠwRLc⸠BaဠToeCTz脠tLeVVⰠsh
DhLzᬠVLcKgDoiav4\f \fcwoDRsᘠSubjec璆10,
Dhጋsh‑k‘To጑ko LcKgDoiacࠈzS \roࠈzS
whGTᰠEzaᰠE造gഛaoDଠizihKⰠCDᰠVLᄠiz
KcacࠑR \rhVhገRDcጋThth₭ᄈoTgᄗhio
TRv h輈h“輑KoDb‗hgDo”oиgDiᬈT邁
VhᴘkoDcacN eE጑ᴘmᄂ LR―hSLoTcࠑR
sh጑CcgDio eE጑ᴘmᄂ.₂ \roࠈhwe‚通hKe
whGTᰠVLRNDᄠRgShKဠRภDhthⰠCDᰠeCcTzc,
hVeE጑shioi缑c‘To጑kᄗecҐc‗oEhDz,
Vᜑ‚zghᴑS \fcwVoS‗hgఘ―МtaR―h脗o
ࠑDb goҐN izghsᄂ eLhicࠋ ihgDLcEhioT
ThgDᄠᔚhR脠LckeabDoDhᨠᨠoToaRkRLecwzS
VLcKwcDTz脠hEaogDv脠(shᔚcTTᰠhؠ/Dhw
ᔚRഛDcabgDiecఠkToCcTRᬠThLwoaRkhioT
ThN₍RDᄗecwhgDR eE጑ᴘmᄂ).—KTosh LR
hELoUcࠑR”)VcLiRC࢐w \roࠈ逄“₍RDR
LecwhgDR eE጑ᴘmᄂ \roࠈhN LcKwcDThN
hEa᠕DR‚zviaရDgv‚逕hsRN LhmᬈD―owh
mRDRLhioTRv⸠Mภ/DhtᰠgacKecDⰠCDᰠTᠠ(hTc
eic጑Ccࠑv Rgao eE጑ᴘmᄂ h \fcwoDᄝc
tLeVVo‚ ᬈb缛N―DᬁᬈR“LᄛTDRLhioTo
To LRiጛиTᄛ‚ࠛIࠛth‚TRwoTRv”―ih
Rw‗᠆hDow.‒LRTvDᄛ‗᭿ᬈRN h‚zKcጛ
TR耠LcgeLghᨠKaဠKoTThȠtLeVV造DLcEecD
KhVhገRDcጋThth‘To጑ko― LᄚacCcࠑcw
/sᔁcᜌhᨠᨠ/DhȠVLcKwcDThȠhEaogDR.
nhkwhGThgDb‚Rkeo጑komᄑ \roࠈzS‎o
iᄕRD“D \boaRCRv \thDhi邁‑ࠕDLeЛTDhi
VhgDLhcࠑv‚Rkeoጋ࢐S LcKgDoiacࠑN.
ТhabsᰠhVzఠLcteavLTz脠gᰎKoTRȠᄠVLcK
gDoiacࠑN iRkeo጑komᄂ VLR To጑Cᄑ
RࠕDLeЛTDhi‑ hKthDhiጛTT邁 \rav‚R
keo጑komᄑ \roࠈzS \toLoTDᄗecD―hkKoࠑc
hVDRwoabThth,  \fhCsᄠkLcTRဠihᔁLRvDRv,
Dᄁo‚RkeoጋThth LcKgDoiacࠑv‗ckeጋDo
Dhi.‟ࠜtRc \fRVz‚Rkeoabࠜth LcKgఘiac
TRဠLckeabDoDhᨬ“EhEUo4URᬠhVzఠwThtR脠
VhabkhioDcacN,‚gDLhcTz‚ REaᄜwcDᜑ
CcᔝRᬠEok造KoTTz脠RaᄠoToaRDRCcᔝRᬠ
ToകDLhNsᄠTo\r \bRwᄠ(VhKLhETcᬠVLᰠER
EaRhЛDLRиgsᄛ RࠕDLeЛTDz gw. i)᜘k
ഛaᮆ2.1)⸠rKTosᰠVLᄠVLhicഛTRᄠRggacജ
ioࠑN―“KThiLcwcࠈ逄‑gVhጋkhioࠑcw
LokTz脠DRVhᨠoToaRkᠠ(DoEa⺆14⤠IDoDTz脠
ᔗcകDᨠoToaRkᠠhEzCTᰠEzioc\f \bcജgDo
DhCTh⸠dLRShKRDgဠVLREctoDଠᴠRᔁhabkh
ioTR耠thDhiz脠RTgDLewcTDhᨠRaᄠgᰎKoioDଠ
ᔚhᄠRTgDLewcTD造iRkeoaRkomRᄠVhഠshT
sLcDTzȠiRഠVLcകDoiacTRဠRaᄠVhKthDhi
sᘠKoTTz脠KaဠiRkeoaRkomRR⸠r؎hᜠthDhiz脠
ᔗcകDᨠiRkeoaRkomRᄠVLRicഛ\b  [Science
mapping…Ⲇ2011].
舘ᜌRLhioTRᬠ騠hKTᠠRภgahGTcNIRS
(hLРiRkeoaRkomRᄠsoᴠVᰠDLeജcwshgDR
VLh贛ggᠠVhKthDhisᄠKoTTzS, \foᴠᄠVᰠihg
VᜑvDR4 R RTDcᜁLcఘmRR Lckeabఘఘ VhDLc
ERDcጛw.ₛLeKhᬄshgDb hKthDhisR \roTT邁
hVLcഛavcDgဠTchEShKRwhgDb4ⰠᖆhKThȠgDh
LhTzⰠesokoDଠshhLKRToD造TᠠsoᜌᬠKaဠsoG
Khth“DhE᜘G᠛whth₌ጛЛTDo (VeEaRsomRR,
RggacജioDcaဠᆆD⺆V.)ⰠᢆᖆKLethʆ騠VhaeCRDb
«soᜌhtLo(RCcᔝe4묠hᔈhieⰠVhackTe耠Kav
贛acȠoToaRkᠠᄠhDLo輘4Ue耠VLcകDoiac
TRᬠᰠLᬘabThgDR⸠yoVLRwcLⰠ᪆gaeCoᬠtch
VLhgD᜘ࠕDiᬈT邁‚RkeoaRkomRN₫soLDht᜘
(RCcᔝov묠hᔈhiᠠhDLo輘cఠLᬘabTzȠwRL
R)᜘gVLcKcጛTᄛ₌ጛЛTDhi‚ \tcht᜘(Rи
ᔝhРVLhgDLoTgDicⰠᢆ᪆gaeCoᬠDcwoDRCcᔝRS
soᜌ‑aᄠgSc҆騠ghhDTcgcTRᬠDcwoDRsⰠsh
DhLzᬠhDLo輘4\f \boesᘠLhiTᰠ᪆DhȠgDcVcTᄬ
᪆shDhLhȠcᬠhDLo輘4ఠRgShKTzᬠKoTTzcⰠRg
VhabkhioTTzᬠKaဠVhgDLhcTRဠhᔈhi造soᜌz.
9e鴛gDicTThᬠhDaRCRᬠDcwoDRCcᔝR脠«soL
DhtLo(RCcᔝRS묠hᔈhᨠh\f \tchtLo(RCcᔝRS
᪆DhЬ Dᰠw造TᬠwhGcРTᠠwhwcTఠVhgDLhcTRv
kToDଠigᬠDcwoDRsᄠRggacജioTRȠᔠeCcDhw
EeഖUᆁ‗ckeabDoDhi‑ggጛKhioTRN.ₛᬄoDR
CcᔝRᬠsoᜌ造TᬠhEaoKo4ఠVLcകsokoDcabThN
ᔑahȠ«Ecaz脠VvDcT묠tchtLo(RCcᔝR脠soᜌ.
rᔈhiToဠ贛TThgDଠsoᜌhtLo(RCcᔝhtᰠ
gVhghEo‚Rkeo጑komᄑ \roࠈzS‎osᎀCo
cDgv i‚hคhGࠜgDR LhKcМTgDᜑLhioDb
᜘gVLcKcጛTᄛ₌ጛЛTDhi‚ egahiThw Lh
gDLoTgDiᬠsoᜌ逬 hsokzioဠLoggDhvTRဠ
ЛGഖ \bRwR.₋T᠐‗᠕VLcKcጛTᄛ₌ጛЛT
DhᨠᨠVLhgDLoTgDiᬠsoᜌ逬 造whGcРToSh
KRDb‚“ᴗcgDࠜgDR‚zELoTࠜth₌acwcTఘ
igᬠge鴛gDie4URᬠ/acwcTD逬”hDhLzᬠgCR
Do4DgဠEaRksRwR, \boVLRwcᜠDcwoDRCcᔝᄠ
givkoࠈzc eE጑ᴘmᄑ“KThth‚Lcwcࠈhth
VcᜑhKo.‏wcTࠜ‚hคhGࠜgDb“VLcKcaRDb
hᴗcgDࠜgDR ᪐ELoTࠜth /acwcTఘ Kcao4D
soᜌhtLo(RCcᔝRᬠᔁhghE造hDhELoGcTRဠ
VhackTzwᄠKaဠoToaRko, \foᴠsoᴠVᰎihav
4\f \boNDᄠ/DoahTTzȠToEhᜠ/acwcTDhᨠKaဠ
ᔗoiTcTRv⸠rDwcDRЬ DᰠVhRᔝ“sLcgD
ThgDᬂ₌ጛЛTDo c‐iaရDgv―ጛKgDiᄛw
R脠soᜌhtLo(RCcᔝhtᰠhDhELoGcTRv⸠rEᬠ
iᰎwhGThgDᆆ騠soᴠVhRᔝ, \foᴠᄠhDhELoGc
TRᮆ騠viav4DgဠgacകDiRcРwhഛacȬ–c輘
UR脠᪆«soᜌhtLo(RCcᔝRS묠hᔈhioS⸠r؎hᜠ
VhKShജᨠᴠizEhLᘠwhഛacȠKaဠVhgDLhcTRဠ
«soᜌhtLo(RCcᔝRS묠hᔈhᨠVLcകDoiac\b
᪆[Mapping research…, 2008].
2,C,C, Геопдоетданетвенный анализ (где )
n”oиgDic LRЛ᜘ \tchVLhgD᜘ࠕDiᬈ
ThtᰠoToaRkᠠVhgDLhRРsoᜌᘠwcgఠLoEhD造
oiDhLhᨬ‖sokziocwz脠ᨠo((RaRomRᄠᨠGeL
ToaᬠACM Transactions on Database Systems
(TODS)⸠deEaRsomRᄠᨠToeCThРGeLToaᬠhD
ThgvDgဠᴠekshȠDcwoDRscⰠRᔝa4CcTRဠgh
gDoiav而 eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐c₏eLTo᎐
(VhKLhETcᬠhEgeGഛTRᬠsaogᔑ(RsomRȠ
GeLToahᨠᔄ⺆᪆Lokഛaᮆ3.7)⸠9acജioDcab
ThⰠVᰠo((RaRomRᄠoiDhLhᨠwhGTᰠhDgac
KRDb, \tഛ‗oᔁhahGcT造ToeCTzᬠ贛TDL逬
᪆shDhLz脠izVhaTv4DgဠLoEhD造VᰠekshȠDc
woDRsc⸠fckeabDoఠoToaRkᠠVLcകDoiac\b \bᠠ
LRg⺆37 (ᔄ⺆g⺆188)⸠MT(hLwomRဠᰠshhLKR
ToDo脠soGജtᰠwcgDᠠLoEhD造EzaᠠVhaeCcTᠠ
tchshKRLhioTRcРoKLcᔈhȠRT(hLwomRᄠRภ
o((RaRomRᄠoiDhLhᨠᨠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠
k᠁RgvS.₅chsh഑Lhi᠈Rc)–₌Dh‘iDhw᠌RkR
LhioTTzN Lhmcgg―hVhgఘiacTRv hCDh᪐S
oKLcghᨠᔠshhLKRToDowᄠTᠠsoᜌᬠ(ᨠKoTThР
oToaRkᬠRᔁhabkhioaoᔋ―ae輆ᠠGeocoding
API Google
).₋o‘To጑kᄗecҐN cLRhK,
ᖆ2008 \t⸠VᰠVcLizȠizVeᔝ′01㒆t.Ⱐ᪆GeL
ToaᬠEzaᠠhVeEaRshioTᠠ181 oEhDoⰠCDᰠ
ghgDoiavcఠVhLvKsᠠ2ㆆ┠igc脠VeEaRsomRȠ
᪆GeLToaᬠᔠwhwcTDᠠctᰠgᰎKoTRဠ(GeLToጠ
https://developers.google.com/maps/documenta
tion/geocoding/ (K᠌o“ؗᢝcTRv: 25.06.2014).
i邁hKRD cDzLc‗oko‚ \thK). oTT逛‗᠆h
D造ToVRgoaᄠ43㜠oiDhLhᨬ”hDhLzᬠesokoaᄠ
420 \fcsgDeoabࠜ‗oจzS‚oᜑoTDhi‘((R
aRomRᄠ(TcshDhLzᬠoiDhL造esokoaᄠEhacᬠ
hKThȠo((RaRomRR)⸠MภVLcകDoiacTThȠTᠠ
LRg⺆37 (ᔄ⺆g⺆188⤠soᜌ造iRKThⰠCDᰠoiDhL造
ko \bcEhጋ缑w‑gsᎀCcࠑcw―shࢍcTDLᄗh
ioT造ᨠliLhVᬠᄠ9Шu.
dLh贛ggⰠRᔁhabke4URȠoiDhwoDRCcᔝhc
tchshKRLhioTᄛ, c‚gᬉKo‚hki᜘U᠛D
VLoiRጋ࢐c”hhLKᄈoDz.₉oVLᄄcL,“D
wcDsᠠ᪆ТRShРhsᬘTᬠᘠEcLcthᨠЧRaᄠviav
cDgv LckeabఘDhw tchshKRLhioTRv gacKe4
鴛Ƞo((RaRomRR㨠«Departamento de Cien
ciadela Computaci, Escuelade Ingenierнa,
Ponti8cia Universidad Catуlicade Chile, Chile»
(Vᜑ hiDhᜈhN“ELoEhDsc‚‑耓c 2014)t.
tchshKRLhioTRc KoTࠜN gDLhᴑ ihบLoUo
aᰠshhLKRToD造᪆t⺆9oTDbvth)⸠ТosGᬠVLᄠtc
hshKᄗhioࠑR \bchEShKᄄh‖CRD通oDb, Dh
Tᬠigᬠo((RaRomRᄠwhteఠEzDଠshLLcsDTh
ToNഛT逬 oVLRwcLⰠgDLhsᠠ«Microsoft Re
search Asia, Beijing, China묠whGcఠEzDଠLog
VhจoTo h”hhLKRToఘw \tchtLo(RCcgshth
mᬈD᜘‒ᬝRTo,‘ Microsoft‚ᬗࠛD chVLc
ഛacTThᬠkToCcTRᬠᨠᔑaᘠwThGcgDiᠠVhK
ShKvURS‚oᜑoTDhi.‒ᜑ \tchshKRLhioTRR
oഗcghi \bchESᰍRwh‖CRಐioDb, Dh, \bo
VLRЛL, \rav \rᬂgDiRDcabT邁 ጛThi₠uy
tchshKᄗhioࠑc‘((R጑omᄑ hGcD‚hk
iLoUoDଠshhLKRToD造oKLcgo: \t⺆PhᔝioⰠЛc
TRTᔝRȠVLhᔁ., \r⺆14.
dLRЛࠛTᄛ―hkKoTT邁 LR‗ok᜘EhDsc
tchRT(hLwomRhTTz脠ᔑgDcР(%M9⤠ᄠos
DRiTh LRЛTရw邁‚ \tcht᜘(RR cDhKhi
tchVLhgDLoTgDicTࠜth‘ToaRko” \boeshwc
DLRCcgsᄄ \roࠈ逄 \boShKRDgv‚ \boCoጋThN
gDoKRᄠhᔚhcTRv⸠9RgDcwoDRCcᔝhᬠVLRwc
ࠛTᄛ cDhKhi \tchVLhgD᜘ࠕDiᬈThth‘To
጑ko \fLcEecD‑gVhጋkhioࠑv―VcmRo጑kᄗh
ioTTzS oscDhi₅྄. av oCoabThth‎࠘
shwgDio― \fcМN hGࠜ hLcshwcTKhioDb
hELoDRDbgဠᴠ(hLewᘠGIS-Lab
‑‚ \roጋTcN
缛w ᬗᬂDR” DᬈR4―ěmRoaRkRLhioT
ࠜN–RDcLoDeថ.
2,C,0, Теаподальный анализ (когда )
MgDhLRCcgsR \fcЁhLoጋ࢐N‘To጑k”os‑T
gDLeЛTD‘ToaRko \boeshЛDLRиgsᆁ \roTT邁
VhviRagဠVcLizЬ CDᰠᔚvkoTᰠᖆRᔁhabkhio
TRcw SCI \rav‖gఘࠜiacTRv \boeCTzS ᜑhᜑ
DcDhᨠᨠLoEhDo脠1940-脠tt⸠dcLie耠VeEaRCTᰠKh
gDeVTe4 VLhtLoЄe‚Rkeo጑komᄑ VeE጑ᴘ
mRN \bo‚LᬄᬈThNⁿsoጛ―)esokoTᄛw―ivkᬂ
wcGKᘠTRwᄠ(HistCite⤠gᰎKoጠ3KGRࠠ%oL(RaK
[HistCite, 2012]⸠dLRwcᜠiRkeoaRkomRᄠᖆRg
VhabkhioTRc HistCit攠whGTᰠeiRKcDଠᨠgDo
Dbᬠ3⺆%oL(RaKᠠ«Эiha4mRဠScience Citation
Index», isa4CcTThȠᨠKoTThᬠLeshihകDih.
dLR‑gVhጋkhioࠑR‑TgDLewcTDo \fcЁh
LoጋThth‘To጑ko‚‚Rkeo጑komᄑ‚hkwhG
T造KiᠠioLRoTDᠠVLcകDoiacTRဠiLcwcTR:
aREᰠᨠsoCcgDiᬠhKThȠRภhgcȬ–REᰠᨠVh
gacKhioDcጋThgDR‘ࠑБLhioࠈzS‑khELo
GcTRN⸠nDhLhȠᔁhghؠVLRwcTvcDgဠKaဠ
iRkeoaRkomRᄠgDLesDeLⰠshDhLzᬠDLcEe4\f
KieЛLThth“DhE᜘GᬈRv, \boVLRЛL, \rRTo
wRso‚h‚LᬄᬈR‑ \tcht᜘(Rиgshc‗᠕VLc
Kcacࠑc eE጑ᴘmRhࠈhN‘sDᄚThgDR‘iDh
LhᨠGeLToao. nRkeoaRkRLhioDଠiLcwဠKaဠ
gahGTz脠gDLesDeᜠDosGᬠwhGThⰠRᔁhabkeဠ
micDhihᬠshKRLhioTRᬠiLcwcTᄬ‛gaᄠ/Dᰠ
ewcgDTh⸠rKTosᰠ/DhఠᔁhghؠwcTcᬠLoᔁLh
gDLoTc\b, DoᴠsoᴠkoDLeKTvcఠCDcTRᬠsoᜌ,
ěLᬉLeG᠐‑S‚RkeoabThN‑T(hLwomᄛN.
9oҐw LhgD逄 LᄄcLhw \fcЁhLoጋTh
th‘ToaRko‐iavcDgv―DhaEC᠌ov‍R᠉L᠄
wᠠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠCRgaᠠVeEaRsomRȠiᰠ
iLᬄᬈR. av \rᬄhࠕD᜘mRR‚hkwh輈hgDᬂ
DcwVhLoabThज‘ToaRko, \fLcEe4Ucज“జ
ELoGcTRဠTᠠsoᜌcⰠVLRicഛРLoᔁLcഛac
Tᄛ‚h‚LᬄᬈR―ivkᬂ cGഖ”a᠕DᬗowR
VeEaRsomRȠoiDhLhᨬ LvwᰠRaᄠshᔚcTTᰠ
http://gis-lab.info
170
2ᬋጒI 15
—ᄉࠊޠ₏༠ࠊᄐ༁ԋऄРఠㄹ㐵 ⸬ ࠍԐఄऑԁꀅ‎⁗eb of Science CC
American Documentation
Journal of Information Science
The Annual Review of Information
Science & Technology
Journal of Informetrics
Aslib Proceedings
Journal of the American Society
for Information Science
Information Processing & Management
Journal of the Association for Information
Science and Technology
Information Scientist
Research Evaluation
Information Storage and Retrieval
Research Policy
Journal of Documentation
Scientometrics
mRDRLe4UR脠gowe耠LoTT4耠Rภgowz脠mR
DᄗecҐS‚ \boeshwcDLᄑ eE጑ᴘmᄂ oDc
woDRsᠠu⸠BG⸠ЛhDsᄠ[Lotka, 1926崠⠗Rg⺆38,
ᔄ⺆g⺆189). nRkeoaRkomRဠizVhaTcTᠠ᪆RT
gDLeЛTDc CitNetExplorer, ᜘kiRio4Uᬄ
RഛᄠRTgDLewcTD HistCite [CitNetExplorer,
2014]. CitNetExplore爠VᰎihavcఠiRkeoaRkR
LhioDb hጋ缑c oggᄚz eE጑ᴘmᄂ‑”ao
gDcLRkhioDଠRSⰠᔝLzioဠTcge鴛gDicTTzᬠ
ഛDoaᄠ[Eck, Waltman, 2014].
nRkeoaRkomRvⰠVLcകDoiacTToဠTᠠLRg⺆38
(ᔄ⺆g⺆189), EzaᠠizVhaTcTᠠTᠠhᔈhiᬠVeEaR
ᴘmᄂ‎o cLRhK 194㖖2014 \tt., haeCcࠈzS
RภWeb of Science CC \raဠ1㐠GeLToahᨬ cLc
CRgacTTz脠ᨠDoEa. 15⸠ngctᰠEzaᰠToNഛTh
37
8㤠VeEaRsomRȠᄠ232
0㈠gᖐasᄠTᠠTRS
i‘To጑kᄗecwhw oggᄚc.’Rkeo጑komRv
ihᔁLhRkihKRఠVLRwcLⰠVLRicഛTTzȠᨠacs
mRᄠy⸠noࠠЭNsᠠ(N. Van Eck⤠ᰠiᰎwhGThgDvS
CitNetExplorer \bᠠshT(cLcTmRᄠST䤠᪆2014 \t.
nRkeo጑komRv”aogDcLhi‘To጑kᄗecҐS
VeEaRsomRȠVᰎihavcఠeiRഛDଠigᬠsa4
иi逛₭owRaRR‘iDhLhi,“sokoiIᆁ \boR
Ehab缛c‚aRvTᄛ \bo‗okiRDᄛ \boeshЛDLRR
ᆆeVhwRToiIRSgဠᨠVLcKzKeUR脠taoioS.
ТosGᬠTᠠVLcKgDoiacTThРLRg⺆38 (ᔄ⺆g⺆189)
whGTᰠeiRഛDଠᔚvkᄠtLeVV造VeEaRsomRȠ
VᰠToeshwcDLRᄠ(hTᄠizഛacT造kcacTzР
micDhw)― \tLeVVhN eE጑ᴘmᄂ h‑T(hL
womRhTThwᘠVhRᔝᘠ(izഛacT造ᔑTRРmic
Dhw), \boVLRwcLⰠᔠVeEaRsomRvwᄠ%⺆9/aDhTᠠ
(G⺆Salton⤠ᄠᔠtLeVVhȠVeEaRsomRȠoiDhLᠠ
shT贛VmRᄠDLhNThȠᔁRLoaᄠ%⺆MmshiRmᠠ
(H⺆Etzkowitz) [MmshiRm, 2010] (izഛacT造
(ᄜacDh᪐w₍icDhw).
2,C,1, Сетевой анализ (е кеа )
BaဠRggacജioTRဠToesᄠsoᴠVLh贛ggᠠTo
eCࠜN”hwweTRsomRR hGࠜ‑gVhabkhioDb
RࠕDLeЛTDz―cDᬚhth‘ToaRko,‗okiRD逛
᪆KRᖍRVaRTᬠSocial Network Analysis (SNA).
9cDcihȠoToaRภVᰎihavcఠizviRDଠkoshTh
ЛLThgDR‚―hiЛgDT邁‗᠆hDoS“DKcabT邁
oiDhLhᨠᄠToeCTz脠hLtoTRkomRN⸠rKTosᰠ
ihkwh輈hgDR LRЛࠛTRv―cDᬚhth‘To
aRkᠠKaဠToeshwcDLRCcᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠ
LᬘaRke4DgဠᨠVhaThȠwcLᬠDhabsᰠVLᄠTo
጑Cᄑ o缑ThCRDocwhN‑T(hLwomᄑ“)To
eCTz脠ᔚvkv脠eCcTzSⰠᰠVhaeCcTTz脠RwᄠLc
keጋDoDoS‑ LᄄcTcࠑR―VcmRo጑kᄗhioT
T邁 RࠕDLeЛTDhi. n soиgDic RࠕDLeЛTDo
KaဠkToshwgDiᠠᔠiᰎwhGThgDvwᄠgcDcihtᰠ
oToaRko‗ᬝhЛTഖcDgv‑gVhabkhioDb Sc榲
Tool [Sci눠Tool, 2010]⸠ᤠsoCcgDiᬠRTgDLewcT
DᠠoToaRkᠠᄠiRkeoaRkomRᄠgcDcȠEhabIhtᰠ
᜘kЛ᜘ h輈h hLᬝhЛTKhioDb cgVaoD
171
Te耠VLhtLowwᘠPajek [Pajek, 1996]⸠rKTosᰠ
KaဠVLhicഛTRဠgahGTz脠iRജᨠoToaRkᠠ
TchEShKRwᰠiaoഛDଠshwVcDcTmRvwᄠKaဠ
LoEhDz―h―VcmRo጑kᄗhioࠈ逄R LhKes
DoБ‑“gihRDb \boi逝R LhtLoЄᄗhioࠑv.
lg጑‖‘To጑Dᄝo“DgeDgDie而 \bchEShKᄄzc
shЁcDcࢍᄑ VLhtLoЄᄗhioࠑာ Dh Kav
VLchELokhioTRဠᄠVhKthDhisᄠKoTTz脠Kaဠ
oToaRkᠠᨠVLhcs\f \beGTᰠVLRiacsoDଠVLh
tLoЄRgDo.—KTosh‘To጑Dᄝe₏caoDcጋTh
ᔘМgDhvDcabࠜ“gihRDb“gࠜ᪐ LhtLow
wRLhioTRဠᨠhKThРRภhTaoNT-seLghᨠoTo
጑ko‑“ELoEhDsR \roࠈzS
. av hጋ缑T
gDiᠠkoKo̠VhKthDhisᄠKoTTz脠DLcEe4Dgဠ
Бࠑwoጋ࢐c \boi逝R LhtLoЄᄗhioࠑv.
BhVhገRDcጋ࢐w ᎀghw“D“gihcࠑv Lh
tLoЄᄗhioࠑv EeKcD eaeCIcࠑc ikoᄄh
Vhࠑwoࠑv― LhtLoЄRgDoБ,”hDhL逄‚z
gDoiRఛ‎oKȏ.
n”oиgDic LRЛ᜘―cDᬚhth‘ToaR
kᠠVhgDLhRРgcDଠghoiDhLgDiᠠ⠗Rg⺆39,
ᔄ⺆g⺆190) KaဠVeEaRsomRȠCcDzLc脠oiDhLhi:
9DcTaᄠnogcLwo\b (S⺆Wasserman), 3KGR\b
%oL(Ra\r (E⺆Gar8eld)ⰠuacgoTKLᰠncᔁR
TbvTᄠ(A⺆Vespignani⤠ᄠuabEcᜌ-Лogaᰠ.o
LoEoIᄠ(A.-L⺆Barabasi), 36ㆆkoVRᔋ, VcLRhආ騠
955–200㞆tt., RgDhCTRᶆ騠Web of Scienc斆CC.
dhgDLhᬈᄛ izVhaࠛTh g)ᄕVhabkhioTᄛw
Sci² Tool,‑gSᰍTzc \roTTzc‚ᄎeoaᄎomRR
᪁hKv\f ᨠshwVacs\f VhgDoisᄠKoTThtᰠRTgDLe
wcTDo⸠PcDhKRsᠠVhgDLhcTRဠgcDcȠhVRgoTᠠ
ᨠ[Bцrner, Polley, 2014, p⺆
04–206]⸠MDosⰠgh
oiDhLz“E᜘ke4D cDzLc cDsh‚z᜘GᬈT邁
saogDcLo⸠ԚᠠsaogDcLᠠVeEaRsomRNⰠ9DcTaᄠ
nogcLwoTᠠᆆ3KGRTᠠ%oL(RaKo, \bᬠᔚvkoT造
wcGKᘠghEhȠᆆᖆhgDoabTzwᄠsaogDcLowᄠᄬ
Dosᄄ“ELokhw,“ELoke而‑kh጑Lhioࠈzc
«hgDLhio묠ghoiDhLgDio⸠nzviacTRᬠRkhaR
LhioTTz脠«hgDLhih᪻‚―cDv脠ghoiDhLgDiᠠ
KaဠVeEaRsomRȠVᰠhKThȠDcwoDRsᬠwhGc\f
https://www.coursera.org/courses?categories=stats
ᔚRഛDcabgDihioDଠsoᴠᰠiᰎwhGThgDᄠToao
KRDଠThizᬠToeCTzᬠᔚvkᄬ‌oᴠᄠᰠTcicLThР
hDTcgcࠑR eE጑ᴘmᄂ” \fcwoDᄝc.’送ha
TvဠoToaRภDhabsᰠTᠠhᔈhiᬠKoTTz脠ᰠghoi
DhLgDic, ck LᄚacCcࠑv \rhVhገRDcጋThN
ᄈ(hLwomᄑ, \boVLᄄcL“)sh-mRDᄗhioࠑR,
whGTᰠVLRNDᄠᴠTcicLTzРizihKoЬ‌oᴠsoᴠ
ěLᬃᄕጛTᄛ‚―Vᄕsc‘iDhLhi c cgcD‑T
(hLwomRᄠᰠisaoഛ”oGജtᰠRภTR脠ᨠToVR
goࠈe4―DoD஀.
nRkeoaRkomRᄠgcDcihtᰠoToaRkᠠTᠠVLh
wcGeDhCࠜw‑ oᴗheLhᨈႁ (ఘEa.)14)―ఘ
ThivDgဠTcCRDocwzwᄬ‌oᴠsoᴠghഛL輘\f
wThGcgDiᰠekahᨠᔠhKThN-KiewဠᔚvkvwR,
kotLhwhGKo4UᄄR hgDLhcࠈe4”oLDe.
2hT贛TDLomRဠᔚvkcȠVᰎihavcఠiRkeoabTᰠ
VhKCc᜝TeDb₍cTDថ‘ToaRฑLecМN‘sDRi
ThgDᄬ“KTosᰠkoDLeKTvcఠhE鴛ᬠihᔁLRvDRᬠ
ᄠഛaocఠwcDsᄠTcCRDocwzwR⸠BaဠVLcK
gDoiacࠑv ᴘLD, hgDLhcࠈzS Vh‗ckeጋDo
Dow―cDᬚhth‘ToaRko,‗ᬝhЛTഖcDgv―h
sLoUoDଠshT贛TDLomR耠ᔚvkcȬ‑ᔁhabkeဠ
iЛgDh \bᆁ₍icDhie4‗᠕s᜘gse, \boVLRЛL
DcVahie耠soᜌᘠ(heatmap)ⰠRaᄠRᔁhabkeဠ
i)ᴘCcgDic \rhVhገRDcጋThth oLowcDLo
shጋmh‚hsLet‖kao― \roࠈ逄R.
9cDcihN oTo጑k Tc koҐᴘcDgv Dhጋsh To
oToaRkc REaRhЛDLRиgsᆁ \roTT邁. \nи
T逛,‘sDRiTh LRЛTvv―hiLᬄᬈT逛”hw
weTRsomᄜTTzc‚hคhGࠜgDR ᜑ‗oEhDc
ᖆRT(hLwomRcȬ‍o4ఠoToaRDRsoРiᰎwhG
ThgDଠRᔁhabkhioDଠVLᄠoToaRkᬠKoTTzc,
gEhᜠshDhLz脠LoTcᬠEzጠkoDLeKTcࠠRaᄠTc
iᰎwhGcT⸠ᤠsoCcgDiᬠVLRwcLᠠwhGTᰠVLR
icgDᄠgcDcihȠoToaRภᄠiRkeoaRkomR耠RgDh
LRᄠVcLcShജᨠCRDoDcacȠwcGKᘠgDoDbvwᄠ
TᠠgoNDo脠RkKoDcabgDᨠ[Clickstream Data…,
2009]⸠5ᠠKiᠠthKo,  2007-tᰠVᰠ2008-Ȭ
EzaᠠghELoTᠠRT(hLwomRဠᰠEhacᬠCcР
hKThРwRaaRoLKᬠhELo鴛TRȠᴠgDLoTRmoР
VhaThDᬝgDhi邁‗cgeLghi, \roTT逛“ ᬗc
ShKo脠ᆆRഛTDR(RsomRᄠVhabkhioDcacȠ
172
VLcKgDoiR጑‑kKoDcጋgDio.„To጑ฬ‚送ha
TcTTzȠᨠgDoDbcⰠEokRLecDgဠTᠠVLcKVhahGc
ࠑR, Dh hጋ缑TgDih cLcShKhi \bo―DLoࠑ
m造RkKoDcabgDᨠᔠ贛ab耠VhaeCcTRဠVhaThth
ఛsgDo zaR LcKėRTvDz \rav ఛTRv‎oėo
缑iocwhN‗oEhDz”os ᄈᄄew―₍cጋ4“k
ToshwጛTRv.‒haeиTT᠐ i‗ckeabDoDc‘To
aRkᠠsoᜌᠠ⠗Rg⺆40Ⱐᔄ⺆g⺆191⤠VLcകDoiavcD
KoTTzᬠᰠᔚvkv脠wcGKᘠGeLToaowᄠTᠠhᔈh
ic‘To጑ko \rᄈoБsR cLcShKo RDoDcacN
wcGKe gDLoࠑmoБ‑kKoࠑN.₄ivkR cGKe
GeLToaowᄠhDLo輘4ఠgDoDRgDRCcᔝᄠkToCR
whᬠCRgaᰠVcLcShജᨠᨠVLh贛ggᬠCDcTRv.
yᠠsoᜌᬠgcDcihtᰠoToaRkᠠwhGTᰠeiRഛDb
h輑K᠛we4”hTmᬈD᜘mR4 ᬗcShKhi cG
KᘠGeLToaowᄠhKThȠDcwoDRsᄠᄠVcLcShKz
wcGKe₏eLToaoБ \fLoKᆍRhࠈh―ivkoࠈzS
DcwoDRs. rKTosᰠRภsoᜌ造gacKec\f «TchGR
KoTTzN묠LckeabDoಆ騠ᨠ贛TDLᬠsoᜌ造hEaogDb
ghmRoabࠜ-tewoTRఘᜈzS₏eᜈoጜi“so
koaoᔋ―ivkoTᠠᔠhEaogDvwᄠcgDcgDicTTzS,
DcSTRCcᔝR脠ᄠwcKRmRTᔝR脠ToesⰠCDᰠTᬠgh
ᰌicకDiecD”oLDow,”ᰌhLzc―DLhvకv‌habsh
To“gThioࠑR \roࠈzS“₍RDᄗhioࠑR eE጑
ᴘmᄂ.’”oCcgDic \rhVhገRDcጋThth LR
Л᜘―cDᬚhth‘ToaRko‚ LRЛࠛTRR” \bo
eshwcDLᄑ \tewoࠑDoL࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑T hGTh
VLRicgDᄠRggacജioTRᬠf⺆2haaRTkᠠ[Collins,
2000].’‗oНoS \roࠈhth‑ggacKhioࠑv z጑
izviacT造ᄠVLhoToaRkRLhioT造ᔚvkᄠwcGKe
(Rahgh(owᄠTᠠVLhDvGcTRᄠEhacᬠCcРKieS
Dzgv̠ac\f ᄠEzaᰠVhsokoThⰠCDᰠᨠ(Rahgh(RR
ToEa4Ko4DgဠVLh贛gᖐⰠRഛTDRCTzᬠDcЬ”h
DhLzᬠw造iRKRРᨠcgDcgDicTTz脠ToesoS⸠ᤠso
иgDic LRЛ᜘‚zEh᜘‑gDhCTRshi \roTT邁
KaဠVLhicഛTRဠgcDcihtᰠoToaRkᠠiTeDLR
hLt᠈RkᢍRR hGTh“ؗ᠌RDbgv”‍R᠉L᠄
wcⰠVLcകDoiacTThȠ᪆Lokഛaᬠ1.5.
2,C,2, Теаатичеекий анализ (что )
rDicD造TᠠihVLhᖐ₫ЧDᰠviavcDgဠVLcK
wcDhРRggacജioTRN?묠ᄠ«舘ᴠᔚvkoTz
VLcKЛDz‑ggጛKhioTRN cGഖ―hEhN
ᆆᖆVLosDRshN?뮆騠/Dᰠᔚv鴛TTzȠ%Looab
ToeshЛDLRR.—gThiTzw LᬁvDgDiᄛw‚“D
icDo脠TᠠhEᠠihVLhgᠠviavcDgဠToeCTzȠVLh
贛ggⰠshDhLzȠhLRcTDRLhio\b \bᠠVhLhGഛTRc
shwVosDࠜth LcKgఘiacTRv h᪐S‎ToTRN
KaဠTeGഠVLosDRsᄬ‘)TᬠKaဠhEactCcTRဠTo
eshЛDLRиgsᆁ‑ggጛKhioTRN (VhKLhEࠛc
ᔄ⺆᪆Lokഛaᬠ1.2)⸠dLcKwcఠRggacKhioTRN
ToഛGTᰠRഛTDR(RmRLecDgဠDhabsᰠshwER
TomᄛN \fLcS₌ጛЛTDhi: \fᬝgDhi―)VLcKgDoi
ጛTᄛw‗ckeabDoDhi‑ggጛKhioTRN,”hTDᬝ
gDo LRiጛиTT邁 \rav‘LteЛTDomRR―gzahs
To₭osDz‑‑Ё጑mRD࢐S‎ToࠑN‚)thahic
ghhE鴛gDiᠠRggacജioDcacȠᄠVLosDRshᨬ
᜘EhDo4Uᆁ \boK LcKЛDhw‑ggጛKhioTRN.
9hiLᬄᬈT逛 ЛDhKz, ᄕVhabkeᬄ逛 Kav
RKcTDR(ᄝomᄑ LcKwcDo‑ggacKhioࠑȬ
viav4Dgv \tLeEzw LREaᆏᬈᄛw,“LᄛT
DRLhioTTzРTᠠghsLo鴛TRᬠCRgaᠠജse
wcTDhᨬ”hDhLzᬠTchEShKRwᰠVLhᔄhDLcDb
ᄠVLhCRDoDଠᨠVLh贛ggᬠVhRᔝᠠRT(hLwo
mᄑ. hgDᄉTeDhc”oCcgDih‘VVLhsgᄄomᄑ
hVLcഛavcDgဠVLcGഛ igctᰠVhDLcEThgDvwR
VhRᔝᠠRT(hLwomRᄬ‘ ᬠVLhicഛTRcРTo
eshwcDLRCcᔝR脠RggacജioTRN. BaဠkoVR
gcN ok \roࠈzS“ eE጑ᴘmRvS―CRDocDgv
KhgDoDhC࢐w,‛g጑”aoggR(ᄝomRv―DoD଑
EokᄗecDgv \bo₏eLToጋThN”aoggR(ᄝomᄑ.
lKᄈgDicࠈhc \bceKhEgDih‚hkࠑᴘcD LR
saoggR(ᄝomᄑ―DoDcN‑k eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑
ToᜈzS₏eᜈoጜi (VhKLhETcc“EgeGKcTRc
saogᔑ(RsoDhLhᨠᔄ⸠ᨠLokഛaᬠ3.7).
nᰎwhGThgDᄠVhRᔝᠠRT(hLwomRᄠᨠEoko脠
KoࠈzS eE጑ᴘmᄂ,“gThioࠈzS \bo―ahioS
ᨠTokioTRᄠgDoDcȠᄠRgDhCTRscⰠᨠshDhLhР
hVeEaRshio\b \fcsgDⰠwhteఠEzDଠജVhaTcT造
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gahiᠠᔁhghEgDie4ఠeDhCTcTR耠DcwoDRsᄠ
VeEaRsomRᄬ ᰠTᬠVhKwcTv4ఠghഛLGRwhᬠ
VeE጑ᴘmᄑ. io“tLoࠑCcࠑv LcVvDgDie
而ⁿᄗhshwe‑gVhጋkhioࠑ4”ᎀCcizS
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esokzioDଠജgDoDhCThᬠCRgaᰠsa4Cciz脠
gahᨠKaဠVhaThD造RഛTDR(RsomRᄠDcwoDRsᄠ
gDoDbᄬ ᠠih-iDhLzSⰠVLhEacwᠠeTR(RsomRᄠ
R―ᄈhࠑБR―₍cጋ4 hi避cࠑv \fhCThgDR
VhRᔝo⸠BaဠwThtR脠LhgᔑNᔝR脠gDoDcȠVᰠ
谝hࠜwRsc“Kࠜ‑k \boREhacc hVeavᜈzS
sa考c᪐S gጜi — /Dh «谝hࠜwRso». dLc
hജacDଠVhജETzᬠhtLoTRCcTRဠwhGc\f
wc脘ࠑkw LᄁRg通oࠑv”ᎀCcizS―ahi
TᠠhᔈhiᬠRT(hLwomRᄠRภEREaRhtLo(Rᄬ
eᴘkoࠈhN i VeE጑ᴘmᄑ, ToVLᄄcL ᄈgDLe
wcT\f KeyWords PlusⰠRᔁhabkecwzȠᨠWeb of
Science CC⸠芆gh輘acTR4ⰠVhജETzᬠwcSo
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VhRᔝhiz脠hELokhᨠജsewcTDhᨠKaဠigc脠
koVRgcȠᨠEokc.
ycgwhDLv \bo“t᜘TRиTRv, LᄕeUᄛ
sa4CcizРgahioЬ‑脠whGTᰠRᔁhabkh
ioDଠVLcGഛ‚gctᰠKaဠVLhicഛTRဠVhRg
soⰠᢆDosGᬠhLRcTDRLhioDbgဠTᠠTR脠VLR
izviጛTRR \fᬄoDRs‑ggጛKhioTRN. av
VLRЛ᜘ iRkeoaRkRLeᬄ Vh”a4иizw―ah
iow‑kwcTcࠑc \fcwoDᄝR eE጑ᴘmᄂ‘i
DhLhᨠRภ舘koSgDoTᠠᔠ200㐠Vᰠ201㒆t. (ᔄ.
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gDLeЛTDo“Eaosh”a4иi邁―ahi Wordle
[Participatory…, 2009].ₕRgah eE጑ᴘmᄂ
oiDhLhᨠRภ舘koSgDoToⰠhDLoGcTTz脠ᨠWeb
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CRgac eE጑ᴘmᄂ.‏k \rᄈoБsR”ᎀCcizS
gahᨠᄠ(osDᠠVLhᔄhDLᠠghhDicDgDie4URS
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http://www.wordle.net/
koSgDoTᬠTᠠVhKъcwcⰠᠠRTDcLcᔠᴠ/shahtRR
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yᠠVLcകDoiacTThȠiRkeoaRkomRᄠwhGTᰠ
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iᰠ«whഛab묠ᨠcKRTgDicTThРᄠwThGcgDicT
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VeEaRsomRvw‚zပTRDb”hTDᬝgD LRЛࠛ
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gahᨠGcaoDcabTᰠDhabsᰠTᠠwogᔑicⰠhDThgv
鴛wgဠᴠhKThȠVLcKwcDThȠhEaogDR.
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wcLhРRᔁhabkhioTRဠwhഛaᄠicsDhL
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VoDᬈDT邁–oTKIo(Dhi. th LRЛࠛTᄛ
iᰎwhGThⰠcgaᄠigᬠkoVRᔑ ᠠVeEaRsomRR
ᨠEokᬠᔈoEGcT造sa4Ccizwᄠgahiowᄬ“Ec
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VᜑwcLo‌oshN oຐ \roTTzS hGࠜ ᜑ
icgDR cGKᘈoLhKࠖ4‗c괛LoDRiࠖ4 o
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Index,‗oคcUcTTe4 \bo‑T(hᜄomᄜTࠜN
Va᠌(hLwc Thomson Innovation Thomson
Reuters⸠舘GKoဠkoVRᔋ“)VoDcTDᬠᔈoEGc
To“VRᔘTRcw oDcTDࠜN₭hᜄeaz‚₭hᜄc
sa4иi邁―ahi,―hgDoiጛTTzw₌sgěLDowR
iLeCTe耠(ᨠജVhaTcTRᬠᶆVoDcTDThȠ(hL
weacⰠhVRgoTThȠᨠDcsgDᬠVoDcTDo)ⰠshDhLhc
VᰎihavcఠRഛTDR(RmRLhioDଠge鴛gDicT
ThᬠgShകDiᰠVoDcTDhᨬ‚zKoTTz脠ᨠLokThN
4LRgKᄝmᄑ R Lok࢐w LoihhEaoKoDcavw.
lKRTR贛ȠoToaRkᠠ᪆Derwent World Patents
Index‚逕DeV᠛D oDᬈDThc―ᬄᬂgDih)— ea
174
VoDcTDhᨬ“EaoKo4UR脠RഛTDRCThȠVoDcTD
ࠜN₭hᜄeጜN.
dᜑwcL oDcTDࠜth–oTKIo괌o ᜑicKcT
TᠠLRg⺆42 (ᔄ⺆g⺆193)⸠ᤠhᔈhiᬠVhgDLhcTRဠ
VoDcTDࠜth–oTKIo괌o–cGRD cDhK‑คc
LᬈRv‗᠕gDhvTRN cGഖ \riewv oDᬈDTz
Б―cwcNgDioБ.₠oggDhvࠑc cGKe ᄄR
hVLcഛavcDgဠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠCRgaᠠsa4Cc
iz脠gahᨠhVRgoTRဠVoDcTDThȠ(hLwea逬 ᠠ
sᰌhLhc“DaRCo4కv \rio“VRgoTRv.‒oDcTD
TzȠaoTKIo(ఠgDLhRDgဠVᰠVeaᘠVLcKioLR
DcabTᰠhDhELoTTz脠VoDcTDhᨬ‌⺆c. \bᬠge鴛
gDiecఠcKRThȠsoᜌhtLo(RCcᔝhȠhᔈhi逬 ᠠ
shDhLe耠whGTᰠToTcgDᄠVoDcTD造ᄠeiRKcDଠ
RS \tahEoጋThc‚koᄄhLogVhahGcࠑc. g጑
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gahᨬ‌ᰠLoggDhvTRᬠizCRgavcDgဠsoᴠwRTR
woabTzȠVeDଠRภigc脠iᰎwhGTz脠VeDcȬ“E
᜘keᬄ邁 eahw‘ToaRkRLeᬄ邁 oDᬈDhi,
isa4Co4Uᆁ“Eo―ᬄᬂgDio, cGഖ”hDhLz
wR‚zCᄕaရDgv‗᠕gDhvTᄛ.
9 hМUb4₍icDhi \bo oDcTDࠜw–oTK
Io(DᬠshKRLe4DgဠTokioTRဠDcwoDRCcᔝRS
hEa᠕Dᬂ.—Ea᠕DR c‑khaRLhioTz cGഖ
ghEhȬ oVLRwcLⰠhEaogDଠtLoGKoTᔝhth
gDLhRDcabgDiᠠᨠoToaRkRLecwhРVeaᬠtLo
TRCRఠᔠwoDcLRoahicഛTRcЬ‑T(hLwomR
hࠈh-DcacshЄeࠑᴘmRhࠈ逄R \fcSThahtR
vБ,₌acsDLhࠑshN‑ haeVLhihKࠑᴘБ.
༎ЛࠛTᄛw“DDᬈso‑‑khaRTRvwR \bo
aoTKIo괌c VhsokoTz hEaogDR g ᪐ghshN
VoDcTDࠜN‘sDRᨈhgDb4,‖gጜᨈzc‚c᝿R
T造TᠠsoᜌᬠVhKVRgoT造KaဠhLRcTDomRR.
ТoᴠGᬠsoᴠᄠhgDoabTzᬠiRK造soᜌhtLo(R
CcᔝhȠiRkeoaRkomRᄬ oDcTDTzᬠaoTK
Io(Dz \bc hkihav而 LᄈᄄoDb‗cIcࠑv
Eck \rhVhገRDcጋThth‘To጑ko oDcTD࢐S
gᬄᬂgDi.₉oVLRЛL,‖gahiT᠐ \bRkRTo \bo
aoTKIo(DcⰠᨠshDhLhȠᘠhLtoTRkomRᄠTo
Ea4KocDgဠshT贛TDLomRဠVoDcTDhᨬ hGcD
gae輑Db‖sokoTᄛw \bo hDᬈmRoabTh ᬗ
gěsDRiTe4“Ea᠕Db haeиTRv oDᬈDhi
Kav \roTࠜN“ᜉoTRkomRR, h‌osGc hGcD
ᔚRഛDcabgDihioDଠᰠDhЬ DᰠhEaogDଠhgDo
ࠜᨑaogb‚‗oบRDRR.’hคhGࠜgDb hgDLh
cTRv oDcTఈzS–oTKI᢭Dhi ᰍDicLGKo
cD‚hkwh輈hgDb‚zviጛTRv―ShKT邁 oDᬈ
DhᨠᄠR脠VhgacKe4鴛tᰠoToaRko.
rᔈhiToဠ贛TThgDଠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝR脠
EoภKoTTzSⰠhEcᔁcCRio4UR脠DhCThgDଠ
ᆆVhaThDᘠVhRᔝᠠVᰠVLcKwcDᘠRggacജ
ioTRNⰠkosa4CocDgဠVLcGഛ‚gctᰠᨠiᰎ
whGThgDᄠᔈRkRDଠkoDLoD造ᔁcmRoaRgDhᨠ
To hRgs eE጑ᴘmᄂ. g጑‑T(hLwomRv
ᶆsoGജȠkoVRᔑ‍hEoiavcDgဠcKRThhELok
Tᰠᆆ᪆woIRThCRDocwhРiRഛ, \fᰠiᰎTRso
cఠiᰎwhGThgDଠToNDᄠEaRksRᬠVᰠDcwoDR
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Lc(ᬗᬈDTzwR Kav g᜘iࠛTRv VhsokoDc
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DRihᨠ(VhKLhETcᬠᔄ⸠ᨠLokKcao膆3.㘠ᆆ3.9).
dhജETzᬠEok造Vᰎihav4ఠoiDhwoDRkRLh
ioTࠜ‚zviavDb‎oshࠜwcᜈhgDR‚ \roTTzS
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geKRDଠᰠKRTowRsᬠVLRhLRDcDhᨠLokiRDRဠ
Toesᄠ᪆LcDLhᔁcsDRiThРLcGRwc.
ЭఘጜTTzw ᜑwcLhw hKhETzS ok‚z
gDeVo጑ Lc(cLoDᄚ࢐c GeLTo᎐ ᤏyMТM,
ᨠshDhLz脠KaဠsoGജȠhDLoGcTThȠᨠTR脠
koVRᔑ LRicഛT造ᔚcഛTRဠᰠsaogᔑ(R
somRᄠkoVRgcȬ”a4Cciz脠gahio脠ᄠToVRgo\b
Lc(ᬗoD―ěmRoaᄕDhw‚ LcKЛDThN“Eao
gDᄬ”hDhLzȠKocఠVLcകDoiacTRᬠᲆghKcL
GRwhРLoEhDz⸠9ᰎKoTRᬠᄠVhKഛL輘TRᬠ
᪆osDeoabThРghgDhvTRᄠVhജETz脠EoภKoT
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gDoDshРVhKShKᠠᴠgᰎKoTR耠Eoภ«ᖆLeCTzw묠
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sᠠᔠhEThiacTRcРRT(hLwomRᄠᨠEokc, Doᴠ
soᴠhఠwhwcTDᠠVhviacTRဠVeEaRsomRᄠജ
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࢐Б‎oKcLGᴘБ‎oDLeKࠑDcጋTh.—KTo
sᰠKaဠkoKo̠whTRDhLRTtᠠDLcTജᨠLokiR
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oabDᬗToDRiThc‗᭿ᬈᄛ h‑KᬈDR(Rso
mRᄠVLcKwcDhᨠRggacജioTRȬ―TR輘4鴛ᬠ
koiRᔑwhgDଠhఠCcahicCcᔝhtᰠ(osDhLᠠ
Vᜑ―hkKoTRR hRgshihth“VRᔘTRv \rhse
wcTDhi⸠yoVLRwcLⰠᨠhLtoTRCcᔝhȠSRwRᄠ
osDRiTᰠRᔁhabke4DgဠVhKShK造VᰠRഛTDR
(RsomRᄠVLcKwcDᠠRggacജioTRȠTᠠhᔈh
ioࠑR―DLesDeLThN₭hLwe᎐―hcKᄈcࠑN,
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Abstracts (SciFinder),‚zVegs᠛we4„ЛLR
soTᔝRРSRwRCcᔝRРhE鴛gDihw⸠Mᔁhab
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VLcKwcDᠠRggacജioTRȬ ᰠEcภhELo鴛
TRဠᴠDcsgDᘠgDoDbᄠTciᰎwhGTᰠVhaeCRDଠ
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DR(ᄝomᄑ―hcKᄈcࠑN‚ \fcsgDc \bc \fLcEe
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Eok造VLhRgShKRఠEcภge鴛gDicTTz脠koഛL
Gᬝ.‟h輈h LRicgDR‚”oиgDic LRЛ᜘
TcᔝhabsᰠEokⰠRᔁhabke4UR脠oToahtRCTzᬠ
VhKShK造ᴠgᰎKoTR耠hVRgoTRȬ“ᔈhioTTz脠
TᠠiᰎwhGThgDᄠRഛTDR(RsomRᄠkoEhacio
ࠑN h cGKeToLhKThN”aoggR(ᄝomᄑ h
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RTഛsgᠠSeKhGcgDicTTz脠VLhRkicഛTRN.
MgVhጋkhioࠑ4‑KcTDR(ᄝomᄑ”os‑T
gDLewcTDᠠKaဠVhRᔝᠠigc脠ToeCTz脠VeEaR
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somRᄠVLcKwcDhᨠRggacജioTRȠᄠizghsRᬠ
koDLoD造TᠠgᰎKoTRᬠᄠosDeoaRkomR耠Vh
ജETz脠Eok⸠5oDLoD造TᠠgᰎKoTRᬠEoภKoT
T邁 \rav“Ea᠕Dᬂ―‗ok᜘EhDoTTzwR cDh
KowᄠRKcTDR(RsomRᄠᨠEeKe鴛РwhteఠEzDଠ
ᔈRGcT造ᨠLckeabDoDᬠLokiRDRဠwcDhജᨠ
oiDhwoDRCcᔝhtᰠRkiacCcTRဠRT(hLwomRᄬ
hKTosᰠeTRicLgoabTz脠VhKShKhᨠᴠgᰎKo
TR耠wcDhജᨠhKTᰎToCThȠRഛTDR(RsomRᄠ
TᠠKoTTzȠwhwcT\f \bᬠgᰎKoTh.
2hwVLhwRggᠠwcGKᘠᔝhLhgDb耠gᰎKoTRဠ
VhRᔝhihtᰠoVVoLoDoⰠctᰠsoCcgDihЬ“Ec
ᔁcCRio4URРVhaThDᘠᄠDhCThgDଠVhRᔝo,
R gDhᄄhgD஀ osDeo጑komᄑ ERE጑htLo
(RCcᔝR脠EoภKoTTz脠gewcaᄠജgDRCଠVLᄠ
RgVhጋkhioࠑR \foshth‑TgDLewcTDo,”os
mRDRLhioTRᮆ騠cgDcgDicTThᬠKaဠToeCThȠ
VeEaRsomRᄠᔗcകDiᰠesokoTRဠTᠠ(osD逬
VLRiጛs᠛w逛 \rav \rhsokoDcabgDio‖DiᬗG
ഛTRȠ(hEgeGഛTRᬠᔚvkᄠ(osDhᨠᄠgᖐahᴠ
VLRicKcTᰠᨠ[ЛoDeL, 2013Ⱐg. 64–106], \fosGᬠ
ᔄ⸠Lokഛጠ3.3). Science Citation Inde砠soᴠRT
gDLewcTఠᨠVcLie耠hCcLcKଠgഛaoጠജgDeV
࢐w VcLgVcsDᄚ࢐N hRgs ᄈ(hLwomᄑ,
ᢆDosGᬠVᰎihaRጠRᔁhabkhioDଠRT(hLwo
mᆀ,‘VVLhsgᄄᄗe4Ue4 LcKwcD‑ggac
KhioࠑN eE጑ᴘmᄑ \rav‘iDhwoDRCcgshth
oTo጑ko‑T(hLwomᄑ.
MᔁhabkhioTRᬠRT(hLwomRᄠᰠDhwⰠᔠso
sᄄR―ihNgDioБ₍RDᄗhio጑gb eE጑ᴘ
mᄑ‚)oTo጑kᄗecwhw oggᄚc eE጑ᴘmᄂ,
Vᰎihavc\f \botavKTᰠVhsokoDbⰠsoᴠᔚvkoT造
tLeVVz eE጑ᴘmᄂ.’”oCcgDic LᄄcLo \bo
LRg⺆43 (ᔄ⺆g⺆194⤠VLRicKcTᠠsoᜌᠠVeEaRso
mRȠoiDhLhᨠ9dE%O, \tLeVVRLhisᠠLoEhఠiz
VhaTcTᠠVᰠGeLToaoЬ ᨠshDhLz脠hTᄠEzaᄠ
hVeE጑shio࢐. av‚Rkeo጑komᄑ‑gVhጋ
khioTᠠVLhtLowwᠠVOSviewer [VOSviewer,
176
2013]ⰠVᰎihav4UoဠVLcKgDoiavDଠLckeab
Doಐ‘Toaᄎo cDᰍowR₫EREaRhग᢭RCc
ᔝhtᰠghCcDoTRv»Ⱐsh-mRDRLhioTRဠᄠghoi
DhLgDiᠠ[Eck, Waltman, 2010]⸠rᔈhi造VcLc
CᄕጛTT邁 cDhKhi‘ToaRko‗᠕gwhDLᬈz
ᨠLokKcaᬠ3.4⸠nRkeoaRkomRဠwcDhജР«ER
EaᄜtLo(RCcgshth―hCcఘTRv» hบhavcD
geKRDଠᰠDhЬ”oᴠᔚvkoT造VeEaRsomRᄠVᰠ
ghiwcgDTh‑gVhጋkecҐw‑gDhCࠑᴘw‑T
(hLwomRR: \boVLRwcL, \raဠsoᜌ造TᠠLRg⺆43
(ᔄ⺆g⺆194) ᔚvkଠhge鴛gDiavcDgဠVᰠgᖐa
soРTᠠVeEaRsomRᄠᨠhKTR脠ᄠDc脠GᬠGeL
ToaoS.₂aoggR(ᄝomRv \fcwoDᄝR eE጑ᴘ
mRȠkoshKRLhioTᠠmicDhРᄠghhDicDgDiec\f
saogᔑ(RsomRᄬ‑ᔁhabkecwhȠᨠWeb of
Scienc斆CC (ᔄ⺆LokKcᎆ3.7)⸠yᠠsoᜌᬠiRK
Th, Dh eE጑ᴘmᄑ h oDcwoDᄝc,₭Rkᄝc,
tchahtᄑ‑₁ᄄᄑ“ELoke而 hgacKhioDcጋ
ThgDଠᔑabTᰠᔚvkoTTz脠kicTbcᨠhKThȠ贛
VR.₂)/Dᄄ―DoDbvw Lᄄ逝o而 eE጑ᴘmᄑ
Vh ogDLhThБR‑ hDKcጋ࢐c VeE጑ᴘmᄑ h
EᄜጜtRR.‒ᜑ₌Dhw“gࠜᨈov ogDb ᄜጜ
tRCcgsRS eE጑ᴘmᄂ“ELokecD“DKcጋ࢐N
«oLSRVcaot», CDᰠwhGc\f thihLRDଠᰠDhЬ CDᰠ
ERhahtRCcgᴘv \fcwoDᄝo‑“gDoጋ࢐c‑g
gacജioTRဠTᬠRwc4ఠge鴛gDicTTz脠hEUR脠
VLcKwcDhᨠRkeCcTRဠᨠeTRicLᔑDcDc⸠.cภ
VLhicKcࠑv \rhVhገRDcጋThth‘To጑ko e
EaRsomRȠTciᰎwhGTᰠgഛaoDଠizihഠᰠVLR
CRToS hKhEࠜN“EhghEacTࠜgDR.
dhgDLhᬈᄛ‚RkeoaRkomRR―ivkᬂ cGഖ
VeEaRsomRvwR \bo os᜜e᜜iTc―VhghؕDiec\f
Vhࠑwoࠑ4―ivkcN cGKe \boeC࢐Б \rRgmR
V጑ToБ. ЧogDh VhKhE࢐w iRkeo጑komRvw
Ko4\f TokioTRᬠ阠soᜌᠠToesR. ТoshᬠtLhwshc
TokioTRcⰠᔝhLccⰠhDLo輘cఠowERmRᄠoiDh
Lhi⸠ᤠsoCcgDiᬠVLRwcLᠠTᠠLRg⺆44 (ᔄ⺆g⺆195)
VhsokoTᠠsoᜌᠠToesᄬ hgDLhcTToဠwcDhജw
sh-mRDᄗhioࠑv.‒Lᄈmᄁ,“VLcKcav4Uᄂ
LokwcᜠᄠmicDhihᬠshKRLhioTRᬠsLethᨬ“D
Lo輘4UR脠CRgaᰠVeEaRsomRȠᨠsoGKhРGeL
ToaᬠᨠizELoTTzȠthK, \fhఠGcⰠCDᰠᄠTᠠVLc
KzഖUᬄ‗ᄕeTsc.’koRwThc‗᠕VhahGᬈᄛ
sLethᨠTᠠKRotLowwᬠhVLcKcavcDgဠTᠠhᔈh
ioࠑR Rgao₍RDᄗhioࠑN‑KcTDRC࢐S \boEh
Lhi VeE጑ᴘmᄂ i LoEhDoS, hVeE጑shioࠈzS
᪆soGജȠVoLᬠGeLToahi⸠ᦆhᔈhiᬠoToaR
koⰠEokRLe4鴛thgဠTᠠsh-mRDRLhioTRᄬ–c
GRఠVLcKVhahGcTRcⰠCDᰠgDoDbᄠᔚvkoT造Tc
DhabsᰠhEURРVLcKwcDhРRggacജioTRN, \bh
ᆆshTDcsgDhЬ‚”hDhLhРVLhRgShKRఠRggacജ
ioTRᬠhE鴛tᰠVLcKwcDoⰠcgaᄠcgDଠEhacᬠCcw
hKTo“EU᠐₍RDRLeᬄ᠐‗᠆hDo.₉chEShKRwh
hELoDRDଠiTRwoTRᬠTᠠhDaRCRᬠᔚvkcNⰠge鴛
gDie4URS cGKe \boeC࢐Б \rRgmᄁ጑ToБ
᪆VLcകDoiacTThȠsoᜌᬠToesᄬ“ఠiRkeoaRko
mRᄠᔚvkcȠwcGKᘠGeLToaowᄬ hgDLhcTTzS
TᠠhᔈhioTRᄠoToaRkᠠRgDhLRᄠVcLcShജi
wcGKᘠGeLToaowᄠTᠠgoNDo脠RkKoDcabgDi
(ᔄ⺆LRg⺆4〠騠g⺆191)⸠BoTTzȠ(osఠwhGTᰠRT
DcᜁLcDRLhioDb―acKe肝Rw“ELokhw:―gzaᴑ
To ghmRoጋ࢐c‑)tewoࠑDoL࢐c RggacKhio
TRဠTᬠesokzio4DgဠᨠLoEhDo脠VᰠKRᖍRVaR
ToЬ―ivkoTTzРTᠠsoᜌᬠCDcTRဠsoᴠTcVLR
ᬄጛw逛 \rav₫gDLhtᆁ» KᄕmRVaRT. rKTosh
ihkwh輈z‑ \rLetᄛ hEъပࠛTRv, \boVLRЛL,
CDh LcKgDoiRDc጑“gDoጋ࢐S \rRgmᄁ጑T R
Do而―hmRoጋ࢐c‑ \tewoࠑDoL࢐c‑ggacKh
ioTRဠKaဠhE鴛tᰠLokiRDRv⸠rKTᰎToCTᰠhD
icDRDb To ihėhg h ėȒToS ėhDRihLc̑N
wcGKᘠsoᜌowᄬ“DLo輘4URwᄠKiᠠiktavKo
To \boese, ck \rhVhገRDcጋ࢐S‑ggacKhioࠑN
TᬠVLcകDoiavcDgဠiᰎwhGTzw.
dhgaᬠiRkeoaRkomRᄠᔚvkcȠᄠikoRwThtᰠ
LogVhጜGcTRv Geᜈoጜi To hgࠜioTRR oTo
጑ko”h-mRDᄗhioࠑv‑S eE጑ᴘmᄂ hG
TᰠVcLcNDᄠᴠVhgDLhcTR耠saogᔑ(RsomRȠ
Geᜈoጜi, ᜑDvko肝RS \bo‛gDcgDicTࠜgDb
VᰠᔁhghEᘠᔚhctᰠVhgDLhcTRv⸠2aogᔑ(R
somRဠGeLToahᨬ hgDLhcTToဠTᠠhᔈhiᬠsh-
mRDRLhioTRဠVeEaRsomRȬ“DLo輘cఠᔚvkᄠ
wcGKᘠsaoggowᄠGeLToahᨬ“VLcഛavcwz脠
TᠠhᔈhioTRᄠhEUThgDᄠVLcKwcDᠠRggac
ജioTRN⸠dLRwcLhРVhജEThȠsaogᔑ(R
2ᬋጒI 16
ᜉЁԉꀠv਋Ԃ༉ҭ‐܊Dఄ蘄vઁЄ⁕CSD
e༁Bt UCSD
LMഐObԂMtwI
s਋BNMtѿ
393
Mathematical
Science (Russia)
Math&Physics
491
Chemistry (Russia)Chemistry
MgDḧᄝ [Design and Update…, 2012]; \roࠈzc“Ve
EaRshioTz o―oNDc http://sci.cns.iu.edu/ucsdmap/
somRᄠviavcDgဠsoᜌᠠToesᄬ―ᰎKoTToဠKaဠ
University of California, San Diego (UCSD)
ᆆVLcകDoiacTToဠTᠠLRg⺆45 (ᔄ⺆g⺆196)⸠Pc
DhKᄝo hgDLhcࠑv okᄗecDgv \bo‘To጑kc
sh-mRDᄗhioࠑv eE጑ᴘmᄂ‎o \fLR cLRhKo
ᔠ200ㄠVᰠ2010 \t⸠VᰠKoTTzРWeb of Science
C䌠ᄠeDhCTcTᠠVᰠKoTTzРScopus⸠BcDoaᄠ
wcDhKRsᄠVhgDLhcTRဠᄠRgDhLRဠVhgDLhc
TRဠsoᜌ造hVRgoT造ᨠ[Design and Update…,
2012]⸠MDhthioဠsaogᔑ(RsomRဠghഛLGR\f
13 ᴘDcthLᄂ R)554 VhKᴘDcthLᄑ. Oic጑Cc
TRᬠKLhEThgDᄠsaogᔑ(RsomRᄠᆆRᔁhabkh
ioTRᬠsaogghᨠsh-mRDRLhioTRဠ᪆soCcgDiᬠ
hᔈhioTRဠKaဠizKcacTRဠVLRihKRఠᶆVh
viacTR耠RTDcLcᔈz脠saogghᨠ(DoEa⺆16)⸠yo
kioTRဠsoDcthLRȠᔚRഛDcabgDie4ఠᲆDhЬ
CDᰠVeEaRsomRᄠ᪆GeLToaoSⰠshDhLzᬠ᪁h
Kvఠ᪆VLcകDoiacTTzᬠVhKsoDcthLRRⰠge
UcgDicࠈh‑kh጑Lhio࢐“D“gDoጋ࢐S e
EaRsomRȠᨠsoDcthLRvS⸠rDwcDRЬ DᰠᨠVh
gጛഖ4Uᆁ“EThiጛTRvS”a᠕gR(RsomRR
ᶆVhKsoDcthLRvР«LhgᔑNᔝoဠwoDcwoDRso묠
ᄠ«LhgᔑNᔝoဠSRwRv묠ജEoiRaoᔋ‑)«Lhg
gᄂgᴘv₭Rkᄝo».
舘ᜌRLhioTRᬠᔠRᔁhabkhioTRcРthDhihȠ
DcwoDRCcᔝhȠDhVhhᔈhi逬 oVLRwcᜠVLcK
gDoiacTThȠTᠠLRg⺆45 (ᔄ⺆g⺆196)ⰠVᰎihavc\f
g᜘iTRDb―Dᬁᬈb―ěmRoaRkomRR‘ToaR
kᄗecwhth oggᄚo eE጑ᴘmᄂ―h‚gcБ
VeE጑ᴘmRvБ ᄗo,‘₭ᄝgᄗhioࠈhc‗og
VhahGᬈᄛ₌ጛЛTDhi”a᠕gR(RsomRR \bo
KRotLowwᬠVᰎihavcఠEzgDLᰠCRDoDଠᆆᔗoi
TRioDଠsoᜌ逬 hgDLhcTTzᬠKaဠLokTz脠
«Veah᪻ eEaRsomRN⸠yᠠLRg⺆46 (ᔄ⺆g⺆197)
VLcKgDoiacT‗ckeጋDoD‘To጑ko eE጑ᴘ
mRȠoiDhLhᨠRภ9dE%OⰠshDhLzᬠeGᬠoToaR
kRLhioaRᔋ ᠠLRg⺆43 (ᔄ⺆g⺆194)⸠9LoiTRioဠ
Kio cDᰍo‚ᄎeoaᄎomRR, hGTh“ఄc఑ఋ,
CDᰠTᠠsoᜌcⰠVhgDLhcTThȠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠ
ᄈ(hLwomᄑ \fhጋsh‑k‘To጑kᄗecҐS e
E጑ᴘmᄂ, \bckowcD࢐‑ggacKhioࠑv‚“Eao
gDᄠwᰎtoⰠwcKRmRT逬‘‌osGᬠTᬠhSioCcT造
ghmRoጋTh-tewoࠑDoL࢐c“EaogDR.ₛosᄄ
hELokhw, \rhVhገRDcጋ࢐w \rhgDhᄈgDihw
wcDhKᠠsoᜌRLhioTRဠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠthDhihȠ
DcwoDRCcᔝhȠDhVhhᔈhi造viavcDgဠiᰎ
whGThgDଠeiRഛDଠhDThᔑDcabTᰠTcEhabIRᬠ
tLeVV造RggacജioTRȬ”hDhLzᬠᨠgaeCoᬠ
VLRЛࠛTRv \rLethth cDhKo‚RkeoaRkomRR
DcLv而gv To (hTc VeE጑ᴘmᄂ, hDThgvURS
gv” \fcwoDᄝow――oҐw hጋ缑w Rgahw
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ.
rVRgoTTzȠizIᬠwcDhKⰠac輘URȠ᪆hᔈh
ic hgDLhcࠑv‛gDcgDicࠈhN”aoggR(ᄝomᄑ
GeLToahᨠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠsh-mRDRLhioTRN,
whGTᰠVLRwcTRDଠᆆKaဠsaogᔑ(RsomRᄠ
hDKcጋ࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ.₂aoggR(ᄝomRv“D
Kcጋ࢐S eE጑ᴘmᄂ hkihavcD \boKcGTh
hVLcഛaRDଠsoDcthLR4ⰠᶆshDhLhȠhDThᔑDgဠ
VeE጑ᴘmRာ \bc \bo“gThioࠑR”aoggR(ᄝo
mRᄠGeLToao, ᠠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠDcwoDRCcᔝhȠ
hsLcgDThgDR”oGKhN eE጑ᴘmᄑ.ₗDh h
kihavcఠVLchജacDଠgahGThgDଠᨠsaogᔑ
(ᄝomᄑ―DoDcN‚ eጋDRKRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐S
GeLToaoS⸠MᔁhabkeဠKoTTzȠVhKShKⰠwhG
Th \bc“tLoࠑCᄚoDbgv‖Gc LcKahGcࠈ逄R
soDcthLRvwᄬ‘―DLhRDଠge鴛gDicTTᰠEhacᬠ
VhKLhETe耠ᔑgDcwᘠsaogᔑ(RsomRR⸠rKTo
sh \roࠈ适 cDhK”os‚“DThIcࠑR₏eLTo
ahᨬ‌oᴠᄠᨠhDThIcTRᄠgDoDcȠhEaoKocఠge
鴛gDicTTzРTcജgDoDshw⸠lgaᄠw造VhgDLh
R጑”aoggR(ᄝomᆀ \bo oggᄚc \roࠈzS,
ToVLRwcLⰠkᠠ2001–201ゆtt., \fᰠToഛGThgDଠ
saoggR(ᄝomᄑ eE጑ᴘmᄂ, \boVRgoࠈzS
178
ge鴛gDicTTᰠVᰎKTcᬠKoTThtᰠVcLRhKo,
EeഛఠghwTRDcabThȬ‚cKଠkᠠ/DᰠiLcwဠwh
Gcఠge鴛gDicTTᰠVhwcTvDbgဠgScwᠠᔚvkcȠ
ЛGഖ”oDᬉhLRvwR. rKTosh“EThiጛTᄛ
saogᔑ(RsomRᄠTᠠhᔈhioTRᄠEhacᬠᔚc
GR脠KoTTz脠VLRihKRఠᴠDhweⰠCDᰠ/acwcTD造
sa᠕gR(RsomRR‑kЛTv4Dgv.‏kЛࠛTRv”o
DcthLRȠicLSTctᰠeLhiTv, whGcఠEzDb,  Tc
kToCRDcabTzc, \bᰠKaဠeksR脠soDcthLRȬ‑g
VhጋkecҐS \rav”aoggR(ᄝomᄑ“DKcጋ࢐S
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ,―DoThiRDgv \bcihkwhG࢐w Lh
icKᬈᄛ―᜘iࠛTRN cGഖ”a᠕gR(RsomRv
Б, hgDLhcࠈ逄R \bo oggᄚoS eE጑ᴘmᄂ
᜘kT邁–cD.
dLcകDoiacTTzᬠᨠLokഛaᬠDcSTRsᄠiRke
oaRkomRᄠRT(hLwomRᄠᰠToesᬠᄠDcSThah
tRᄠVeDcРsoᜌRLhioTRဠToeshwcDLRCcᔝhȠ
RT(hᜄomRR hบhav4D“EactCRDb hTR
woTRᬠLckeabDoDhᨠoToaRkoⰠhKTosᰠhTᄠTᬠ
МteD VhKDicLKRDb―eUcgDihioTRc koshࠜ
ЛLThgDᬂ,”hDhL逛 c―ጛഖ4D‑k‑gShK
T邁 \roTT邁. hgDeVThgDb―hiLᬄᬈT邁‑T
gDLewcTDhᨠiRkeoaRkomRȠVᰎihavc\f ᔠwR
ࠑwoጋ࢐Б‖gR጑vБ―hkKoioDb hጋIhc
Cᄕah \rRot᜘ww,”hDhL逛 LRiጛseD‚TRwo
TRᬠᴠVLcകDoiacTR耠LckeabDoDhᨠoToaRko,
hKTosᰠwhteఠghഛL輘DଠKeEaRLhioTRᬠeGᬠ
VLcKgఘiacTࠜN RT(hᜄomRR. n Ehab缜w
CRgaᬠiRkeoaRkomRȠwhGTᰠᔝLzDଠTcജ
gఘDᴑ LhicKcTࠜth‘ToaRko‑―(hᜄRLh
ioDb‑gᴘGcࠈhc hࠑwoࠑc LcKgDoiacT
࢐S‗ckeጋDoDhi.
4.2⸠LtMNTM4wtMkOTwԠРऊ4kЋwB
Лᆍo, Lᄈᄄo4URc‗cIcࠑv LR“EgeG
ഛTRᄠwcDhജᨠsoᜌRLhioTRဠToesᄠᄠDcSTh
ahtRᄬ TcviTᰠgCRDo4D, CDᰠVhജETzᬠwcDh
K造hEaoKo4ఠᔚhNgDiowᄠtchtLo(RCcᔝR脠
soᜌⰠioGTcNIRРRภshDhLz脠EzaᠠRഛT
DR(RsomRဠ«Ecaz脠VvDcT»ⰠVᰎihav4Uoဠ
«VaoTRLhioDb» ToeCTzc‑ Dc脈hጜtRCcgᴑc
KhgDᆏᬈRv. ТᬄoDRиgsᄛ «soLDht᜘(Rи
gsRc»“gThiz LᄈmᄁRoጋTh“D጑Co而gv
h\f \tchtLo(RCcᔝR脠DcЬ Dᰠw造TᬠwhGcР
TᠠwhwcTఠVhgDLhcTRဠsoᜌ造kToDଠigᬠVh
DᬈmRoabTh‚hkwh輈逛 \fᬄoDRsR‑ggጛKh
ioTRNⰠRภshDhLz脠whGTᰠEzaᰠE造gahGRDଠ
soᜌᘠKaဠVLhtTᰎRLhioTRဠLokiRDRဠToesᄠ
R \fcSࠑsR.
rKTᰠRᔝa4CcTRcⰠVLᄠshDhLhРiᰎwhGTᰠ
VaoThihc‖V᜘iጛTᄛ \boV᜘iጛTᄛw‗okiR
DRဠᔠRᔁhabkhioTRcРKaဠVLhtTᰎᠠwcDh
ജᨠ«ToeshwcDLRR»ⰠVLcകDoiacTᰠᨠ(hLwᬠ
gScw造ᔑgDcwThȠKRTowRsᄠ⠗Rg⺆32o)⸠fcCଠ
RഛఠᰠജthTv4鴛РLokiRDRᄠToesᄠhDKcab
ThȠgDLoTz⸠lgaᄠᨠwRLᬠcgDଠDcSThahtRCc
ᔝRȠaRഛLⰠshDhLzȠhEaoKocఠജgDoDhCTzР
hEъcwhРLcgeLghᨠKaဠVLhicഛTRဠRggac
ജioTRȠVᰠIRLhshwᘠᔁcsDLᘠToVLoiac
TRȬ‌ᰠജthTv4UoဠgDLoTᠠwhGcఠg/shTh
wRDଠᔚhᄠeᔑaRဠTᠠLokiRDRᬠghEgDicTTz脠
ěLgěsDRiT邁 \boeCT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN‎o
gиD hTRDhLRTto‑kЛࠛTRv \fᬄoDRs‑g
gacജioTRȠᘠaRഛLᠠᄠghhDicDgDicTTᰠ
ěLᬗ᠕VLcKcavDb‑Л4Uᄛgv \boeCT逛‗c
geLᖐ‍aဠihᔁLhRkicഛTRဠeGᬠVhaeCcT
Tz脠LckeabDoDhᨬ₫VhKLo輘v묠VhicഛTR耠
ToeCThtᰠaRഛLo⸠lgaᄠᘠToeCThȠDcwoDRsᄠ
ihจRsocD‚hคhGࠜgDb VᜑsaoKࠜth ᜑ
wcTcTRv, \fᰠVhജETzȠVhKShഠwhGc\f \to
LoTDRLhioDbⰠCDᰠᨠgDLoTᬠToNഛDgဠᔁcmR
oaᄕD,”hDhLzN‗okER᜘cDgv‚ LhEጛЛ‑aR
whGcఠEzgDLᰠVcLcsa4CRDbgဠTᠠTcᬠkᠠgCc\f
DhthⰠCDᰠhࠠkoTRwocDgဠDcwoDRCcᔝᄠEaRk
shȠVLhEacwoDRshN. \n LcKahGcTThȠgScw造
cgDଠKiᠠTcജgDoDso⸠nh-VcLizSⰠigctKᠠEe
ഛ\f \boEa4KoDbgဠhDgDoioTRᬠhఠaRഛLo, \foᴠ
ᴘs \rhgDeV࢐c \rav hࠑDhLᄈto‑kwcTcࠑv
DcwoDRᴠTᠠhᔈhiᬠiRKRwz脠LckeabDoDhᨠko
CogDe耠Vhviav4DgဠᨠwhwcTDⰠshtKᠠoiDhL造
VeEaRsomRR‗᠆hDo4D \boK‗okiRDᄛw \fᬄo
DRsᄠRaᄠeGᬠhDsokoaRᔋ“\f \bcc⸠5oഛLGsᠠ
iᰎTRsocఠigacകDiRᬠTchEShKRwhgDᄠജ
TcgcTRဠVLhEacwoDRsᄠജ”hTsLcDThtᰠRg
179
蔗oTDz
yoeshЛDLRиgsᄛ
ᄕgጛKhioTRv
ЭsgěLDz
dLᄝaoK࢐c
y༔2f
yoV᜘iጛTᄛ
RggacKhioTRȠᨠthahiᬠ
ᚆRggacKhioDcav
dLhtࠜk‗oบRDRv
ToesR‑‌cSࠑsR
蔗oTDz
yoeshЛDLRиgsᄛ
ᄕgጛKhioTRv
ЭsgěLDz
dLᄝaoK࢐c
y༔2f
yoV᜘iጛTᄛ
RggacKhioTRȠᨠthahiᬠ
ᚆRggacKhioDcav
dLhtࠜk‗oบRDRv
ToesR‑‌cSࠑsR
ꀑᔮ″㈮’᠗ᄘࠌ造ᘁ᜘iጛࠑဠDᬄ᠌ᄝᰂ ᠭ
ᘃ࢐脠ᄕᔓcKᰚ᠈ᄂ㨠ᠩ ጘࠜ᨜ᬠᘁ᜘iጛࠑᬠ
ᔠᄕĜጋผᨘࠑᬄ oᘝᰄᬌᜑᄠKጐ ᜜ईᰎᠻ
E⦆gSᬄᠠĜKᔌ᜜ȝᄠ࠘ė᠚ጛࠑȠᄕᔓcKh-
ᨘࠑȬ₭ᰗБ᜖肝᠐₍ᄝጠᘁ᜘iጛࠑဠи᜛ภ
ᄎЛࠛࠑᬠėᄜᜑDᬌᰚ ᜘ࠌᰚᰉᰠ᜘ᔁ᜛Kcጛ-
ࠑဠ᜛gᘗgᰚ
gacജioDcavⰠshDhLzȠwhGc\f \boShKRDbgဠ
iࠛ”hTDᬝgDo‑ggጛKhioTRN.’h-iDhL邁,
᪆贛av脠/shThwRᄠLcgeLghᨠ/sᔁcᜌ造whte\f
VhGcLDihioDb \fcwoDᄝoБ,‗okiᄚocҐБ
ᘠaRഛLoⰠshDhLzᬠTᬠghhDicDgDie4ఠizgh
sheLᰚTc᪐w ᜑhᜑDcఘw LosDRCcgshN
ഛvDcabThgDᄠᨠgDLoTc. ЭDᄠDcwoDRsᄠwh
teఠEzDଠihgDLcEhioT造ᨠKoabTcNIcЬ ᰠ
᪆whwcT\f \boCoaᠠLoEhఠR脠TchEShKRwhgDଠ
ࠛhиiRKTo.
yᠠgScwᬠ⠗Rg. 32o) VLcകDoiacTᰠ(hLwR
LhioTRᬠVLhtTᰎᠠLokiRDRဠToesᄠᄠDcSTR
ᴑ \bo“gࠜioTRR hTRDhᜑTघ‗ckeabఘDhi
eGc‚zVhaࠛTT邁‑ggጛKhioTRN.ₗsgěLDz
ᨠKoTThȠgScwᬠRtLo4ఠLhaଠhLoseahᨠVLᄠ
МTRDhᜑTtc \boeCTzS‗ckeabఘDhi, hae
C᠛w邁 i gD᜘ࠛ-aRKᬗc. n VLcKahGᬈThN
whKcaR‚hkwh輈h‚ࠛgᬈᄛ cEhabIᆁ”hL
LcsDRLhihᴠᨠVLhtTᰎ‗okiRDRဠkᠠgCcఠeCc
ఘ hDLcEࠜgDcN‗oบRDRv–hsoabTzS‑g
gacKhioࠑN (eᴘkoTh eࠝDᄗThN―DLcጝhN),
hKTosᰠ/DᠠshLLcsmRဠTckToCRDcabTo⸠yc
viTᰠᨠgScwᬠVLcKVhaotocDgvⰠCDᰠ/sᔁcᜌ造
VLᄠghgDoiacTRᄠVLhtTᰎᠠLokiRDRဠeCRDz
io4D hDLcEࠜgDR‗oบRDRv ᜑhᜑDcDTzS
ToVLoiacࠑN \fcSࠑsR,‛g጑₌Dh \bchEShKᄄh.
rELoDᄄ‚ࠑwoࠑc \bo hDcࢍRoጋTe4
VLhEጛwe‚‗᠕gwoDLRi᠛whN―Sᬄc,‘)RЛT
TᰠTᠠhDLzᨠ/sᔁcᜌhᨠh\f VLosDRCcᔝhȠഛ
vDcabThgDᄠᄠVhaThᬠR脠ghᔗcജDhCcTRᬠTᠠ
oToaRkc‚ShKࠜth \rhsewcTఘabࠜth hDhso
RT(hLwomRᄠKaဠghgDoiacTRဠVaoTᠠLok
iRDRv⸠ТosGᬠᘠRggacജioDcacȠoDLh(R
LecDgv \boizs hᄕso \bhi邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN
ᄕgጛKhioTRN R‗okiRio4Dgv ᆏKRiᬈи
gsᄛ \b᠕DLhᬈRv‚“DTh缛TRR haeиTRv
(ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑv.‏gVhጋkhioࠑc LᄈmR
VoⰠkoahGcTThtᰠᨠgScwᬠTᠠLRg⺆32oⰠVLc
KegwoDᜑiocD‖gఘࠜiacTRc‌oshth‖Lhᨈv
LokiRDRဠToesᄠᄠDcSTRsRⰠVLᄠshDhLhРLok
iRDᄛ ᬗcShKRD \bo cDhKz,‑gVhabkeᬄ逛
gD᜘ThN-aRKᬗhw.—EgeGKᬈᄛ‖LhiࠛN
LokiRDRဠToesᄠᨠgDLoTᬠhVRgoTᰠᨠ[Tracking
scienti8掣, 2014].
9Scwo₭hLБLhioࠑv \boVLoiacࠑN‗ok
iRDRဠToesᄠᄠDcSTRsᄬ‗ᬘaRkecwoဠᨠgDLo
ToS-aRഛLoSⰠVLcകDoiacTᠠTᠠLRg⺆32E⸠rTᠠ
iRkeoaRkRLecఠVLh贛KeLeⰠhVRgoTTe耠ᨠLok
ഛaᬠ1.1⸠ᤠVLcKahGcTThȠgScwᬠ/sᔁcᜌ造
ToShKvDgဠᨠDcᔈhРshTDosDᬠᔠRggacജioDc
avwᄬ‘ ogDᰠᄠgowᄠviav4DgဠRggacജio
DcavwᄠᄠToShKvDgဠᨠshTDcsgDᬠDcwoDRᴠRg
gacKhioࠑN. oࠈzc \boeshwcDLᄑ Lᄚac
ᴘ而gv”os‚gVhwhtoDcጋ࢐N‑TgDLewcTD
Kav”o጑ELhisR‑ \bogDLhȝR hࠑwoࠑv
/sᔁcᜌhР贛aᄠ/sᔁcᜌRk造VLᄠ(hLwRLh
ioࠑR₌sgVcLD࢐S‎osᎀCcࠑN.’‗ckeጋDoDc
VLh贛ggᠠ/sᔁcᜌRk造(hLwRLe4DgဠToVLoi
acTRဠLokiRDRဠToesᄠᄠDcSTRsᄬ shDhLzᬠ
RgVhabke4Dgv ᜑ‑คcTcTRR ᜑhᜑDcDhi
ᨠizഛacTRᄠhEъcwhᨠLcgeLghᨠKaဠToeCTz脠
RggacജioTRȠVᰠDcwoDRsᬠ(TᠠgScwᬠVLcK
gDoiጛTz‚₭hLЛ \t᜘TDhi).
lgaR‚hkwh輈hgDR LRЛࠛTRv―Sᬄz
LRg⺆32ᠠᨠLokiRDRᄠToesᄠhtLoTRCcTT逬
TcabkဠaᄠVLRwcTRDଠcᬠKaဠLokiRDRဠDcS
Thahtᄑ? g጑ LoihhEaoKoDcጋ \bc‎oᄈDc
LcghioT‚ haeCcTRR–hsoabࠜth oDcTఘ,
Dᰠ/DᰠShLhIRȠIoTᔠVhaeCRDଠVoDcTఠ᪆ᔚh
cȠ4LRgKRsmRᄠᄠToaoKRDଠizVeᔝ Lh
KesmRᄠVᰠRwc4URwgဠhVRgoTRvw⸠rKTosᰠ
Tᬠiᰠigc脠DcSThahtRCcᔝR脠hEaogDv脠igᬠ
VLhKesD造koURUo4DgဠVoDcTDowR⸠ᤠRggac
KhioTRR‑TࠜiomᄜTTzS LhKesDhi, hae
CRiIR脠ᨠVcLRh\r 1977–200㒆tt. cGcthKTe耠
VLcwR耠R&D 100 Award猠GeLToaᠠResearch
and DevelopmentⰠEzaᰠhEToLeGcThⰠCDᰠTᠠ
90,㦆┠VLhKesDhᨠTᬠEzaᄠVhaeCcT造Vo
DcTD造[Reassessing patent…, 2013]⸠nhVLh
gz haࠜDz“DLoGcTRv‎ToTRv \fc脈hጜtRN
i)VoDcTDoS \fLcEe而 \rhVhገRDcጋ࢐S‑ggac
ജioTRN, \foᴠGᬠsoᴠᄠihVLhᔠᰠizviacTRᄠ
ᔚvkᄠwcGKᘠToeCTzРᄠDcSThahtRCcᔝRР
kToTRcР(ᔄ⸠hEgeGഛTRᬠᨠLokKcaᬠ1.2).
lgaᄠgScwᠠLRg. 32ᠠTᬠLoEhDoc\f ᨠLow
so脠gDLoT逬 hGcఠaᄠhTᠠᔗoEhDoDଠᨠLow
so脠hDഛabThȠToeCThȠhLtoTRkomRR㼠Bo,
whGcD, \bᰠDhabsᰠTᠠToCoabThР/DoVᬠLok
iRDRv⸠yoVLRwcLⰠgᰎKoTTzȠᨠ200㦆t. \nTR
icLᔑDc\f \boesᄠᄠDcSThahtRᄠRwcTᄠshLhaဠ
uEKea造(King Abdullah University of Science
and Technology, KAUST)ⰠhVLcഛaRᨠDcwo
DRCcᔝRȠVaoࠠᔚhctᰠLokiRDRဠᄠVLRiac
ᴘv‚zghshsio጑(ᆍᄗhioࠈzS‖Cc࢐S―h
igctᰠwRLoⰠᔄhठeicaRCRDଠhEъcРᄠsoCc
gDiᰠᔚhR脠ToeCTz脠LckeabDoDhᨠജ‖LhiTv,
VᰎihaRiIctᰠcwᘠihNDᄠᨠDhV-50〠ШoT
SoNᔝhtᰠLcNDRTto⸠9whGcఠaᄠeTRicLᔑDc\f
VLhKhᎏRDb―ihc‗okiRDᄛ,‛gaR Lᬝ᜘DRD
gv VhKVRDᴘ‚zghshLcNDᄈthi逄R eCc࢐Б,
VhsoGcఠiLcwv.
dLR LRTvDRR‗᭿ᬈRv“‗okiRDRR \bhi邁
ToeCT邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN chEShKRwh‖CRDz
ioDଠജgDeVThgDଠLcgeLghᨠCcahicCcᔝhtᰠ
soVRDoaᠠᄠᔁcmR(RsᘠLctRhToⰠVhTRwoTRᬠ
shDhLhȠTᬠwhGcఠEzDଠജgDRtTeDᰠᔗcK
gDiowᄠToeshwcDLRR⸠ТosRᬠKoTTzᬠwhGTᰠ
VhaeCRDଠRᔝa4CRDcabTᰠCcLcภ/sᔁcᜌhᨠ
ᄠeGᬠLoEhDo4UR脠ᨠhLtoTRkomRᄠeCcTzS,
kToshwz脠ᔠwcgDThȠᔁcmR(RshȠᄠwcgDThȠ
ToeCࠜN―hgఘiav肝cN.
dLR“VLcKcጛTRR \boV᜘iጛTRN‗ok
iRDRဠTeGTᰠizERLoDଠDcwoDRsᄬ”hDhLzᬠ
VhบhavD―(hᜄRLhioDb₏RจcgVhghETzc
Toëzc \tLeāz.₂LRఛLRR \rav‚zEhLo‌c
woDRsᄬ”hDhLoဠVᰎihavcఠg(hLwRLhioDଠ
GRkTcgVᰕhEࠖ4 \boeCࠖ4 \tLᘁĖ,“gThiz
io而gv \bc―Dhጋsh \bo‚zviacࠈzS cDhKoБ
ToeshЛDLRR ᬗgěsDRiT邁 \boV᜘iጛTRvS,
ᔝhabsᰠTᠠToaRCRᄠiᰎwhGThgDᄠgᰎKoDଠ
tLeVVe‖иT邁,”hDh᜘v―whGcD LRiጛCb
ᴠhEgeGഛTR耠ᄠRᔁhabkhioTR耠ᔚhR脠Lc
keabDoDhᨠshaacठᄠVLosDRshᨠiTᬠhLtoTRko
mRᄠ(ᔄ⸠hEgeGഛTRᬠᨠLokഛaᬠ1.2).
foEhఘ \boeCࠜN \tLeVVz h hihwe \boVLoi
acࠑ4 \boCᄈocDgv― Dcࠑv eE጑ᴘmᄂ h
Dᬄc‑ggጛKhioTRN.ₕᬄ–eC缛 \tLeVVo‑g
gacജioDcacȠkToshwᠠᔠeGᬠizIcKIRwᄠ
VeE጑ᴘmRvБ, \fcw–eCIc hࠑwoࠑc ac
TowᄠtLeVV造shTDcsgDᠠRggacജioTRȬ Lh
ihKRwz脠ᨠwRLc,  \fcРizIᬠIoTᖐ LcK
ahGRDଠKaဠhEgeGഛTRဠThizᬠLckeabDoD逬
shDhLzᬠhDicCo4\f \bᠠosDeoabTzᬠihVLhᖐ.
ᤠsoCcgDiᬠᔗcകDiᠠLoTTcȠKRotThgDRsᄠ
᜘kiRDRv ToeCThth \boV᜘iጛTRv h輈h
VLcKahGRDb“DgacGᄚoࠑc \rᄈoБsR Dc
TRv. 9ivkb ЛGഖ CDᬈᄛw R Vhgጛഖ4UR
Б eE጑ᴘmRvБ―DoDRgDRCcgsR‎ToCᄄo
ᆆVhKDicLGKoaoᔋ‚ habIhРCRgaᬠRggac
KhioࠑN eࠑicLgRDcDhi R ToeC࢐S hLtoࠑ
komRNⰠhLRcTDRLhioTTz脠TᠠgᰎKoTRᬠThih
181
th‎Toࠑv. ᄈoБᴘ‖ic጑Ccࠑv Rgao“E
Lo鴛TRȠᴠVhaThDcsgDhizРLcgeLgoРwhGc\f
koജatᰠജ hviacTRဠVcLiz脠VeEaRsomRȠ
ᔑtToaRkRLhioDଠᰠDhЬ DᰠVLh贛gᔠLokiR
DRဠThihtᰠToVLoiacTRဠkoVe鴛T.
Bav Cacࠜi ࠜihN ToeCࠜN tLeVVz ఘsGc
DLcEe4DgဠᄠToizsᄠVLcകDoiacTRဠToeC
Tz脠LckeabDoDhᨠ(ᔄ⸠hEgeGഛTRᬠᨠLokഛ
ጛ)1.5). dLRiጛиTᄛ iTRwoTRv s LckeabDo
DoРᔚhR脠RggacജioTRȠᄬ”oᴠgacകDiRc,
Vhiz缛Tᄛ‖LhiTv”oиgDio \boeCT邁‗c
keabDoDhi hK᜘keЛi᠛D―ᄕDᬄoDRиgshc
CDcࠑc R“EgeGKcࠑc‘sDeoጋ࢐S \boeC࢐S
gఘDcN, hckKᴑ \bo―cwRToថ/shT(cLcT
mRᄠKaဠhE鴛TRဠᔠshaactowᄠᄠVhaeCcTRᬠ
hELoDࠜN―ivฑ“ hDLcEࠜgDႁ“D cgDࠜN
VLhwzIacTThgDᄠᄠhE鴛gDio.
yoizsᄠᔑgDcwoDRCcᔝhtᰠCDcTRဠTo
eCThȠaRDcLoDeL逬“EgeGഛTRဠᄠVLcK
gDoiጛTRv \bhi邁 \boeCT邁‗ckeabDoDhi c
ᄕиLVzio4D‚gcS \boizshi, chEShKRw邁
RggacKhioఛaင‚ \boëzS \tLeāoS.₄đghs
eTRiᬗgoabT邁 \boizshi‑ggጛKhioDcጛN,
TᠠshDhLzᬠTeGTᰠhELoUoDଠiTRwoTRᬠVLᄠ
hEeCcࠑR \bhizS \boeC࢐S―hDLeKࠑshi‑጑
VLRiacCcTRᄠge鴛gDie4URSⰠEzጠhVLcഛ
acࠠᨠLowso脠RggacജioTRဠwhERabThgDᄠ
ToeCTz脠ghDLeKTRshᨠTᠠhᔈhiᬠLckeabDoDhᨠ
oToaRkᠠ(osDhLhᨬ―VhghEgDie4UR脠VLR
ᔚhcTR耠gDcVcTᄠPh䐠᪆liLhVcNᔝhРgh4kc,
ᔄ. DoEa⺆17 [Transferable Skills…, 2012, L⺆20].
dLcKahGcࠈ适‚避c Lhmcgg₭hLБLh
ioTRဠGRkTcᔁhghETz脠ToeCTz脠tLeVĠKaဠ
᜘kiRDRv \bhi邁 \boeCT邁 \boV᜘iጛTRN‚“L
toTRkomRᄠDLcEecఠeCcDᠠVhDLcEThgDᄠVLh
ҐIacࠈhgDR (VLosDᄝR).ₑhLh缑w‑TKᄝo
DhLhw‚hgDLcEhioࠈhgDR‖Gc i送hገcࠈzS
RggacജioTRȠᨠVLosDRsᬠviavcDgဠLcteavL
ࠜc‚zVhaTcTRc \boeCࠜN \tLeVVhN ᜑsaoK
T邁 ᜘EhD i RTDᬗcgoS iࠛIࠛth kosokCRso.
rKTosᰠKaဠThiz脠ToeCTz脠tLeVĠ/DhఠRT
KRsoDhᜠTᬠviavcDgဠLcacioTDTzЬ‌oᴠsoᴠ
tLeVVhȠc鴛 ᬠVhaeCcT造LckeabDoD逬”hDh
ថc hteD ᜑiacCb LosDRshi.‏gsa考c
TRᬠghgDoiav4\f \tLeVV逬”hDhLzᬠgᰎKo4Dgဠ
RkToCoabTh Kav L᭿ᬈRv V᜘sDRиgsᆁ ko
KoC,‘‚ \roabࠛN缛w ᬗcShKvD”‗okiRDR4
ToeCThȠDcwoDRsR⸠BaဠizviacTRဠᄠeCcDᠠ
ജathᔗhCTz脠VhDLcEThgDcȠVLosDRsᄠ᪆To
eCTz脠RggacജioTRv脠whGTᰠhELoDRDbgဠ
ᶆshT贛VmRᄠDLhNThȠᔁRLoaᄠ%⺆MmshiRmᠠ
[Mmshiᆍ, 2010].
ᤠhᔈhiᬠshT贛VmRᄠacGRఠwhഛaଠiko
RwhഛNgDiRဠthgeKoLgDioⰠeTRicLᔑDcDᠠ
R)ERจcᔘ, \boบoTTov‘iDhLhw \fLhNࠜN
gVᄗoጋ4. uiDhL shࢍcVmᄑ To ЈhthCRg
acࠈzS LᄄcLoS―hkKoࠑv‑ࠈhiomRhࠈzS
贛TDLhᨠᨠ9ШuⰠШicmRᄠᄠ.LokRaRᄠഛwhT
gDLRLecDⰠCDᰠᨠLokTz脠gDLoTo脠ᄠtchtLo(R
CcᔝR脠LctRhTo脠hKThtᰠthgeKoLgDiᠠToEa4
Ko而gv‗ok጑C࢐c₭hLҐ‗co጑komᄑ h
ഛaᄠDLhNThȠᔁRLoaR⸠yᰠhEURРwhwcTDhР
ih‚gcS‗᠕gwhDLᬈT邁 LRЛ᜘S‐iaရDgv
(hᜄRLhioTRc‖gጜᨑN \bcVLcថᨈhth―hk
KoTRဠᨠLctRhTᬠThiz脠(RLЬ‗ᬘaRke4UR脠
Rഛᄬ‗okLoEhDoTTzᬠᨠgDcTo脠eTRicLᔑDc
Dhi.₂a4иizw‖gahiᄛw hviጛTRv \bhi邁
(RLРoiDhᜠgCRDocఠgᰎKoTRᬠᨠLctRhTᬠ
eࠑicLgRDcDo \bhihth \fᄁoₚ LcKVLᄈR
woDcabgshth.‒Lhgጛ輑i᠐‑gDhLRиgsᄛ
VLRCᄈz‖gVc缈hgDR KieS₌DoahࠈzS VLcK
VLRTRwoDcabᔝR脠iekhᨬ‟oggoCegcDᔝhtᰠ
Dc脈hጜtRCcgshth‑TgDRDeఘ‑₄D谈(hLK
ᔝhtᰠeTRicLᔑDcDoⰠwhGTᰠgKcaoDଠizihK,
CDᰠiRKRwzᬠᄠosDRiTᰠihᔁLhRkihKRwzᬠ
᪆KLetR脠eTRicLᔑDcDo脠gDLesDeL逬‌osRᬠsoᴠ
贛TDL造DLoTg(cLᠠDcSThahtRȬ‑TseEoDhL造
R \fc脈hVo᜝R,‐iav4Dgv‚DhᜑCTzwR h“D
ThIcࠑ4 s shࢍcVmᄑ VLcKVLᄈᄄoDcጋ
ᔝR脠eTRicLᔑDcDhi. \nTRicLᔑDc\f \bhihtᰠ
DRVᠠTᬠVLhgDᰠgᰎKocఠLctRhToabTzȠVeጠ
/sᔁcᜌhᨠ騠VLcVhKoioDcacȠeTRicLᔑDcDo,
TᰠRTRmRRLecఠVcLcKoCᘠᔚhR脠LokLoEhDhᴠ
i‗ctRhToጋTe4 LhҐIacࠈhgDb,―VhghE
2ᬋጒI 17
ᜅअ̅ࠆ‑ࠄฅऌਇ؈ꂃ ਎ꀐ༎‍ݿ DఇBഏชbB܅괠
༕Dᰃࠑᴺ⁛Transferable Skills£, 2012, . 20]
s਋BNMtѿ \b਎fv༎
LBtBCBࠆ‑ࠄkBtDO܆ࢠ. \bOkfvMk
2htࠑDᄚ࢐c
gVᰕhETᰕDR
₂LcoDRiThgDb (DihLCcgsRN hKShK)‑‘EgD᜘sDThc zIጛTᄛ.
₠c缛Tᄛ‎oKoC.
yo᪐ᴑ
shЄeࠑᴘmᄂ
‒RgbwcTTzᬠᄠegDTzᬠ࠘izsᄠhEUcTRဠᄠVhKoCᄠRT(hLИmRR.
₉oizsᄠhEUcTRဠᄠicKcTRဠKᄘahtᠠᔠTcgVcmᄘaRgDowᄠ(givkᄠ
ᖆhEUcgDicTThgDb4).
₉oizsR LcĜKoioTRv / \t᜖VĜiᰉh“EeCcTRv.
₉oeC࢐N hKShK”₭hLБLhioࠑ4 h጑DᄝR“Ltoࠑkomᄑ
ᆆkoshThDihLCcgDie.
dLcKVLᄈᄄo
Dcabgᴑc \bo᪐ᴑ
₃RkTcg-Toi逝R (hgThiz LcKVLᄈᄄoDcጋgshN‍cvDcጋThgDᄬ‑ࠈhiomᄑ,
shwwcឍᄘaRkomRဠThiz脠DhioLhiⰠRTDcaacsDeoab࠘ဠghEgDicTThgDଠᆆVo-
DᬈDࠜc \rcጜ).
PcGaᄃThgD
Tzᬠ࠘izsR
₅LeVVhioဠKcvDcabThgDଠ⼠LoEhDᠠᨠshИTKc.
₉oi逝R‗cVcDRDhLgDio /‑TKᄚRKeoጋThth“EeCcࠑv.
’cKcTᄛ cLcthihLhi.
₉oጘGRioTRᬠgivkcȠ(egDoThiacTRᬠshTDosDhi⤠ᄠTc(hLИabThᬠhEUcTRc.
rᜉoTRkomRhT
Tzᬠ࠘izsR
₉oizsR‚cKcTRv LhcsDhi‑ aoTRLhioTᄛ‗᠆hCcth‚LcЛTR.
‒aoࠑLhioࠑc”oLbcLz.
MggacജioDcጋ
gsRc”hЁcDcࢍᄑ
₉oi逝R aoࠑLhioࠑv‑‖VLoiacࠑv‑ggacജioDcጋgshN‗oEhDhN.
₋࠘shwgDiᰠᔠwcDhKowᄠᄠDcSThahtRvwᄠRภhEጘgDcȠ࠘eCThtᰠk࠘TRv,
acGoUᆁ‚Tc \fᬄoDRᴑ”ioaR(RsomRhTࠜN‗oEhDz.
₉oeC࠘ဠ/DRsᠠᄠVLRTmRV造࠘eCThȠCcgDThgDR.
₉oVᄕoTᄛ‎ovihs \bo haeCcTᄛ \t᜘TDhi.
gDieဠgᰎKoTR耠Thiz脠(RLРRภCRgaᠠᔚhR脠
eCcTz脠ᄠizVeᔝTRshᨬ‛gaᄠᨠLctRhTᬠTc\f
(RLЬ hDhiz脠LᬘaRkhioDଠRഛR⸠uiDhLhР
shࢍcVmᄑ‖ࠑicLgRDcDo”os‑ࠑmRoDhLo
VcLcKoCR \fc脈hጜtRN‚ LhwzIacTࠜgDb
EzጠORabvР.oᜌhࠠfhKGcLⰠhᔈhioDcaଠ
ᆆVcLizȠVLckRഛT\f PoggoCegcDᔝhtᰠDcS
ࠜጜtRCcgshth‑TgDRDeఘ,‑kጜGR᩿RN―ihR
Rഛᄠᨠജsaoഛ‱84㚆t⸠9VegDဠgDᰠac\f \roTToဠ
shT贛VmRဠEzaᠠLᬘaRkhioTᠠᨠ9D/T(hLK
ᔝhРeTRicLᔑDcDᬠEaothKoLဠФLcഛLRsᘠ
ТcLwoTeⰠshDhLzȬ‗oEhDoဠiᰠiLcwဠihNT造
i)PogᔘCegcDgshw \fc脈hጜtRCcgshw‑TgDR
DeDcⰠwh\t \boEa4KoDଠ/((csDRiThgDଠshT
mᬁmRR‚‚hᬈT邁‗ok᜘EhDso脮
%hgeKoLgDiᰠᨠVLcKahGcTThȠwhഛaᄠiz
gDeVoc\f \bᬠVLhgDᰠsoᴠtoLoTఠVLoiRጠRtL逬
Th‑”os‑gDhCࠑs‑ࠚcgDᆍᄂ―‚zghsᄄ‗R
gshw‑ \thᜑkhTDhw haeCcTRv‗ckeabఘDhi
ഛgvDଠᄠEhacᬠacD⸠dᰠwTcTR耠%⺆MmshiRmo,
toLoTDRcȠDhthⰠCDᰠRTicgDRmRᄠgᰠgDhaଠ
ജatRРᔗhshРVhviacTRဠVcLiz脠Lckeab
DoDhᨠEeKeఠ/((csDRiTzⰠviavcDgဠDhⰠCDᰠ
soGKzȠ/acwcTఠᨠDLhNThȠᔁRLoaᄠhEcᔁc
CRiocఠVLh贛gᔠeDhCTcTRဠ贛acȠRggacജ
ioTRȠᔠeCcDhРVhDLcEThgDcȠVLosDRsᄬ”h
Жтшяиоы Сз,
%hihLᄠTᠠvkzsᬠKRotLoww⸠dhghERᬠ
Vh‚Rkeoጋ࢐w”hЄeࠑᴘmRင.‟.:‟oࠈ,‏ioThi
ᆆФcLEcL, 2009. 32〠g.
Хччыпхч Р,
ₛLhаov―đLoጋ:‖ࠑicLgRఛDzₚ LcK
VLRvDRဠ騠thgeKoLgDih㨠RTThiomRᄠᨠKcNgDiRR⸠Тhwgs:
MkK-iᰠТhwgshtᰠthg⸠eT-DᠠgRgDcРeVLoiacTRv, 2010.
23㜠g.
Лнууэ О,
₉oesᠠᨠKcNgDiRR㨠dLotwoDRCcgsRȠVhihLhD.
9dE.㨠MkK-iᰠliLhVcNgshtᰠeTRicLgRDcDᠠ᪆9oTsD-
dcDcLEeLtc, 2013. 41㘠g. [rLRtRToa: Latou犆B. Science
i溆Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers
Through Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1988. 288 p.]
ау Н,
‏gseggDiᰠiRkeoaRkomRᄠᨠERkTcgc⸠2oᴠVLcK-
gDoiRDb―ahGTe4‑T(hLwomᆀ LhgD逄R“ELokoБ.
P.㨠PoTTⰠMioThᨠᄠФcLEcL, 2013. 35㈠g.
An approach to discovering new technology opportunities:
Keyword-based patent map approach / S⺆Lee, B⺆Yoon,
Y⺆Park // Technovation. 2009. Vol. 29. ¤ 6–7. P⺆481–497.
Böplcp* I,* Pmjjcw* B,C,
Visual Insights: A Practical Guide to
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MIT Press, 2014. 312 p.
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P⺆e4803.
Cmjjgls P,
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sity Press, 2000. 1098 p. [feggsRȠVcLcihK㨠2haaRTຆf.
9᲍ᄜጜtRv₭Rጜgh(RN: \tጜEoabTov \fchᜑv‑TDca
acsDeoጋThth‑kwcTcࠑv.₉hihgREᄗgs:₄REᄗgsᄂ
脗ᰈᰉLo(, 2002. 1280―.]
Design and Update of a Classi8cation System: The
UCSD Map of Science / K⺆Borner et al. // PLoS ONE.
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somRᄠhVeEaRshioT造VᰠoKLcgᘠhttp://sci.cns.iu.edu/
ucsdmap/]
Cai L, J, t_l* W_jrm_l L,
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Cai L, J, t_l* W_jrm_l L,
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DhLzᬠwhteఠiᰎTRsTeDଠᨠEeKe鴛w⸠Phഛaଠ
DLhNThȠᔁRLoaᄠKcwhTgDLRLecDⰠCDᰠRഛᄠ
RggacKhioࠑN‚‖ࠑicLgRDcDoS‚hkࠑᴘ而
ᨠLckeabDoDᬠhE鴛TRဠVLcകDoiRDcacȠLc
tᄜToabࠜN LhwzIacTࠜgDR‑)iekhigshN
ToesᄠᨠLowso脠ogghmRomRȬ hKഛLGRio
cҐS‗ctRhToጋ࢐Б‚aogDvБ, \bh₭ᄈoT
ᔑLhioTRᬠRഛᄠVhaeCo4\f \fhabsᰠᨠDhРgae
Coc, cgaᄠVLhShKv\f /sᔁcᜌRkᘠTᠠVLcKwc\f
ihkwh輈hgDR ᜘sDRиgshth LRЛࠛTRv \bo
thLᄎhTDc \rcgဌRac఑N.
9OvޘCBࠄB
PcDhK造iRkeoabThtᰠVLcകDoiacTRဠTo
eshwcDᜑCcgshN‑T(hᜄomRR hบhav4D
g(hLБLhioDb \boCoጋ࢐c \tᄁhDckz“‎o
shࠜwcᜈhgDႁ Vᜑ oToaRkc ToeshwcDᜑCc
ᔝhȠRT(hLwomRᄠᄠVLcകDoiacTRᄠshTcC
࢐S‗ckeጋDoDhi‘To጑ko.—EToLeGcࠈzc \bo
഑᠉L᠄woS‎᠝hThwcLThgDR“ؐk᠌cabTh
DLcEe而 VhKDicLGKcࠑv i LoНoS Koጋ
TcNIR脠RggacജioTRȠᔠhVhLhȠTᠠwcDhK造
shaRиgDiᬈThth‘ToaRko, LcKgDoiጛT
Tzᬠ᪆taoio脠2 ᄠ3 KoTThȠsTRtR. dhsokoTᠠ
ᔚvkଠwcGKᘠVLRcwowᄠshwVosDThtᰠVLcK
gఘiacTRv‗ckeabఘDhi \boeshwcDᜑCcgshth
oToaRko‑–htRshN‗oบRDRv‑―hic᝿cT
gDihioTRv \boeCࠜth VLhmcgᔘ.‒LhicKcT
TzȠ᪆taoiᬠoToaRภᔚRഛDcabgDiecD, CDᰠ
VLᄠVLRTvDRᄠLcIcTRȠᰠicsDhLᬠLokiRDRဠ
ToesᄠTᠠwosLheLhiTᬠTcabkဠhVRLoDbgဠ
Rᔝa4CRDcabTᰠTᠠwcDhK造ToeshwcDLRᄬ
VLRiጛиTᄛ₌sgěLDThth ࠛTRv LRTmR
VRoabTᰠioGTᰠKaဠVhaeCcTRဠoഛsioDThtᰠ
Lckeabఘఘ.₠oบRDRc h᪐S \boeCTzS \bo
V᜘iጛTRN \bo‖Lhiࠛ“LtoTRkomRN‎oiᄕRD
ᨠEhabIcȠgDcVcTᄠh\f \boaRCRဠᄠeLhiTဠLok
iRDRv cahiᬃcgshth”oVRDoao‑‚ ᬈb缛N
gDᬁᬈR“D“VLcKcጛTRv ᬗgěsDRiT邁 \bo
V᜘iጛTRN‗okiRDRv \boesR‑ \fcSTRsR.
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. 10
формате
распределение
научным
областям
городам
также
распределение
количеству
публикаций
Core Collection Web of Sci-
ence (
2000–2014
. (
Biochemistry molecular
мире
университете
).
ꀑᔮ″㌮₠᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠ᠚Dᰗᰚ ᰠsh጑иᔌᨖ eE጑sᢍᄂ ᰠ࠘ᘃ࢐Рᰆጘᔌင ᰠഘࠈ逄₠ྉ1.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄲ4
Распределение
количеству
публикаций
РИНЦ
)
Web of Science (
распределение
совокуп
уже
упоминавшийся
Мульченко
Мульченко
, 1969
] —
основополагающем
труде
наукометрии

отмечается
оценка
ученых
суммарному
числу
публикаций
науке
поскольку
талантливые
ученые
публиковали
работ
совершенно
следует
опублико
работ
ученым
просто
публикаций
считать
критерием
ученого
что
публикации
цитируемость
сравнительную
оценку
разных
ученых
работ
ученых
цитируемо
публикаций
учетом
цитирований
существенным
отмечает
науках
политической
нужно
между
положительным
цитируется
значит
идеи
послужили
развития
работ
исходные
возражение

некоторых
работ

неснятым
учесть
оказывается
емости
. 10
формате
распределение
научным
областям
городам
также
распределение
количеству
публикаций
Core Collection Web of Sci-
ence (
2000–2014
. (
Biochemistry molecular
мире
университете
).
ꀑᔮ″4⸠f᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠ᠚Dᰗᰚ ᰠsh጑иᔌᨖ eE጑sᢍᄂ ᰠtᰗhഘРĜ‍᠈࢐Рꀏ覊.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄲ4
ꀑᔮ″㔮₠᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠ᠚Dᰗᰚ ᰠsh጑иᔌᨖ eE጑sᢍᄂ ᰠഘࠈ逄⁗eb of Science CC.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄲ4
187
ꀑᔮ″㘮‒᜛Kᔌ᠚ጛࠑᬠᔗ᠚ࠑDcጋ࢐脠sh጑иᔌᨛࠈ邁‑”oиᔌᨛࠈ邁₁᠗᠝Dᬗᄕ఑ᴠVeE጑sᢍᄂ
Ĝ蘁᜛ഄᬌ࢐Рᰆጘᔌင
ᔄ⸠Ĝပࠛࠑᬠ࠘―⸠ㄶ5–167):
ᠩ ᜘광иᔝᰛ ᜛Kᔌ᠚ጛࠑᬠėcഄᬌ࢐脠ᰆጘᔌᬂ ᠠVeຐᜋsᰚᰂ‍ᄘग᠄ЛⰠtKᬠĜ ᰗᄎᰈD᠓ᄠėcKᔌ᠚ጛࠜ
sh጑иᔌ᨜ eE጑sᢍᄂ
Output⤬‘ ᰠᨛL఑s᠓ᄠ阠ࠜᜄ᠓ᄎᰚ᠈࠘ဠ贑఑᜖ᬄᰕఋ eE጑sᢍᄂ
䥭灡c琬―Ю‗᠎Kca
㈮㌩㬠贚ᬌᰄ‎᠝h഑᜜ᨘ࠘‍ᄈ᠄ᄝᠠ᜜ᔌᠠธ‍cᔐఋ–ᬌ㬠ėcഄᬌ࠘ဠᰆጘᔌଠ卵扪ec瑟㠠ᄕᴓ考ᬈᠠᄎ‍ᄘग᠄Ґ h
ėᄃᄈᬠИጜtᰠ̑ᔓᠠVeE጑sᢍᄂ ᰠᔗ᠚ࠛࠑ耠ᔠᰕD᠓ଈ逄ᄠᰆጘᔌငᄻ
E⤠ᄕShഈ逛‍᠈࢐ᬬ ᰝ᠎᠈࢐ᬠ࠘ ᜛ඐഖUᬂ‍ᄘग᠄Л㬠贚ᬌᰄ‎᠝h഑᜜ᨘࠠ഑᠁᠎ᰈ‎࠘иࠑȠĜ―Dhጆ贘w
4


а
)

Предметная
область
Число
публикаций
Нормализованная
цитируемость
публикаций
Рост числа публикаций в
2009

2013
гг
.
по сравнению
с
2004

2008
гг
.

Subject_1

205
0,35
13,50%
Subject_2

201
0,26
-12,10%
Subject_3

204
0,42
17,00%
Subject_4

229
0,14
72,60%
Subject_5

97
0,3
-2,00%
Subject_6

138
0,17
15,60%
Subject_7

146
0,31
110,60%
Subject_8

10
0,83
800,00%
Subject_9

52
0,18
-20,70%
Subject_10

164
0,52
78,00%

б
)

Рисунок
1 –
Представление

сравнительных

количественных

и

качественных

характеристик

публикаций

по

предметным

областям
:

а
)
графическое

представление

предметных

областей

на

пузырьковой

диаграмме
,
где

по

горизонтали

представлено

количество

публикаций
(Output),
а

по

вертикали
-
нормализованная

цитируемость

публикаций
(Impact,
смотри

раздел
2.4);
цветом

405060708090100110120130140150160170180190200210220230240
Output
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,55
Impact
Subject_9
Subject_2
Subject_5
Subject_1
Subject_6
Subject_3
Subject_4
Subject_10
Subject_7
-0,207
1,106
Рост

числа

публикаций

в
2009-2013
гг
.
по

сравнению

с
2004-2008
гг
.
Примечание
[m1]:
fake_excellence.e
mf

ة
0,55
0,50
0,45
0,40
0,35
0,30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220230
240
0,25
Impact
Output
0,20
0,15
ꀑᔮ″7⸠%cᰉ᜘광иᔝᰛ‗᠕ėcKcጛࠑᬠ᠚Dᰗᰚ ACM Transactions on Database Systems (TODS) 2008–2014 \t\t.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄶ㢚169
189
ꀑᔮ″㠮₄ᨐฑ c輍ᘠᴓ᠕Dᬗ᠄ᄠVeE጑sᢍᄂⰠėငᰠᄓᄠsᰕᨛࠈᰠ贑఑᜖肝ᆁ‗᠆hD [Lotka, 19㈶崠ᨠИgᔑᨛ eE጑sᢍᄂ‎ᢆě-
ᜑh\r 1945–2014 \t\t⸠ሗcKᔌ᠚ጛࠜ‴284 eE጑sᢍᄑ‑′㠴82 ᖐጝᄮ’”oиᔌᨛ ᬌᰝ”ጘᔌᬗᰚ‑ᔁhጋถᬌᔐ₭᠄ᄓᄐ ᬗ᨜tᰠ
᠚Dᰗᠮ‏gShഈ适 ᠕ᔑᨠVeE጑sᢍᄂ“đg᠈‚‌ᬝᔌᬮ
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ0
ꀑᔮ″9⸠9ᬌଠᔚဎᬂ―ᰘᨌᰗᔌᨘ eE጑sᢍᄂ ᬌ逗c脠᠚Dᰗᰚ㨠A.-L. Barabasi, A. Vespignani, E. Gar补ld,
S.†Wasserman (36ㄠธđᔋⰠěᜑh\r 1955–2007 \t\t⸬‑ᔌᰃࠑᴠธđgᬂₖ⁗eb of Science CC).
ሜᔌ᜜ᬈᰠĜ ᬌh഑sᬠᄎ⁛Börner, Polley, 2014, p. 204–206].
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ1
191
ꀑᔮ‴0⸠2᠗Dᠠ࠘ᘝᄠĜᔌ᜜ᬈᠠ࠘“ᔈᰚ᠈ᄑ‑ᔌᰗᄑ ᬗcShKᰚ c輍ᘠᔌ᜘ࠑ贘Б eE጑sᢍᄂⰠ
᜘คᮝᬈ࢐Б ᠠg᠂Dᢁ‑kഘDcጋᔌᨠ[Clickstream Data£, 2009].
2᠗DᠠᰁeE጑sᰚ᠈ᠠĜഠ጑mᬈฑᬂ⁃reative Commons.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ2
192
ꀑᔮ‴1. Eጘsᰠᴓ考ᬚ邁―ጜᨬ‖s᠎᠈࢐脠ᨠVeE጑sᢍᄐ脠᠚Dᰗᰚ‑ภ2᠎ᢁᔌ᠈ᠮ₊ᨛDᰄ ᰝ᠎᠈ᰠᄎЛࠛࠑᬠ̑ᔓᠠᴓ考ᬚ邁
ᔓᰚ‎ᠠ2009–2014 \t\t⸠Ĝ―᜘ᨈᬈᆀ―′004–2008 \t\t⸠ሜs᠎᠈ᰠㄴ〠ᴓ考ᬚ邁―ጜᨠᄎ hጐ⁋eyWor摳⁐汵猬‚ᔌ᜛̘᩿ᆁᔐ hጛᬠ
㄰‗᠎
20 % ఠᨕc脠ᘝ᠎᠈࢐脠ᨠVeE጑sᢍᄐ脩⸠ሗᰘ࠘጑ฑ᜜ᨘࠜ‴㜳㜠VeE጑sᢍᄂ‎ᠠ2004–2014 \t\t., \tKᬠShDဠڐ“഑ࠠ᠚Dᰗ
ᘝ᠎᠓‚‘궭ᄓᄘ贑ᄠ2᠎ᢁᔌ᠈⸠༕Dᰃࠑᴠธđgᬂ㨠Web of Science CC⸠ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ3
ꀑᔮ‴㈮‒᠌ᬈఈ适–᠈ൿ᢭\f \nយ\n (Theme Scape Map⤮ₛᰃs᠄ᄠhఄᬃᬈ造ĘDᬈಐⰠĜaᘃᬈ࢐ᬠ
Oយਠธ ᬗᄜ\r 1993–2001 \t\t⸠鰘ࠍ缘(ఠĜᔌ᜜ᬈ ᠠᰕᨘࠜࠑᄠĘDᬈఈ邁―ᬄᬂᔌᨬ haᘃᬈ࢐脠ธ
ᘝ᠎᠈࢐Ƞěᜑhഠᨗᬄᬈᄠ㠠ᘈᄚᬗᔑDᬌ᠄ᄬ‚逆᜘ࠈ逄ᄠᨠsoиᔌᨛ ᬈ̄᠗sᰚⰠᄠ2〠ᄈᔌᄌeD᠄ᄠ
O᜔₠ẉ⸠༈ᔌ᜖Лࠌₖ ThomsonInnovation. \fᰃࠑᴺ—ఃᬌ₉ྠ‍ጐ‗᠎᜘؜ఝᄠē᠈ᠠ᜘บᄌᄐ ᠭ
ᘝᄠᨠOយOⰠě᜚适₌D᠁⸠Thomson Reuters, 2013.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ4
Industrial
Materials Science
Electronics/Semiconductors
Electronics/
Semiconductors
Biotechnology/
Pharmaceuticals
Civil Eng
IT/Telecoms
Mechanical
IT/Telecoms
ꀑᔮ‴㌮’ᄎe᠓ᄎᢍᄐ ᬌhKᰄ₫ؑE጑ᰉ᜘광иᔝᰉᰠgᰃᬌ᠈ᄐ묠Ĝ₏ᘗ࠘ጘРИgᔑᨘ eE጑sᢍᄂ‘ᨌᰗᰚ₄ሆ蔊
107㠵‎᠁ᄭ
gᬂⰠěᜑh\r 2004–2013 \t\t⸬‑ᔌᰃࠑᴠธđgᬂₖ⁗eb of Science CCⰠĜᔌ᜜ᬈᰠᔠᄕĜጋผᨘࠑᬄ VOSviewer⤮₊ᨛDᰄ‎᠝h഑᜜ᨘ-
࢐‌ᬄ᠌ᄃcᔝᄛ”᠌ᬉᰗᄑ㬠ēᲝ᠍ଠᴗᘉᠠhగᢏ᠛ఠ̑ᔓᰠVeE጑sᢍᄂ‚‑ᔌᰃࠑsc㬠᜘ᔁhጜGᬈᄛ‑–ᄈᄑ―ᨐฑ‖s᠎通ᢀ\f
࠘蘕ᄓᘠᔚဎᄠVeE጑sᢍᄂⰠ贑఑᜖肝ᆁ‗᠆hಐⰠᰁeE጑sᰚ᠈࢐ᬠᨠhഈᰄ‑‌ᰄ₏ᬠGᘗ࠘ጛ.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ5–176
ꀑᔮ‴4⸠2᠗Dᠠ࠘ᘝᄬ ᰕగᰛࠈ᠐ ᬌhKᰄ”hⶍᄌᄗᰚ᠈ᄐ‍ጐ‵〰〠ؘผ᪐脠࠘ᘃ࢐脠Gᘗ࠘ጜᨠ⠁eE጑sᢍᄑ‎ᠠěᜑh\r 200㞆t.,
᠈᠓ᄎ₍ᄌᄗᰚ᠈ᄂ‎ᠠㄹ97–2006 \t\t⸬‑ᔌᰃࠑᴠธđgᬂₖ⁗eb of Science CCⰠĜᔌ᜜ᬈᰠᔠᄕĜጋผᨘࠑᬄ VOSviewer⤮₊ᨛDᰄ‎ᠭ
sh഑᜜ᨘ࢐‌ᬄ᠌ᄃcᔝᄛ”᠌ᬉᰗᄑ㬠ēᲝ᠍ଠᴗᘉᠠhగᢏ᠛ఠ̑ᔓᰠVeE጑sᢍᄂ‚‑ᔌᰃࠑsc㬠᜘ᔁhጜGᬈᄛ‖s᠎通᠛ఠ࠘―ᄓᘠ
ᔚဎᄠ贑఑᜜ᨘࠑဠh഑࠘sᰚᰉᰠ࠘؜᜘ eE጑sᢍᄂ㬠ᰁᄕ᠈ᄛ ᬌhഘ ᰕగᰛࠑဠėcKᔌ᠚ጛࠜ‚⁛Eck, Waltman, 2010]. ؗ᠆ᰭ
D᠈࢐ᬠഘࠈ逛‍ጐ ᰕగᰛࠑဠs᠗ಐ‚ᴓ考ᬈ造ᨠgᰕD᠚ ᰕD᠚ᴑ VOSviewer.
ሜပࠛࠑᬠᔄ⸠࠘―⸠ㄷ6
ꀑᔮ‴㔮’ᄎe᠓ᄎᢍᄐ”᠗ಐ oᘝᄠ啃SD (200㆖2010 \t\t.⤮₄ጛᨘₖ“Dᰆ᜘Gᬈᄛ”᠗ಐ oᘝᄠᨠചᘄᬗࠜȠėᰛᶍᄑ‟ᬗs᠌ᰗᠠ
⠓ᬚ᠐―Dᰗᰈᠠs᠗ಐ‑Лᬌ ᜜Khᎏᬈᄛ―ė᠚ᠩⰠᔚᬗSᘠ阠గᄠᨗcฝᄠᔠhDᰆ᜘GᬈᄛР࠘″D-g괛᜖Ⱐᔁ᜘ᨘₖ“Dᰆ᜘Gᬈᄛ ᠠ
hഈᰄᬗࠜᬠshጛgᰮ‏ᔌᰃࠑᴺ⁛Design and Update£, 2012]. ‚᠗DᠠᰁeE጑sᰚ᠈ᠠĜഠ጑mᬈฑᬂ⁃reative C潭浯湳Ⱐė᠚ᠠ࠘”ጘᔭ
ᔑ광sᢍᆀ‑”᠗Dᘠėᄈ᠍ጛG\f University of California, San Diego.
197
154 out of 1 595 publications were mapped to 202 subdisciplines and 13 disciplines.
19, 2014 | 10:46 PM YEKT
2008 The Regents of the University of California and SciTech Strategies.
Map updated by SciTech Strategies, OST, and CNS in 2011.
Electrical Engineering
& Computer Science
Biology
Biotechnology
Brain Research
Medical Specialties
Chemical, Mechanical, & Civil Engineering
Chemistry
Earth Sciences
Health Professionals
Humanities
Infectious Disease
Math & Physics
UCSD map of science
ꀑᔮ‴㘮’ᄎe᠓ᄎᢍᄐ ᠕ᔑᨘ eE጑sᢍᄂ‘ᨌᰗᰚ₄ሆ蔊 ᠠs᠗Dᬠᴓ᠕ᔑ광sᢍᄑ⁕CSD (107㠵‎᠁ᄕᬂⰠěᜑhආ阠
2004–20ㄳ蘉t⸬‑ᔌᰃࠑᴠธđgᬂₖ⁗eb of Science CCⰠĜᔌ᜜ᬈᰠᔠᄕĜጋผᨘࠑᬄ⁓ci² T潯氩⸠訚ᬌᰄ‎᠝h഑᜜ᨘ࢐
᠌ᬉᰗᄑ㬠
ēᲝ᠍ଠᴗᘉᠠhగᢏ᠛ఠ̑ᔓᰠVeE጑sᢍᄂ‚₏ᘗ࠘ጘ脠Ĝഝ᠌ᬉᰗᄑ㬠᜘ᔁhጜGᬈᄛ―ᰜచᬌᔌᨖᬌ”᠗DᬠĜഝ᠌ᬉᰗᄂ
ᘗ࠘ጜᨬ ᜛Kᔌ᠚ጛࠈᰂ ᠠᜑᔮ‴㔮—đg᠈ᄛ ᬌhഘ ᰕగᰛࠑဠėcKᔌ᠚ጛࠜ‚⁛Börner, Polley, 2014, . 140–141].
3⸠%᠗광ግ‑’⸠n⸠褘጑Мᨬ†
gᬈDဆᜋ‱㤸1 \t⸬‟c輍ᘈ᠗hഈ᠐‚逕D᠚sᠭဗИ᜝ᠠᨠἜᔝᨛ
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2002 \t⸬‟ᰕᴚo
201
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Пьтэпыт ыьуошхчыпнон п E_p�cjb, C, Cppmps Rfcgps* Osps _lb Wmsps -- Csppclr Cmlrclrs, C752,
λ 03, Jslc C7, Р, 3–4,
Птэтпые пыьышото ьы хиенохю Css_ws md _l Ildmpm_rgml Sagclrgsr, Tmj, 0, C752–54, Р, 6.–6C,
PusuhcinoL‖grḓdoag‑rḗvga᨝ᬜag‏gsLkvᬜg.
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PR
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shioa⸠ᤠghഛL輘TRᄠGeLTo
aᠠᨠkotaoiRᄠctᰠgDoDbᄠEzaᰠVLh
Ve鴛Tᰠgahiᰠ“touch鐠RภghCcDoTRv
“light touch”⸠ᤠLckeabDoDᬠ/DhN
hIREᴑ“T haeCRa“tLhwࠜc”h
aRCcgDiᰠkoVLhghᨠTᠠLcVLRTD造hD
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yoKc4ᔋⰠCDᰠwhȠVLRkzᨠᴠCRDo
DcavРhELoDRDଠiTRwoTRᬠTᠠ/DhD
gaeCoN hМGcD‘iDhLe haeCRDb
koVLhᖐ“ఠRggacജioDcacȬ”hDh
LzᬠkoRTDcLcghioT造ᨠctᰠDcwoDR
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ao‚₫lGcTcKcጋ࢐N LcKwcD࢐N
esokoDcab묠(Weekly Subject Index)
ᆆ᪆Science Citation Index (SCI).
dhTvDThⰠCDᰠISI (Institute for
Scien8tic Informatio溆騠MTgDRDe\f
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100 % oGജtᰠizVeᔝᠠToeCThtᰠ
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cw⸠dLhVeᔝ‍oGᬠhKThtᰠizVeᔝᠠ
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ihhE鴛 ᬠhELoEoDzioDଠGeLToa.
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kihaRDଠToРVLhVegDRDଠhKTᘠgDo
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VhLhठhIREhᴠTRGᬠ/Dhth⸠頠kTo4,
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w造hELoEoDziocw, \bcജgDoDhCTh.
5࠘CRDcab࠘v ogDb₌DhN LhEac
w造騠DhCThᬠhVLcഛacTRᬠiRKᠠ
gDoDcNⰠshDhLzᬠw造RTഛsᔑLecw.
ਠGeLToahᨬ”hDhLzᬠghഛL輘\f
DhabsᰠRggacജioDcabᔝRᬠgDo
DbᄠᨠgDoTKoᜌThР(hLwoDc, \bc\f
VLhEacw⸠yᰠsoᴠwThtᰠi造wh
GcDᬠTokioDଠGeLToahᨬ”hDhLzᬠ
ࠑshtKo \bc eE጑se而‎owcDsR
LcKosDhLoⰠLc贛TkRᄠTᠠsTRtᄬ
kowcDsᄠᲆshT(cLcTmRvSⰠhEъvi
acTRv, \bcsLhahtᄬ RᔋwᠠᴠLcKos
DhLe‑)KLetᄛ hጛc₌(ᬄᬗT逛
202
woDcLRoaz? «dRᔋwᰠ ᴠLcKosDhLe묠wh
GcఠᰎToCoDଠVLosDRCcᔝᄠigcⰠCDᰠethKTh.
«dRᔋwᰠ”‗cKosDhLe묠ᨠGeLToጠNatur攠Raᄠ
ᨠGeLToጠScienc攠hDaRCocDgဠhఠVRᔋwᠠᴠLc
KosDhLᘠGeLToaᠠVᰠLogDcTRcihകDiᘠRaᄠ
ToeCࠜ-VhVeavᜈhth₏eᜈoao.
rIREsᄠᨠToVRgoTRᄠRaᄠVLhVeᔝR
᪆oKLcgᬠoiDhLᠠviav4DgဠജgDoDhCTᰠgc
Lbck࢐Б“缑EᴘБ.‟z“ELoEoD通ocw
EhacᬠwRaaRhTᠠoKLcghᨠcGcthKTh⸠BᰠᔑS
VhL \fzgvCR₏eᜈoጜi“Dsoຐio4Dgv \roioDb
VhaTzȠoKLcg. (yᬠhELoUoaRᔋ–ᄠi造gae
CoNTᰠᴠLcKosDhLᘠsoshth-TREeKଠGeLToao
ᔠ/DhȠVLhEacwhN?⤠ᤠDᰠiLcwဠsoᴠw造VzDo
cwgဠVLcജgDoiRDଠVhaTzȠoKLcgⰠisa4Cov
VhCDhizȠRTഛsgⰠshtKᠠ/DᰠiᰎwhGThⰠcgDb
wThtᰠgaeCocᨬ”htKᠠ/DᰠTciᰎwhGTᰠgഛ
aoDb.  \bcshDhLz脠eTRicLᔑDcDo脠VhKLok
ഛacTRဠLokELhgoT造VᰠthLhKᘠRaᄠIDoDe,
ᆆᚆsoGജtᰠRภTR脠whGcఠEzDଠᔚhȠVhCDh
i适‑TKcsg.
9e鴛gDiecఠhE鴛ᬠwTcTRcⰠCDᰠTᬠgac
KecఠhDsLzDᰠthihLRDଠᰠTcജgDoDsoS, \bc
oഛsioDThgDᄬ ceKoCo脠ᄠD⸠V⸠.habIRTgDih
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ,‘ \fosGc“Ltoࠑkomᄂ―acKe而
ghicDe yoVhachTo «gDRLoDb tLvจhc cabc
ᚆgcEဠKhwo»⸠rKTosᰠဠVhaoto4ⰠCDᰠISI
ᄄccD“ghEzc“DThIcࠑv―“VzD࢐Б R
DoDcavwᄠCurrent Contents (Koacᬠ騠99⺆—
Пэхн, эте,
)⸠P造hgᰎTocРᔚhᄠജgDRGcTRv
ᄠVLRkTocРᔚhᄠTcജgDoDsR. P造TᬠwhGcw
eജiacDihLRDଠigcS. h/DhwᘠKaဠToᔠioG
ThⰠCDhE造i造kToaᄬ‚ cРw造whGcРhIR
ERDbgဠᄠToᔝhabsᰠhEhᔈhioTᠠioIᠠeic
LcTThgDଠᨠCC ᄠISI, cgaᄠLcCଠRഛ\f ᰠioIRS
ᄈKᄚRKeoጋ࢐S \fLcEhioࠑvS.₉h i \fh₏c
iLcwဠw造LoggCRDziocРTᠠDhⰠCDᰠ9萠viav
cDgဠKaဠioᔠCogDb耠EhabIhȠRT(hLwomR
hTThȠᔑgDcw逬 ᴠshDhLhȠEhabIRTgDiᰠRk
ioᔠRwccఠജgDeV.
ЭshThwRCcᔝRȠVLcgᔑTt,  \fosGᬠ(Lot
wcTDomRဠToeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠVᰠweab
DRKRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐w \boVLoiacࠑvw‑጑
saogDcLoРigᬠCo鴛 LRihKv\f \boᔠᴠTchESh
KRwhgDᄠRᔝa4CoDଠTcshDhLzᬠGeLToa造Rภ
hKThtᰠRaᄠTcᔝhabsR脠RkKoTRȠCC⸠舘G
K适‗oฬ”htKo z Lᄈᄄocw \foshc‗cIc
TRc, \bcshDhLzᬠCRDoDcaᄠCeigDie4ఠgcEဠ
hERGcࠈ逄R‑጑ evkiacࠈ逄R.ₗDR RDoDc
aᄠVhaoto4DⰠCDᰠ/Dᰠ«gcLbckThc묠eVe鴛TRc.
OࠑicLgoጋThN‖KhiacDihLRDcጋThN‘ጋ
DcLToDRihȠ/DhwᘠwhtaᠠE造EzDଠhELoEhDsᠠ
igcS₏eᜈoጜi‚“Kࠜw \tLhwoKࠜw‚zVegsc
CC⸠ltᰠVLRIahᔋ 造izVeᔝoDଠcGcKTciTh.
頠ShDcጠVLhicLRDଠ/DᘠRഛ耠Tcᔝhabsᰠac\f
TokoK‑ LcKጜGRa₉omᄜToabࠜwe \boeC
Thwe₭hTKe (National Science Foundation)
hĖEaRshioDb \boeCࠖ4‛GcKTciࠖ4 \tokc
Dᚆ阠Daily Newspaper of Science⸠yᰠhؠ/DhР
᪆KLethȠLok.
lgDଠᄠKLetRᬠhIREsᄬ”hDhLzᬠw造Tᬠwh
GcРshTDLhaRLhioDଠEcภCLckwcLTz脠ko
DLoD⸠dLcKVhahGRЬ―ahiᰠᨠkotaoiRᄠgDo
DbᄠToVcCoDoTᰠᔠhIREshȠᨠghഛL輘TRᄠ
GeLToao, \bᰠTᬠiTeDLᄠGeLToao⸠P造VLh
RkihKᄄ \rhihጋTh‎ToCRDcጋThc₫LcKos
DRLhioTRc묠ghഛL輘TRvⰠCDhE造Rᔝa4CRDଠ
VLhEcaz‑aR \rLetᄛ ᬈe輈逛₁o᜘sDᬗR
gDRsR⸠rKTosᰠw造TᬠᔗoiTRiocРVᰠEesioР
ghഛL輘TRᬠᖆkotaoiRvwᄠsoGജȠgDoDbᄠ
iTeDLᄠGeLToao⸠舘GജᬠgahiᰠkotaoiRv,
(owRaRဠoiDhLoⰠoKLcᔠhLtoTRkomRᄠᆆD⺆K.
hDഛabTᰠiihKvDgဠᨠEoTᴠKoTTz脠ISI. Baဠ
/DhtᰠRᔁhabkecDgဠTcVhᔗcKgDicTTᰠDcsg\f
kotaoiRဠᄠghഛL輘TRᬠgDoDbR⸠ТosRРhE
LokhЬ‍oGᬠcgaᄠcgDଠhIREsᠠᨠhtaoiacTRᄠ
GeLToaoⰠVLoiRabThᬠToVRgoTRᬠgahiᠠigᬠ
LoiTᰠEeഛఠiicഛTᰠᨠEoTᴠKoTTz脠ᄠTo缠
cGcTcKcጋ࢐N LcKwcD࢐N‑TKcsg (Weekly
Subject Index).
uKLcᔘ ࠜtRS“ᜉoTRkomRN‐iav4Dgv
DcSࠑCcgsR LoiRጋ࢐Б, \bh“ࠑ \bc‖ࠑ
(ᆍᄗhio࢐.₂htKo z \bcKoiTh‎oshTCR጑
cGcthKThᬠRkKoTRᬠISI Who is Publishing in
203
Science š WIPIS (2DᰠVeEaRsecDgဠᨠToesc),
DᰠVhgaᬠghᜌRLhisᄠshwVb4DcLhРToРVLR
Iahᔋ―shLLcsDRLhioDଠ75
00 \bokioTRN!
MToCc‚ oࠝ z጑ z‚sᎀCc࢐ \reE጑ᴘDz:
Prof. R⺆E. Jones at Columbia University, Physics
Dep., 118 St. & Broadway, New York City, 10
27
ᆆProf. R⺆E. Jones, Columbia University, Dep.
of Physics, 118 St⺆& Broadway, New York,N⺆Y.,
10
27⸠dLhEacwᠠc鴛 hacᬠegahGTvcDgv,
cgaᄠKiᠠCcahicsᠠᔠhKThȠᄠDhȠGᬠ(owR
aRcȠᄠRTRmRoaowᄠLoEhDo4ఠᨠhKThРᄠDhР
GᬠeTRicLᔑDcDc⸠舘ᴠwThtᰠa4KcȬ”hDhLz脠
khie\f T⺆Yamakawa, oEhDo4ఠᨠOTRicLᔑDcDᬠ
ТhsRh? lgaᄠi造ToNഛDᬠgcLbckTe耠hIREsᘠ
ᨠToVRgoTRᄠioIctᰠoKLcgᠠᨠ9萠RaᄠWIPIS,
Vh輘aeNgDoⰠghhEURDᬠToРhؠ/Dhw⸠P造hVe
E጑secw LoiRጋ࢐N‘KLcg,”hDhL适 hDhw
Eeഛఠisa4CcࠠᨠTo缠seweavDRiTzȠRTഛsg.
ЧogDᰠtLowwoDRCcᔝRᬠhIREsᄠᄠhIRE
sᄠᨠToVRgoTRᄠigDLcCo4DgဠᨠVcLcihഛ ᠠ
oࠉ጑Ngsᄂ―hKcLGoࠑN,“VeE጑shioࠈzS
ᨠTᬘTtahvkzCTz脠GeLToaoS⸠頠eicLcࠬ Dᰠ
cgaᄠE造ToРᨠIS䤠VLRIahᔋ cLcihKRDଠᔠoT
taRNᔝhtᰠvkzsᠠTᠠLegᔝRȬ‐VhTᔝRȬ c
wcmsRȬ₭LoTmekᔝRȠᄠKL⸠vkzsᄬ‌ᰠw造gh
icLIoaᄠE造VhജETzᬠhIREsR⸠ТcРTᬠwcTcᬠ
RwRK輠ISI \bᬠeaeCIocDgဠᨠtaoko脠CRDoDcacȬ
shtKᠠhTᄠToShKvఠVhജETzᬠhIREsᄠᄠiR
Tv\f \boᔠᨠ/Dhw⸠yoVLRwcLⰠghicDᔝRȠGeLToጠ
«ԜsaoKz»
“ؗoE᠌ziocDgv \rav hഉh
Dhisᄠ9萠ᨠctᰠhLRtRToabThȠicLᔑᄬ‑ 造
ihᔁLhRkihKRРghഛL輘TRᬠTᠠoTtaRNᔝhР
ᤠDᰠiLcwဠGeLToጠ«BhsaoK造u褠999f묠 ᬠLokER
ioagဠTᠠgcLRRⰠsoᴠ/DᰠhgeUcgDiavcDgဠgcNCoᔠshwVo
TᄛN‟uM2-yuO2u.
vkzsc,”ᰌhLhc eEaRsecకv‚₌జw₏eLToaᬮ
BhᎏTh zDb,₌Dh cጛts᠐‎oKoCo \rav ᬗ
ghToaᠠusoഛwRᄠToeᴠ999ꀠVcLcihKRDଠTᠠ
oࠉ጑Ngsᄂ‐k逝―DoD଑ h―Dhጋsᄄ \boeC
࢐w \rRgmᄁ጑Tow.‟z hGcw \fhጋsh‚hgSR
UoDbgv‌oshN ࠜthtLoTࠜgDb4.
rKTosᰠKLetRᬠghicDᔝRᬠGeLToa造Tᬠko
gaeGRio4\f DoshȠVhSioa逬 TᰠR脠sioaR(R
somRv h ᬗᬚhഖ‚z缛, ᬄ Thtᆁ \rLetᆁ
TcoࠉahvkzC࢐S₏eLToahi, eE጑secҐS
Tᠠ5oVoഛ⸠P造whGcРDhabsᰠToKcvDbgv,
CDh“ࠑ”hTgeጋDᄗe而gv―‘iDhLoБ―Do
DcN‚)RgVhጋkhioࠑR \fcLБThahtᄑ.₉ow
గeKTh sLR఑shioఋ soCcgచh VcLciᰍo ko
thahishᨠgDoDcȬ”htKᠠge鴛gDiec\f \foᴠwThtᰠ
Geᜈoጜi,”hDhថc‗cIRDcabࠜ“Dsoຐio
4DgဠVcLcihKRDଠTᠠoTtaRNᔝRȠvkzᴠghഛL
輘TRᬠGeLToao⸠dhᔝhabsᘠw造gDLcwRwgဠ
eaeCIRDଠsoCcgDiᰠToIcȠLoEhD逬 造hELo
DRaRᔋ”‘DDoIᬠVᰠToesᬠLvKᠠgDLoࠠᄠVh
VLhᔑaᄠVhwhUᄠᨠLcIcTRᄠ/DhȠVLhEacwz.
P造ToഛcwgvⰠCDᰠhTᄠDosGᬠᔄhteఠVhwhCଠ
i)hVeE጑shioࠑR hገzS‘KLcghi‘iDhLhi
Rภ/DR脠gDLoࠬ‚sa4CoဠVhCDhizᬠRTഛsᖐ.
༠ToshTcmⰠဠhELoUo4ᔋ‎ᠠVhwhUb4
ᶆToIRРCRDoDcavЬ hᔝhabsᘠwThtRᬠRk
TR脠viav4DgဠoiDhLowR⸠9ഛaoNDᬠDosⰠCDh
Ez‗cKosDhLz‚o缑S–4EᄄzS₏eLToahi
hEcgVcCᄚo጑ hገzc‑ \fhC࢐c \roࠈzc,
CDhE造ioIᄠshaactᄠRภKLetR脠hEaogDcN
kToTRဠᔄhtaᄠioᔠToNDᄬ”htKᠠioIᠠgDo
DbဠVhviRDgဠᨠ99.
204
akkhPd‟saᨡ
b⸠Mࠇ؅Ѓ
днюуь C, Суы юнных пшхяутшьоых юыптуючхх учтоых C751–C766, Пьтэпыт ыьуошхчыпнон
п8 E_p�cjb C, Rfc Psssg_ls _pc Cmmgle, P_pr C, Rfc Pcb+Fmr C.. Smtgcr Sagclrgsrs* C751–C766 --
Csppclr Cmlrclrs, C77., λ 02* Jslc CC, Р, 0.0–0C3,
днюуь 0, Пяуьетюяу юнных чхухэутных юыптуючхх юунутц ин C751–C766 дд , п Sagclac
Cgr_rgml Ilbcx х пидшяе он хююштеыпнутшьючхт фэыоуы C766  д, Пьтэпыт ыьуошхчыпнон
п8 E_p�cjb C, Rfc Psssg_ls _pc Cmmgle, P_pr 0, Rfc Rmn 3. Smtgcr P_ncps Mmsr Cgrcb gl rfc
C751–C766 Sagclac Cgr_rgml Ilbcx _lb _ Lmmi _r C766 Pcsc_paf Dpmlrs -- Csppclr Cmlrclrs, C77.,
λ 03* Jslc C6, Р, 0C4–004,
PusuhcinoL‖grḓdoag‑rḗvga᨝ᬜag‏gsLkvᬜg
wcLsgCuaaO\r \tusuhcᨮ‟usuhcᨠaᔠskvvLo\r \fbOᜠhOtcrauጠဂrTlubacEᬠsgbsuBuaoఠghdcsg.
2ODbؠ1
nMkBbDvO缠TORvਠҐNlODTMDଆ
Ч༉鴊CBkO
ᰠwThtR脠ᔄzgao脠199ゆt⺆阠
/DᰠLcIo4URȠth\r \raဠ9h
icDgshth₄h4ko.‏kЛࠛTRv,
shDhLzᬠVLhRgShKvఠ᪆999f, \bciᰎ
whGTᰠEzaᰠVLcKetoKoDଠVvDଠac\f
TokoKⰠᆆigcⰠCDᰠVLhRgShKRఠ᪆To
Coaᬠ199ゆt., \thihLRఠᰠDhЬ Dᰠ/Dh\f
th\r \fhGᬠEeഛఠVhahࠠghEzDRvwR.
2Dh Мt VhKewoDb, CDh wࠜthVoL
DRNToဠᔑgDcwo, gᰎKoTRᬠkoVoK
ThtᰠDRVᠠVLckRKcTDgDiᠠᆆVLo
iRఛabgDio ؖKeD ėcKahGcTz %c
ࠛ᜘abTzw―ᬝLcDoLᬄ―hicDgshN
shwweTRgDRCcᔝhȠVoᜌRR?
%aoᔈhgDଠᆆVcLcgDLhNsᠠiz
kzio4\f \boഛGKᘠTᬠDhabsᰠTᠠ
eaeCIcTRc haRDRCcgᴑS‑)谝hࠜ
wRCcᔝR脠egahiRȬ ᰠᆆEуabIe耠
hDsLzDhgDଠᆆᔚhEhKᘠghicDᔝhȠ
Toeᴑ. cнDᨑDcabࠜ,‚)VhgacK
TRᬠ2㐠wcgvmᠠThizᬠToeCTzᬠᔚv
kᄠEzaᄠegDoThiacT造wcGKᘠ999ꀠ
ᆆ5oVoKhwⰠ᪆hghEcTThgDᄠwcGKᘠ
999ꀠᆆcᬠghVcLTRshР᪆ShahKThȠ
ihNTᮆ阠9Шu⸠.cᔁLc贛ഛTDTzР
ghEzDRcРEzaᰠeCogDRᬠghicDᔝhȠ
ഛactomRᄬ iᰎtaoiavcwhȠiR贛-
VLckRഛTDhРu褠999ꀠosoഛwR
shР2⸠ФLhahizЬ‚)cGcthKThРgh
ELoࠑR„wcLᄝoTgshN‘gghmRomᄑ
VᰠജgDRGcTRvР᪆Toesᬠ(American
Association for the Advancement
of Scienc斆阠AAAS)ⰠVLhIcKIcȠ
᪆(ciLoaᬠ198㢆t⸠᪆.hgDhTc⸠ЭDᰠ
ghEzDRc hDᴗzጜ ࠜie4 taoie
᪆ToeCThРKRoahtᬠwcGKᘠ999ꀠ
ᆆ9Шu⸠蒆Dc脠VhᜠLokaRCTzᬠgh
taoIcTRဠVᰠToeCThwᘠhEwcTᘠEz
጑ hKVRgo࢐ cGKe‗ok጑C࢐
Б \boeC࢐Б \rcactomRvБ₄99f
ᆆ9Шu.
ᤠ198㦆t⸠Lhg\f \boeCTz脠ᔚvkcȠ
wcGKᘠ999ꀠᆆ9ШḠVLRicጠᶆVos
DoРVᰠToeCThwᘠghDLeKTRCcgDie,
᪆DhРCRgaᬠwcGKᘠLvജРeTR
icLᔑDcDhᨬ oVLRwcᜠBrookhaven
National Laboratory (Upton, NY)
R)MTgDRDeDhw₭Rฑᴑ‚zghᴑS
/TcLtRN (ሗᰌiRTh), i)sᰌhLzS
i)gᬗcKRࠛ 1990-S)tt. 15‘ЛLR
soTᔝR脠ᆆ1㔠ghicDᔝR脠(RkRshᨠ
205
EeഖD‚zVhaTvDb―hiЛgDTzN₌sgěLRЛTD
TᠠghicDᔝhРeᔝhLRDcac⸠ᦆoitegDᬠ%chah
tRCcᔝoဠgae輆ᠠ9ШḠ(US Geological Survey)
ᆆu褠999ꀠVhKVRgoaᄠshTDLosఠᰠLoEhDᬠVᰠ
ghiЛgDThwe LcഖVLcGKᬈR4‎ᬄጛDLပc
TRȬ‚sa4CoဠEeKeUe耠egDoThisᘠgDoTmRȠ
ghᨄcgDࠜth hTRDhᜑTघ‚)hEcRS―DLoToS.
yomRhToabToဠosoഛwRဠToeᴠ9ШḠ(NAS)
ᆆu褠999ꀠghERLo4DgဠgᰎKoDଠhEURȠshwR
DcD h₌shጜtRR.
n \fᬃᬈᄛ Lh缛KIᆁ 12 cgvmᬚ‚aRvTᄛ
taoᔈhgDᄠᔝokoahᔋ ᠠhVeEaRshioTRᄠwo-
DcLRoahᨬ‍ᰠ/DhtᰠTcRkicgDTz脠Tᠠ5oVoഛ,
woDcLRoahᨠᰠTceKoCo脠ᆆKoGᬠsoDogDLh(o脠
ToeCT邁 LhᬝDhi,₭RToࠕRLeᬄ邁 ᜘iR
DcabgDihw₄99f.
9htaogTh \roࠈ逄,“EToLhKhioࠈ逄 R
TRgDLhР(RToTghᨠn⺆doiahizЬ LoiR
DcabgDiᰠghERLocDgဠizഛaRDଠTᠠtLoG
KoTᔝe耠Toesᘠ17,3㐠waL\r \rhaa⸠᪆199ゆt⸠Vᰠ
ᔗoiTcTR耠ᖆ11,㔠waLഠജaa⸠᪆198㦆t. (D⺆c.
ToEa4KocDgဠEcᔁLc贛ഛTDTzȠLhgఠᖆ1,5 \r
2,3 %)⸠yeGTᰠVhജGKoDbⰠCDhE造eiRഛDbⰠsoᴠ
taoᔈhgDଠVhiaRvc\f \bᠠshaRCcgDiᰠgDoDcȠ
ghicDᔝR脠eCcTzS, \bᰠcgDଠVhahGRDcabTzᬠ
VLRkTosᄠDhthⰠCDᰠEhacᬠᔚhEhKThᬠᆆIR
Lhshc‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTᄛ‗ckeabDoDhi‑ggጛ
ജioTRȠ᪆999ꀠiᰎwhGTh.
MwccDgဠTcᔝhabsᰠVLRwcLhᨠgᰎKoTRဠ
ࠜ᪐S‘TtጜvຐCTzS₏eᜈoጜi,”hDhថc‐i
av而gv ghiwcgD࢐Б RkKoࠑvБ uy 999f
ᆆ2hLhaciᔝhtᰠhE鴛gDiᠠncaRshELRDo
ࠑR h₁ᄄᄑ (GeLTo᎐ Biomedical Science,
Mendeleev Communications).
MTgDRDe\f ISI (Institute for Scienti8c
Information⤠igctKᠠVhKഛLGRioጠToeCTzᬠ
hEwcT造VᰠRT(hLwoDRsc⸠ᦆwoᜌᬠ198㞆t.
RTgDRDeఠVhgcUoጠVLh(cgghᜠ9⺆d⺆舘VRmo.
BLetᄄR LᄉaoIcࠈ逄R‖Cc࢐Б z጑
whLᔝhȠERhahठVLh(cgghᜠu⺆deജisR\b
RภMTgDRDeDᠠERhahtRᄠwhLဠiᰠnaoKRih
gDhsᬠ(ThvELଠ198㞆阠woᜌ‱98㢆t.)ⰠwoDcwo
DRᴠn⺆yoaRwhᨠRภP%\n (hsDvELଠ阠ഛsoELଠ
1988)t.),‎oicKe4Uᄂ‑T(hLwomRhࠈ逄
hDഛahРnMyMТ༠n⺆PoLseghiᠠ(gcTDvELଠ
198㦆阠vTioLଠ199ゆt.)⸠PoLseghiᠠiTcgaᠠ
kToCRDcabTzN‚saoK‚)VhKजజise₌జN e
E጑ᴘmᄑ.₄higcw \bcKoiTh‏.‟oLIoshio-
ШoNsciR̠RภMTgDRDeDᠠ(Rahgh(RRⰠshDh
LoဠTckoiRᔑwᰠhఠ%cTLᄠ9whaaᠠhDsLzaᠠ
«oToaRภTᠠhᔈhiᬠsh-mRDRLhioTRv», \fosGᬠ
EzaᠠthgDcРISI.
dhᔝhabsᘠRTDcLcᔠsᰠigcwᘠVLhRgShKv鴛
wᘠ᪆999ꀠhtLhwcࠬ 造LcIRaᄠizVhaTRDb
oToaRภmRDRLecwhgDᄠghicDᔝhȠToesR⸠ycab
kဠᔝokoDbⰠCDᰠw造RtThLRLecРgDLoT造nhg
DhCThȠliLhV逬 ᰠR脠LoEhD造Rwc4ఠhtLoTR
Ccࠈ适‑ЁosD‚)To缑S‑ggacജioࠑvS h
VeE጑ᴘmRvw―)izghshN₍RDᄗecwhgD஀.
rBbMKM܏Nѿ zkྏtMDf, \fkI4ਈTfB
ఠwTD଄bRbDvM괠O))wlwOSwB(
P造LcIRaᄠVLhoToaRkRLhioDଠghicDᔝe耠
aRDᬗoDeLe‎o 15-ጛDTRN ěLRhK. oTT逛
KaဠToIctᰠRggacജioTRဠw造ikvaᄠRภISI
Science Indicators⸠ЭDᠠEokᠠKoTTz脠ghഛL
GRఠᔚcഛTRဠᰠ4,㔠waࠠVLhmRDRLhioTTz脠
gDoDcȠkᠠ1973–198㢆tt⸠ᆆviavcDgဠCogDb耠
wogᔑiᠠEok造KoTTz脠SCI kᠠ1945–198㢆tt.
ngᬠgDoDbᄠRภ/DhtᰠwogᔑiᠠEzaᄠVLhmRDR
LhioT造VᰠsLoNTcȠwcLᬠhKRࠠLok⸠rshaᰠ
3,8㌠waࠠgDoDcȠRภ/DhtᰠwogᔑiᠠTRshtKᠠ
TᬠEzaᄠVLhmRDRLhioT造kᠠ/DhఠVcLRh\r
iLᬄᬈR. av \bo缛th‑ggጛKhioTRv zaR
hDhELoT造180 \fzg⸠gDoDcN
,“VeE጑shioࠈzS
ngᬠGeLToazⰠRgVhabkecwzᬠKaဠVhKthDhisᄠMT
Kcsgo, \bok通o4Dgv₏eLToaoБ-RgDḧᄝoБ (Source
Journals)ⰠᢆghKcLGoURcgဠ᪆TR脠gDoDbᄠ阠gDoDbv
Б-RgDḧᄝoБ.₄DoDbR,“VeE጑shioࠈzc‚)/DRS
GeLToaoS, \bok通o4D―DoDbငR-RgDḧᄝoБ (source
article).„iDhLhi₌DRS―DoఛN-RgDḧᄝhi \bok通o4D
贑DRLe4鴑wR‘iDhLowR (citing authors).₄gzasR,―h
KcLGoURcgဠ᪆/DR脠gDoDbvS, \bokzio4ఠmRDRLecwzwR
gDoDbvwᄠ(cited articles)ⰠᢆR脠oiDhLhᨠ阠mRDRLecwzwR
oiDhLowR (cited authors).
206
ghicDᔝRwᄠeCcTzwᄠkᠠ1973–198㢆tt⸠Baဠ
oToaRkᠠᆆKoabTcNIctᰠhEgeGഛTRဠRภ/Dh
tᰠwogᔑiᠠEzaᄠhDhELoT造89㈠gDoDbᄬ Lh
mRDRLhioTTzᬠTᬠwcTcᬠ5〠Lok⸠yo缠oToaRภ
ࠛ za“t᜘TRиT‚zEhLhw \fhabsh ᬗihth
oiDhLoⰠeCRDzioaRᔋ‚gᬠghoiDhLz.
ХhCᘠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠghicDᔝRᬠeCcTzcⰠhVe
E጑shioi缑c‚zghshmRDᄗecҐc―DoD଑ \rh
1973)t.,“కeకDie4D‚)谌hw₭oNaᬮ₉oVLR
wcL, \bhEcaciᔝRȠaoeLᬘఠЛcᨠЛoTKoᘠEzጠ
iDhLzРVᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄠ᪆ToIcРRggacജ
ioTRᄠRภ25〠gowz脠mRDRLecwz脠oiDhLhᨠkᠠ
1961–197㖆tt⸠VᰠwogᔑiᘠSCI⸠rKTosᰠЛoT
KoeⰠewcLIRȠ᪆196㢆t.ⰠVeEaRshioጠgDoDbᄠ
ᖆ193ゆt⸠ജ―cLcKRT造60-膆tt⸠ᆆVh/DhwᘠhD
geDgDiecఠ᪆ToIcРᔁRᔝc⸠ycKoiTᰠVhviR
aoᔋ“CcTଠRTDcLcᔈoဠLc贛TkRဠTᠠsTRtᘠ
ᲆctᰠhDThIcTRv脠ᖆd⺆舘VR贛N.
BhVhገRDcጋ࢐w LcVvDgDiRcw‚)To
缛w‑ggጛKhioTRR‐iRa᠕b‑KᬈDR(Rso
mRဠoiDhLᠠgDoDbR⸠2htKᠠghicDᔝRᬠeCcTzᬠ
LoEhDo4ఠkᠠtLoTR贛ȠVᰠToeCThwᘠhEwcTᘠ
ᆆ᪆gDoDbᬠgDoivఠoKLcᔠhLtoTRkomRᄬ‚)shDh
LhȠhTᄠLoEhDo4ఠkᠠLeEcGhЬ₌DᠠgDoDbဠTᬠ
whGcఠVhVogDଠ᪆(oNጠghicDᔝR脠eCcTzS⸠dᰠ
/DhȠVLRCRTᬠ᪆ToIcРoToaRkᬠhDgeDgDiec\f
gఘDbv‑บcgDࠜth―hicDgshth oDcwoDRso
osoഛwRsᠠЛ⺆ФoഛciᠠOperator anomaly
for the Gauss lawⰠhVeEaRshioTToဠ᪆1984 \t.
ᆆVLhmRDRLhioTToဠᶆshTmᘠ198㢆t⸠Ehacᬠ160
Lok⸠yᰠФoഛcᨠVLhgDoiRጠoKLcᔠhLtoTRko
mRᄬ‚)shDhLhȠhࠠLoEhDoጠ᪆MDoaRᄠ阠Scuola
Normale Superiore di Piso.
dLhEacw造ᖆoKLcgowᄠ阠ToIᠠVhgDhvTToဠ
koEhDo⸠ХeGᬠigcthⰠshtKᠠoKLcᔠihhE鴛 ᬠ
VLhgఘiacT. PࠜtRc ghicDgᴑc Geᜈoaz ih
hE鴛 ᬠghഛL輘ఠoKLcgᠠoiDhLhi⸠rEzCTᰠ
/Dh“EъပTရDgv―hhE᜘GᬈRvwR―ᬝLcDTh
gDR⸠9hicDᔝRȠERhSRwRᴠᆆRgDhLRᴠToesᄠ
Ж⺆PcKicഛᨬ‗oEhDo4URȠ᪆yomRhToabThР
RTgDRDeDᬠVᰠwcKRmRTᬠ᪆ЛhTജTcⰠRwcTTᰠ
DoᴠhEъvᔈvcఠ/DᘠVLhEacwe.
PThtRᬠkoKo4DgဠihVLhghЬ‎oCcРEcg
VhshRDbgဠhؠoKLcgo脠oiDhLhᨬ‛gaᄠhTᄠ
igᬠLoiTᰠTᬠwhteఠRwcDଠaRCTzᬠshTDosDz.
领DhabsᰠwhtᘠToKcvDbgvⰠCDᰠtaoᔈhgDଠVh
kihaRఠghicDᔝRРeCcTzРKoioDଠTᬠDhabsᰠ
R脠oKLcgo, \bᰠᆆDcac(hT逬‑蚭osᖐ.
l鴛“KTᠠVLhEacwᠠᖆRഛTDR(RsomRcȠoi
DhLhᨠᔚvkoTᠠᖆDcЬ DᰠKiᠠRaᄠDLᄠoiDhLo
whteఠRwcDଠhKTᘠᆆDᘠGᬠ(owRaR耠ᆆRTRmR
oaz. rEzCTᰠ᪆EhabIRTgDiᬠgaeCocᨠ/DᠠVLh
Eጛwo–ᬉsh‗okL᭿᠛Dgv LR“E᜘UᬈRR
ᶆGeLToaeⰠcgaᄠhTᄠLoEhDo4ఠ᪆hEaogDvS,
hиTb Koጛsᆁ KLet hD KLeto, ToVLRЛL Rwwe
ThahtRR‑)ěLᬗ᠆hDsR c(DR.—KTosh‛gaR
hTᄠLoEhDo4ఠ᪆hKThРᆆDhРGᬠToVLoiac
TRᄬ 造ജaGT造VhaotoDbgဠDhabsᰠTᠠoKLcg
hLtoTRkomRᄠoiDhLoⰠCDhE造hDaRCRDଠR脠KLet
hD KLeto. rиiRKTh, CDh /Do gD᜘DᬉRv Лࠛc
/((csDRiToⰠcgaᄠw造RwccРഛaᰠᖆghicDᔝR
wᄠoiDhLowᄬ‖)shDhLz脠ihhE鴛 cఠoKLcghi.
P造TᬠwhGcРhELoUoDbgဠᶆsoGജwᘠoiDhLe
ᆆVLhᔑDଠജVhaTRDଠEREaRhtLo(R耠ctᰠgDo
D଑,₌Dh“DࠑwocD Thth‚Lcwcࠑ‑)g጑缝hw
ജLhtᰠgDhRDⰠVh/DhwᘠTc\f \bRsoshȠtoLoTDRᄬ
CDᰠ/DᠠVLhEacwᠠwhGcఠEzDଠLcIcTo⸠P造gഛ
aoaᄠigc, CDᰠEzaᰠ᪆ToIR脠ᔑaoS, CDhE造to
LoTDRLhioDଠDhCThgDଠ᪆ToIcРᔁRᔝᬠToREh
ጛc₍RDRLeᬄ邁―hicDgsᆁ‖иT邁,‑)eiᬗᬈz,
CDᰠ/DᠠVLhEacwᠠEzaᠠᔚcഛTᠠᶆwRTRwewe.
nb༠DMkBbDvw茠RCBTf茠鬠kDԠlРClBTꀠ
Ov਍ԁww?
ᤠDoEaR贛 1 VLRicഛ\b ᔁRghᴠ100 gowz脠
mRDRLeᬄ邁―hicDgsᆁ‖иT邁‎o 1973–
198㢆tt⸠ᦆshahTso脠gaciᠠToVLoiᰠLoᔁh
ahGcT造ᔚcഛTRဠᰠshaRCcgDiᬠmRDRLhio
TRȠ(A⤠ᄠgDoDcȠ(B⤠kᠠ15-acDTRȠVcLRhK,
ᢆDosGᬠᔗcKTcᬠshaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠ
gDoDb耠(RwVosD, C⤠ᆆshaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠ
soGജtᰠoiDhLoⰠVhaeCcTTz脠᪆198㢆t.
)(D).
5ickKhCshN“DЛиTz‖иT逛,‐iav4Uᄛgv ጛTo
wᄠu褠999fⰠᢆsLcgDRshР阠CacTz-shLLcgVhTKcTDz.
207
gkb༉
ABnD
1. Letokhov V. S.
Institute of Spectroscopy
Troitsk
575
270
16,9
248
2. Zakharov V. I.
Theoretical and Experimental Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
401
129
34,1
3. Shifman M. A.
Theoretical and Experimental Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
268
101
42,3
303
4. Vainshtein A. I.
Theoretical and Experimental Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
181
78
53,6
5 * Ovchinnikov Y⺆A.
Shemyaki溆M⺆M⺆Bioorgani挠9hemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
082
113
36,1
286
6. +Polyakov A. M.
L⺆D⺆Landa疆Theoretical Physics Institute
Moscow
980
199,0576
7. * Kochetkov N. K.
Zelinskii N. D. Organic Chemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
326
329
10,0
241
8. + Voronkov M. G.
Institute of Organic Chemistry (A)
Irkutsk
290
624
5,3
263
2ᬋጒI 1
ᦏЌ༐‌b\n \fਁꂃ₁ЋЉRԁꂃ‌༎ԋఐ҃‑̅ࢠ茠耊‱973–1988 .
OCRD通ov”hahggoጋThc‚጑vࠑc„y₄99f
᪆izEhLᬠVhaRDRsᄠ᪆ToesᬠᆆDcSTRsc,
wh輈h zah“輑KoDb‖иT邁―)ToREhጛc
᪐ghshw‑wVosDᰄ‑wcTࠜ―LcKR acࠜi
osoKcwRR⸠yᰠ/DᰠTᬠDos⸠ЧcDzLᬠToREhacc
mRDRLeᬄ邁 ghicDgsᆁ eиT邁 ࠛ‐iav4D
gv acToБ‘ᴘKcБR‑጑‛c acToБ-
shLLcᔁhTഛTDowR㨠(RkRsᄠn⺆9⺆ЛcDhShᨬ
n⺆M⺆5oSoLhᨬ’⺆u⺆ШR(woࠠᆆu⺆M⺆noNT
IDcNT⸠Тhabsᰠ3㔠eCcTz脠RภᔁRᔝᠠ
hV-100
viav而gv acToБ‘ᴘKcБR.ₛLhc‘ᴘ
KcБshi)– RhSᄄᄝ₇.)u.)rᨃᄈࠑshi,
u⺆y⺆ycᔄcvThᨠ(EziIRȠVLckRഛTఠuy
999f⤠ᆆvഛLTzȠ(RkRᴠЯ⺆.⺆5cabജ
iR̠阠ewcLaR⸠ᦆToIcРᔁRᔝᬠcgDଠDosGc
ewcL缑N‘ᴘKcБs„ᴘKcБR cKᆍᄈ
ᔝR脠Toeᴠn⺆P⺆ЖKoThi⸠9acKecఠhDwcDRDb,
CDhE造EzDଠCcgDTzwᄬ DᰠTᬠigᬠCacTz
TᬠghicDᔝR脠osoKcwRȠviav4Dgဠizghsh
mRDᄗecҐБ‖Cc࢐Б.₂htKo‚)1981)t. z
RkeCoaᄠᔁRghᴠDzgvCᄠgowz脠mRDRLecwzS
oiDhLhᨬ‌habsᰠ24〠CcahicᴠRภ73㘠EzaR
KcTDR(ᆍᄗhio࢐”os ac࢐„wcLᄝoT
ᔝhȠosoഛwRᄠToeᴠ(NAS).
208
gkb༉
ABnD
9. * Prokhorov A. M.
Institute of General Physics (A)
Moscow
177
490
6,5
10. * Georgiev G. P.
V⺆A⺆Engelhard璆Molecula犆Biology Institute (A)
Moscow
140
123
25,5
11. Linde A. D.
P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute ( A)
Moscow
52,4
329
12. * Korshak V. V.
A⺆N⺆Nesmeyanov Organoelemental Compounds Institute (A)
Moscow
626
617
4,3
13. Berezin I. V.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
432
220
11,1
110
14. + Pudovik A. N.
虁⺆E⺆Arbuzo皆Organic and Physical Chemistry Institute (A)
Kazan
389
548
4,4
15. *Ze8rov N. S.
M⺆V. Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
188
253
8,6
210
16. * Nesmeyanov A. N.
A⺆N⺆Nesmeyanov Organoelemental Compounds Institute
Moscow
997
226
88,4
375
17. * Kostyuk P. G.
A⺆A. Bogomolet玆Physiology Institute (U)
Kiev
924
55
35,0
247
18. Lippmaa E.
Chemical and Biological Physics Institute (E)
Tallin
887
26,2
102
19. +Skulachev V. P.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University
A⺆N⺆Belozerski Laboratory of Molecular
Biology and Bioorganic Chemistry
Moscow
681
135
19,8
123
20. Struchkov Y. T.
A⺆N⺆Nesmeyanov Organoelemental Compounds Institute (A)
Moscow
303
464
7,1
24
21. +Sunyaev R. A.
Space Research Institute (A)
Moscow
877
53,6
209
gkb༉
ABnD
22. Martinek K.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
842
118
15,6
208
23 Kiselev A. V.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
763
182
64,6
178
24. Altshuler B. L.
B⺆P. Konstantino皆Nuclear Physics Institute (A)
Leningrsd
813
50,4
393
25. *Reutov O. A.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
733
206
8,4
26. *Zeldovich Y. B.
Institute of Physics Problems (A)
Moscow
732
19,0
952
27. Bergelson L. D.
Cardiology Research Center (M)
Moscow
708
176
66,5
28. *Kabanov V. A.
A. V. Topchiev Petrochemical Synthesis Institute (A)
Moscow
622
224
7,2
29. Shashkov A. S.
N. D. Zelinski榆Organic Chemistry Institute
Moscow
597
171
9,3
30. +Privalov P. L.
Institute of Protein Research (A)
Pushchino-on-Oka
159a
26,1
218
31. + Fradkin E. S.
P⺆N.†Lebede皆Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
652
21,7
388
32. * Basov N. G.
P⺆N.†Lebede皆Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
544
199
7,8
316
33. * Ivanov V. T.
M⺆M⺆Shemyakin Bioorganic Chemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
478
16,4
34. Belov N. V.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Physics
Moscow
475
409
3,6
35. + Larkin A. I.
L⺆D⺆Landa疆Theoretical Physics Institute
Moscow
475
55
26,8
gkb༉
ABnD
36. Novikov V. A.
Theoretical and Experimental Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
463
56
26,1
37. *Razuvaev G. A.
N⺆I.†Lobachevski榆State University Chemical Research Institute
Gorki
454
220
52,1
38. Aronov A. G.
B⺆P⺆Konstantinov Nuclear Physics Institute
Gatchina
449
26,8
39. Spitsyn V. I.
Physical Chemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
397
293
4,8
40. +Tsvetkov V. N.
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds
Leningrad
367
143
9,6
185
41. Shklovskii B. I.
A⺆F⺆Ioff斆Physical Technical Institute (A)
Leningrad
347
51 26,4
131
42. * Bayev A. A.
Institute of Molecular Biology
Moscow
338
17,4
43. *Goldanskii V. I.
Chemical Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
136
9,6
167
44. Zamolodchikov A. B.
L⺆D⺆Landa疆Theoretical Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
295
38
34,1
188
45. + Petrov A. A.
Physical Technical Institute (A)
Moscow
280
283
4,5
46. Magi M.
Institute of Chemistry and Biological Physics (E)
Tallin
251
31,3
47. * Plate N. A.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
220
131
9,3
108
48. + Bunkin F. V.
General Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
197
137
8,7
121
gkb༉
ABnD
49. Shuryak E. V.
Novosibirsk Nuclear Physics Institute (A)
Novosibirsk
196
40
30,0
232
50. Krishtal O. A.
A⺆A⺆Bogomolets Physiology Institute (U)
Kiev
192
30
40,0
51. + Bystrov V. F.
M⺆M⺆Shemyaki溆Bioorganic Chemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
185
55
21,5
52. Kuzmin V. A.
Chemical Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
181
148
8,0
53. Drachev L. A.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University
Belozerskii A. N.
Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Bioorganic Chemistry
Moscow
179
54 21,8
54. Akhrem A. A.
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (B)
Minsk
170
213
5,5
55. Minkin V. I.
Rostov State University Physics and Organic
Chemistry Research Institute
Rostov
170
198
5,9
56. * Sagdeev R. Z.
Space Research Institute (A)
Moscow
168
119
9,13
117
57. Bakayev V. V.
Novosibirsk Medical Institute
Novosibirsk
149
22
52,2
58. Shuvalov L. A.
Institute of Crystallography (A)
Moscow
141
181
6,3
59. Petrovskii P. V.
A⺆N⺆Nesmeyanov Organoelemental Compounds Institute
Moscow
135
137
8,3
60. Efros A. L.
A⺆F⺆Ioff斆Physical Technical Institute (A)
Leningrad
119
19,6
61. Dmitriev B. A.
N⺆F⺆Gamaleya Epidemiology and Microbiology Institute (M)
Moscow
117
12,6
gkb༉
ABnD
62. *Gorkov L. P.
L⺆D⺆Landa疆Theoretical Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
20,7
63. Belavin A. A.
L⺆D⺆Landa疆Theoretical Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
114
61,9
235
64. Lipatov Y. S.
Institute of the Chemistry of Macromolecular Compounds (U)
Kiev
112
196
5,7
134
65. + Zakharov V. E.
L⺆D⺆Landa疆Theoretical Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
109
18,1
275
66. Ryskov A. P.
Molecular Biology Institute (A)
Moscow
090
21,4
67. Shuvalov V. A.
Institute of Soil Science and Photosynthesis(A)
Pushchino-on-Oka
089
20,2
68. Tseytlin A. A.
P⺆N.†Lebede皆Physics Institute (A)
Moscow
087
26,5
69. Nametkin N. S.
A⺆V⺆Topchiyev Petrochemical Synthesis Institute (A)
Moscow
082
125
8,7
70. Levanyuk A. P.
A⺆V⺆Shubnikov憆Crystallography Institute (A)
Moscow
072
14,7
71. Nefedov V. I.
N⺆S⺆Kurnako皆General and Inorganic Chemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
063
105
10,1
72. Skryabin K. G.
Molecular Biology Institute (A)
Moscow
062
26,69
73. Davankov V. A.
A⺆N⺆Nesmeyanov Organoelemental Compounds Institute (A)
Moscow
040
12,4
74. Shibaev V. P.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
039
108
9,6
75. Zhdanov V. M.
D⺆I⺆Ivanovski榆Virology Institute (M)
Moscow
035
138
7,5
gkb༉
ABnD
76. Klimov V. V.
A⺆N⺆Bakh Biochemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
021
15,2
55
77. Lutsenko I. F.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Chemistry
Moscow
001
5,2
78. Abdulaev N. G.
M⺆V⺆Shemyakin Bioorganic Chemistry Institute (A)
Moscow
997
37
27,0
79. Kumakhov M. A.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Institute of Nuclear Physics
Moscow
990
19,8
80. Voloshin M. B.
Theoretical and Experimental Physics Institute
Moscow
987
22,4
81. Yermakov Y. I.
Institute of Catalysis
Novosibirsk
982
10,3
82. Orlov S. N.
Central Research Laboratory Ministry of Public Health USSR
Moscow
969
14,5
83. Boreskov G. K.
Institute of Catalysis (A)
Novosibirsk
964
109
8,8
84. Postnov Y. V.
Central Research Laboratory Ministry of Public Health USSR
Moscow
957
20,4
85. * Spirin A. S.
Institute of Protein Research (A)
Pushchino-on-Oka
952
15,9
86. *Knorre D. G.
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (A)
Novosibirsk
937
12,3
87. Ptitsyn O. B.
Institute of Protein Research (A)
Pushcbino-on-Oka
932
16,4
88. *Chazov E. I.
Moscow Cardiology Center
Moscow
932
22,2
118
89. Kachanov V. A.
Serpukhov High Energy Physics Institute
Serpukhov
925
11,3
gkb༉
ABnD
90. Feigina M. Y.
M⺆M⺆Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (A)
Moscow
924
40,2
91. Osipov O. A.
Rostov Don University Physical and Organic Chemistry Institute
Rostov Don
923
178
5,2
92. Sokofov V. I.
A⺆N⺆Nesmeyanov Organoelemental Compounds Institute (A)
Moscow
117
7,9
443
93. Shakura N. I.
Shternberg Astronomy Institute
Moscow
916
65,4
94. Makarov G. N.
Spectroscopy Institute( A)
Troitsk
908
22,1
95. Brandt N. B.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Physics
Moscow
903
124
7,3
115
96. Saks V. A.
Cardiovascular Surge~Institute (M)
Moscow
902
17,7
97. Rubin A. B.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University Department of Biophysics
Moscow
902125
7,2
98. Samoson A.
Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (E)
Tallin
897
42,7
99. Karden A. D.
M⺆V.†Lomonoso皆State University
A. N. Belozerstii
Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Bioorganic Chemistry
Moscow
897
27,0
100. Frankkamenetskii M. D.
Institute of Molecular Genetics
Moscow
27,5
(A) = Academy of Sciences
(M) = Academy of Medical Sciences
(E) = Academy of Sciences EsSSR
(U) = Academy of Sciences UkSSR
(B) = Academy of Sciences BeSSR
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409
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413
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289
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255
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327
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429
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374
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884
Kiev
3.106
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3.414
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346
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995
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14.044
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1.265
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326
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316
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274
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325
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678
Tashkent
420
Tbilisi
292
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491
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261
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Т.)Лzgcࠝh),₁ᄄᆀ (hDLᆍoaogb \fchLRv
Л⺆dhaaRTto⤠ᆆsREcLTcDRse.
9htaoᔈᰠwTcTR耠ThEcaciᔝhtᰠaoeLc
oDᠠf⺆Хh((woTᠠ(R⺆
ffman)ⰠwRaRDo
LRkw \bc‛KᄈgDicࠈov LRCᄈo \rhБࠑ
LhioTRဠ(RkRsᄠ᪆ghicDᔝhȠToesc⸠dh
cth Tcࠑ4, \rLetᄄ₭osDhLhw‐iavcDgv
DLoKRmRဠ᪆ghicDᔝhР⠗egᔝhw⤠hE鴛
gDic, VhKLokewcio肝ov htLhwࠜc eioGc
TRᬠᶆeCcTzw⸠«fhaଠwhKcaᄠhCcTଠioGTo
᪆ghicDᔝhȠ⠗egᔝhN⤠RgDhLRR⸠ТLᄠicaR
sRS₭Rkᄝo―(hLБLhio጑―hicDgse4 \bo
ese㨠Л⺆ЛoTKoeⰠM⺆P⺆ФLcTscaଠᆆd⺆Л⺆舘
Vᆍo,‑)Tc \fhጋsh₭Rkᄝe, hgshጋse“ࠑ
VLRicaᄠghicDᔝe耠whahഛGଠ᪆Toese.
5TowcTRDhgDଠᆆVLcgDR輠ToesᄠVLcK
IcgDihioaR cᜑhKe’DhLhN RLhihN
ihаz.
dLcihgShKgDiᰠghicDᔝhȠ(RkRsᄠVhK
DicLGKocDgvⰠcgaᄠw造VhᔄhDLRРTo
ᔁRghᴠThEcaciᔝR脠aoeLᬘDhi⸠Mภഛgv
DᄠyhEcaciᔝR脠VLcwRȬ”hDhLzwᄠEzaR
eജgDhcT造ghicDᔝRᬠeCcTzcⰠgcwଠhDTh
gvDgဠᶆ(RkRsc⸠ᦆ195㢆t⸠/DᘠVLcwR耠Vh
aeCRaᄠM⺆P⺆ФLoTs, M⺆l⺆ТowРᆆd⺆Чc
LcTshi⸠ЛoTKoᘠVhaeCRጠVLcwR耠᪆19㘲)t.
kᠠLoEhD造᪆hEaogDᄠshTഛTᔑLhioTTzS
ᔗcKⰠhghEcTTᰠVᰠGRKshwᘠtcaR4⸠.oghᨬ
dLhShLhᨠᆆowcLRsoTc贠Ч⺆ТheTᔠ(Charles
2ᬋጒI 2
ᦏЌ༐₏缋ЍB౿଄ ਄鴏܅Ԡ脄଄ऑԁꂃ‌b਋֭Ⱐ
ྏRU܄v༎ਈࢠ茠D༎ԋఐЁРᄃԈꀁЬ 耠ĊD\f\n ISI Science Indicators
ᴏlwCBDbkM
DDf܏v
3wUlЏNtO)wCBDvwB \rਈTfB
839
Shifman M. A., Vainshtein A. I. & Zakharov V. I. QCD and resonance
physics: theoretical foundations. Nucl. Phys. B 147:385-447, 1979.
730
Shakura N. I. & +Sunyaev R. A. Black holes in binary systems:
observational appearance. Astron. Astrophys. 24:337-55, 1973.
682
+Polyakov A. M. Particle spectrum in quantu洠8eld
theory. LETP Lett.-Engf. Tr. 20:194-5, 1974.
Townes⤠VhaeCRaᄠVLcwR耠᪆196㒆t. (dLh
ShLhᨠkoTRwoc\f 9-e cgDᰠ᪆ᔁRᔝᬠToR
Ehጛc₍RDRLeᬄ邁―hicDgsᆁ‖иT邁,
ᔄ⺆DoEa⺆1). d⺆舘VRmo, shDhLzȠLokഛaRa
᪆197㢆t⸠VLcwR耠ᖆowcLRsoTmowᄠu⺆dcT
kRoghР(Arno Penzias⤠ᆆf⺆OaghThР(Robert
Wilson), EzጠeജgDhc\b TotLoK造kᠠRkh
ELcDcTRဠᆆhDsLzDRဠ᪆hEaogDᄠTRksRS
Dᬄě᜘DeL.
9LcKᄠghicDᔝR脠(RkRshi-aoeLᬘDhᨠTo
Ea4KocDgဠRTDcLcᔈoဠDcTഛTmRဠ᪆VLc
wRv脠kᠠ195㠠ᆆ196㒆tt.ⰠiLeCcTTz脠kᠠRg
gacKhioࠑာ―ivkoࠈzc―)aokcLoБ.ₛoЄ
ᆆФLoTᴠToIaᄠhEъvᔈcTRᬠ(hg(hLcg
mᄗhioࠑ4₏RKshgDR LR‛c“EaeCcࠑR
towwo-aeCowR,‐iጛTᄛ,“DsLzDhcₕᬗᬈ
sh᪐w.ₗDh“DᴗzDRc“sokoጜ“tLhwࠜc
iaRvTRc \bo–okcᜈzc \fc脈hጜtRR‑)Ezጜ
eജgDhcTᰠVLcwRᄠ᪆195㢆t⸠Mggacജio
TRဠ.oghio, dLhShLhiᠠᆆЧ⺆ТheTgᠠEzaR
ToV᜘iጛTz \bo‗okiRDᄛ–okᬗhi R)EzaR
eജgDhcT造VLcwRᄠ᪆196㒆t⸠9owzȠiz
ghshmRDRLecwzȠ᪆wogᔑiᬠISI Science
Indicator猠ghicDᔝRȠeCcTzȠЛcDhShᨠvi
avcDgv ᄜTcLhw‚)hEaogDR–okcᜈhN
ᔁcsDLhᔝhVRR.
nᰠiDhLhȠCogDᄠwhctᰠhCcLsᠠw造VLh
oTo጑kᄗecw \boREhacc₍RDᄗecҐc―Do
Dbᄬ‑TgDRDeDzⰠRggacജioDcabᔝRᬠ(LhT
D造ᆆGeLToaz.
2ODbؠ2.
᝿ଆKBD缋‌bObB괠w耠nnnP,
載ЈOKlB%OХw.‐zCitation Classics
ᤠDoEaR贛)㈠VLcകDoiacࠠᔁRghᴠVvDRഛgv
DᄠToREhacᬠmRDRLecwz脠gDoDcȬ“VeEaRsh
ioࠈzS ghicDgsᄄR eCc࢐Б, Rk woggᄚo ISI
Science Indicators⸠.habIRTgDiᰠRภ/DR脠RഛT
DR(ᆍᄗhioࠈzS―DoDcN hteD zDb“DTcgc࢐
ᶆCitation ClassicsⰠVhᔝhabsᘠR脠mRDRLecwhgDb
VLcizIocఠVhLhठ᪆20〠gᖐahs⸠Mภ/DR脠VvDR
ഛgvDᄠgDoDcȠᶆDcwoDRscⰠᔚvkoTThȠᖆ(RkR
shȬ“DThgvDgဠ2㠠gDoDcN⸠ЭDᄠgDoDbᄠhDThgvDgv
s)ᄕgጛKhioTRvw h₭RkRsc₌ጛЛTDoLT邁
CogDRm,―icL脁LhihKRМgDR,₌acsDLhVLhihK
ThgDᄠDicLKz脠ic鴛gDᨠᆆ(RkRsᬠTRksR脠Dcw
VcLoDeL⸠芆RggacജioTRvРVᰠToesoРᰠGRkTR
hDThgvDgဠ1㔠gDoDcȬ‑)hTᄠVhᔚv鴛T造RkeCc
TR耠gDLesDeL逬₭hLw造ᆆosDRiThgDᄠwhacsea
Ecaso,₁LhwoDRTo‑)owRࠜᴑgጜD (aminoascy1-
tRNA)⸠ycᔝhabsᰠgDoDcȠVᰠToesoРᰠGRkTR
Vhᔚv鴛T造RggacജioTRvРVLhShGഛTRဠ(Vc
LcKoCR) ᬗck ᬄE᜘Tz”᜘gT邁”LhivT邁
Dcጛm, /ጛsDLRиgsᆁ Dhshi‚)ࠛNLhToS wha
a4ᔝhᨠ(electrical currents in mollusk neurons).
dvDଠgDoDcȠVᰠSRwRᄠᔚvkoT造ᖆRggacജioTR
vwᄠVᰠoToaRkᘠoEghLEmRᄠvKLᠠᆆRᔁhabkhio
TR4‐Kcᜈh-wotTRDࠜth‗ckhToTᔘ \rav‑keCc
TRဠgDLesDeL造ᔑaRsoDhᨠvKLᠠᆆetacihKTzS
ghcKRTcTRN⸠rgDoiIRcgဠKiᬠgDoDbᄠVhᔚv鴛
T造ToesoРᲆkcwaᬠᆆRggacജioTR耠shᔄhgo.
ᴏlwCBDbkM
DDf܏v
3wUlЏNtO)wCBDvwB \rਈTfB
677
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533
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DDf܏v
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DDf܏v
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ᤠVcLihȠCogDᄠw造thihLRaᄠᰠജwRTR
LhioTRR₭Rฑᴑ‚)oToaRฑLecМw oggR
iᬠizghshmRDRLecwz脠gDoDcȠ(89㈠gDoDbR)
kᠠ1973–198㢆tt.: 4㎆┠hDThgvDgဠᶆ(RkRsc,
3㊆▆阠ᶆERhahtRCcᔝRРToesoРᆆ1㦆▆阠
s)Sᄄᄑ.₄ShK࢐c \roࠈzc z጑ haeCc࢐
Vᜑ \boeshwcDᜑCcgshw‑keCcTRR‎ToCR
DcabTᰠEhabIctᰠwogᔑiᠠ(140 Dzg⸠gDoDcN)
wRLhihtᰠVhDhsᠠkᠠ1981–198㖆tt.ⰠizVha
ࠛTThw‚ᬈtᬗgsRwR―ěmRoaᄕDowRₛ.).᜘
eThР(T⺆Braun)Ⱐn⺆%a/T贛ahР(W⺆Glдnzel)
ᆆu⺆ШeEcᜌhР(A⺆Schubert), LoEhDo4URwᄠ
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ഛacTR耠ghicDᔝR脠gDoDcȠVᰠVLcKwcDTzР
soDcthLRvР᪆hEhR脠RggacജioTRv脠VLcK
gDoiac\b \bᠠLRg⺆2.
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TzРhEaogDvРRภLvKᠠgDLoࠠu⺆ШeEcᜌ‑)ctᰠ
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Ea4K᠛w逛‎oshThЛLThgDR₌ጛЛTDoLT邁
CogDRm, DosR脠soᴠVLhDh\b ᆆTcNDLhT. 9Rab
ThᬠikoRwhഛNgDiRᬠwcGKᘠsioLsowᄠvi
avcDgv \fcwoDRshN₭eTKowcTఘabࠜN \boeᴑ
ᲆDhwⰠsoᴠoDhwTzᬠvKLᠠᔚvkoT造KLeठᖆKLe
thw⸠ТchLRဠ(QCD⤠VLRiacsocఠRggacജio
DcacȠ
k-kᠠᔚhcȠwoDcwoDRsᄬ LosDRCc
ᔝᄠRKcTDRCThȠDhȬ”hDhLoဠRᔁhabkecDgဠ
᪆sioTDhihȠ/acsDLhKRTowRsᬠ(QCD⤠ᆆcKR
ThȠDchLRᄠgaoEz脠ᆆ/acsDLhwotTRDTz脠
ikoᄄhKcNgDiᄂ.ₙRkᄝR,‎oࠑwo4URcgv
CogDRmowᄬ oഛ4DgvⰠCDᰠwoDcwoDRCcᔝhᬠ
gShകDiᰠwcGKᘠ/DRwᄠDchLRvwᄠwhGcఠEzDଠ
ᄈKᄝoDhLhw \fhth, Dh₫eࠑicLgoጋTov \fch
LRဠVhav묠EaRksᠠᶆLᬘaRkomRR.
ТLᄠToREhacᬠmRDRLecwzᬠgDoDbᄠVᰠVLh
EacwoРQCD (DoEa⺆1) EzaᄠhVeEaRshioT造
eCcTzwᄠRภMTgDRDeDᠠDchLcDRCcᔝhȠ(RkR
sᄠu褠999ꀠRw⺆Л⺆B⺆ЛoTKoe㨠/DᰠP⺆u⺆ШR(
wo\b, u⺆M⺆noNTIDcNࠬ’⺆M⺆5oSoLhi⸠ngᬠDLᄠ
/఑S₭ᄎRso \boSᰍဌgv‚)गeVVc‑k cಐLcS
gowz脠mRDRLecwz脠ghicDᔝR脠oiDhLhᨠ᪆wog
ᔑiᬠkᠠ1973–198㢆tt.
uiDhLhРCcDzLc脠gDoDcȬ―ivkoTTz脠ᖆDc
woDRshȠQCDⰠviavcDgဠghDLeKTRᴠ/DhtᰠGᬠ
RTgDRDeDᠠCacT-shLLcᔁhTഛT\f u⺆P⺆dh
avᴜi
⸠ᦆᔁRᔝᬠVvDRഛgvDᄠgowz脠mRDR
Lecwz脠ghicDᔝR脠gDoDcȠ(DoEa⺆2⤠u⺆P⺆dh
dLh(cgghᜠu⺆P⺆dhavshᨠᖆ198㦆t⸠LoEhDoc\f
᪆Princeton University⸠5ᠠgihᄠhDsLzDRဠ᪆g(cLᬠDch
ᜑR hav, \fchᜑR―DLeT, otTRDTzS ᰈᰁhacN‑)KLe
tRᬠKhgDRGcTRဠeKhgDhcࠠVLcwRᄠFundamental Physics
Prize (3)wገ)Khaa.),‖̗cGKcࠈhN 通缑w―hDLeKࠑshw
ФMuyᠠ3⸠PRabTcLhwⰠviavcDgဠaoeLcoDhРwThtR脠
ToëzS LcБN,‚)2005 \t.‑kELoT \rcNgDiRఛጋ࢐w
CacThР᪆U.S.National Academy of Sciences.
avshiᘠVLRToKac輘\f 8 DoDcN⸠noNTIDcNT,
5oSoLhᨠᆆШR(woࠠhVeEaRshioaᄠVᰠ
VvDଠgDoDcȠsoGKzN⸠舘GKzȠRภgacKe4
Uᆁ ěLᬃᄕጛTT邁‖иT邁“VeEaRshioa
VᰠKiᬠgDoDbᄠRภ/DhtᰠᔁRᔝo㨠woDcwoDRᴠ
n⺆Л⺆uabDIeacᜠRภMTgDRDeDᠠvഛLThȠ(R
kRsᄠu褠999ꀠRw⺆n⺆d⺆2hTgDoTDRThiᠠ(Лc
TRTtLoK), (RkRᴠu⺆B⺆ЛRTഛ RภФRkRCcᔝh
tᰠRTgDRDeDᠠRw⺆u⺆d⺆ЛcEcഛiᠠu褠999f,
d⺆%⺆2hgD4ᴠᆆr⺆u⺆2LRIDoጠ(hEᠠRภMTgDR
Deఘ₭RฑhጜtRR‑w.)u.)u.).hthМabmo„y
OsLoRTᔝhʆ99f).
nDhLoဠVᰠshaRCcgDiᘠgᖐahᴠgDoDbဠ
«ЧcLTzᬠKzL造᪆ERToLThȠᔑgDcwᬺ hvi
acࠑc LR \boEᎀKcࠑR» zao“VeE጑shio
TᠠghiwcgDTᰠy⺆M⺆ШoseLhȠRภMTgDRDeDᠠ
ogDLhࠜwRR‑w.)ШDcᜈEcᜉo‑)Cacࠜw-shL
LcᔁhTഛTDhРf⺆u⺆94TvcizРRภMTgDRDeDᠠ
shᔄRCcᔝR脠RggacജioTRȠu褠999f⸠dLcK
VhaotocDgvⰠCDᰠCcLTzᬠKzL造阠/DᰠVhgacK
gDiRᬠVhtoᕿR脠kickKⰠshtKᠠᔑa造tLoiR
DomRᄠTogDhabsᰠᔑabT逬 DᰠKoGᬠᔚc\f \bᬠ
whGcఠRgCckTeDb.
ԗeघv―ఘDbv h ogDLh(Rฑsc, Rwc肝ov
gcKbwhȠLoTtⰠEzaᠠhVeEaRshioTᠠЛRTഛ
ᆆᔚvkoTᠠᖆizKiRTeDhȠRРRഛcȠTcVLc
LziTᰠLoᕿRLv4鴛NgဠngcacTThN⸠ЛRTഛ,
ШoseLᠠᆆ94Tvcᨠ᪁hKvఠ᪆tLeVVᘠToREhacᬠ
mRDRLeᬄ邁―hicDgsᆁ‖иT邁,“)иw zah
ToVRgoTᰠ᪆VcLihȠCogDᄠgDoDbR.
ШcgDov, ToREhacᬠmRDRLecwoဠgDoDbဠhVe
EaRshioTᠠ.⺆n⺆ЧRLRshizРRภMTgDRDeDᠠ
vKcᜈhN₭Rฑᴑ₄r„y₄99f. Эఘ―ఘDbv h
ᔚv鴛TᠠwcSoTRkwᘠTcgDoERabThgDᄠ᪆shac
EoDcጋ࢐S―RgDcwoS (uLThጋKo).
BcgvDoဠVᰠmRDRLecwhgDᄠgDoDbဠVhᔚv鴛
Tᠠ/((csDᘠikoRwhഛNgDiRဠ᪆EcᔁhLvജC
Tz脠ᔑgDcwo脠ФcLwᄬ―DoDbဠEzaᠠhVeEaRsh
ioTo―hiwcgDTh \riewv―hicDgsᄄR‖Cc࢐Б
uabDIeacLᰄ‑)uLhࠜ᪐w (MTgDRDeD‐KcᜈhN
(Rฑᴑ Rw.)..)d.)2hTgఘTDRࠜio) R)owcᜑsoT
贛РP⺆A⺆Lee (Bell Laboratories, New Jersy).
eORCTfԠSBࠋtꀠಐkfDMvwĠwƏOvbMĠ
.zጠghgDoiacࠠᔁRghᴠRภ2㔠hLtoTRkomRȬ
eCc࢐c”hDhLzS“VeE጑shio጑ 50―oҐS₍R
DRLecwz脠gDoDcN⸠ᦆ/DhఠᔁRghᴠihIaᄠhKRT
ToKmoDଠRTgDRDeDhᨠu褠999fⰠhVeEaRshioi
IR脠36 \fosR脠gDoDcȠ(72
)⸠9LcKᄠTᬘso
KᬄRиgsᆁ‑ࠕDRDeDhi‚zKcaရDgv‏ТЭФ,
hVeE጑shioi缑N 6―DoDcN, \fLR―DoD଑ z጑
hVeE጑shio࢐‖Cc࢐Б‑k \rieS‑TgDRDeDhi
u褠OsLoRT造ᆆhKTᠠgDoDbဠeCcTzwᄠu褠ЭgDh
ࠑR.ₛLR‑TgDRDeDo„ᴘKcБR cKᆍᄈgsRS
Toeᴠ(uPy⤠999ꀠhVeEaRshioaᄠCcDzLᬠgDo
D଑.‒hCDR‚gc“Ltoࠑkomᄑ,“VeE጑shioi
IRᬠgowzᬠmRDRLecwzᬠgDoDbᄬ‗oᔁhahGc
T造᪆PhᔝiᬠRaᄠЛcTRTtLoഛ⸠ᦆDoEaR贛)3
VLcകDoiacࠠᔁRghᴠRTgDRDeDhᨠᖆgowzw
izghsRРRwVosDhЬ‌⺆c⸠ᔗcKTcȠmRDRLecwh
gDb耠hKThȠgDoDbR⸠ᦆ/DhРᔁRᔝᬠജwRTRLe
而‑TgDRDeDz,‚送hገv4URc‑ggacKhioࠑv
Vᰠ(RkRsᬠᆆvഛLThȠ(RkRsc⸠dcLihᬠwcgDh
koTRwocఠMTgDRDe\f \fchLcDRCcᔝhȠ(RkRsR
Rw⺆Л⺆ЛoTKoᘠgᰠᔗcKTcȠmRDRLecwhgDb4
hKThȠgDoDbᆆ騠15,8㘠gᖐasR⸠ЭDhఠRTgDRDeD
DosGᬠToShKRDgဠTᠠVcLihРwcgDᬠVᰠshaR
иgDie―ow邁₍RDRLeᬄ邁―DoDᬂ.₄LcKR
KLetR脠RTgDRDeDhᨠФMu褠Rw⺆ЛcEcഛioⰠMT
gDRDeఠERhLtoTRCcᔝhȠSRwRᄠRw⺆P⺆P⺆Шc
wvᴑTo ẉ, MTgDRDeD hᜉoTRCcgshN 脑wRR
Rw⺆y⺆B⺆5caRTᔝhtᰠuyⰠФRkRsh-DcSTRCc
ᔝRȠRTgDRDeఠRw⺆u⺆M⺆Mh((ᬠu褠ᆆMТЭФ.
nMkBbDvwB \bOR̈fB₏RU܄vOSЄ
kf.MK 4 \tRDDvMNM‏鴇BഅTԈwI
.zጠghgDoiacࠠᔁRghᴠGeLToahᨬ“Ve
E጑shioi缑S vDbKcgvD―oҐS₍RDᄗecҐS
gDoDcN⸠ᦆ/DhРᔁRᔝᬠDhabsᰠKiᠠghicDᔝR脠
GeLToaᠠ(ЖЭТ餠ᆆ«.RhSRwRv»), \ricToK
moDଠRภ9ШuⰠVᰠihgcwଠRภncaRshELRDo
TRᄠᆆyRഛLaoTജᨠᆆVᰠhKThwᘠRภMDoaRᄠ
ᆆBoTRR⸠ngᬠ/DᄠGeLToa造VeEaRse4DgဠTᠠ
oTtaRNᔝhРvkzsc⸠Mภ239 \boeCTz脠GeL
Toahᨬ―hഛL輘UR脠VLhoToaRkRLhioTTzȠ
224
2ᬋጒI 3
ᦏЌ༐ ࠌ଄bRb༎‌‌ਁꀁ‎ꀌ༐Ё₀ࠊ̅ࠄԁ ƏਐbO
Rank
Institute
Number of Papers
Number of CitationCitation Impact
L. D. Landau Theoretical
Physics Institute
1,254
19,896
15,86
Theoretical and Experimental
Physics Institute
1,001
13,324
13,31
M. M. Shemyakin Bioorganic
9hemistry Institute
1,203
10,490
8,71
4P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute
4,615
32,742
7,09
I. V. Kurchotov Institute
of Atomic Energy
1,812
11,246
6,20
N. D. Zelinskii Organic
Chemistry Institute
1,408
8,647
6,14
Joint Institute for Nuclear
Research (Dubno)
2,729
16,702
6,12
A. F. Ioffe Physical Technical
Institute (Leningrad)
5,539
28,153
5,08
9M. V. Lomonosov State University
16,952
82,080
4,84
L. Y. KarLhv Physicochemicol
Research Institute
2,165
9,964
4,60
wogᔑᨠghicDᔝR脠gDoDcȠkᠠ1973–198㢆tt.,
Dhጋsh 18)%―DoDcN z጑“VeE጑shio࢐ \bo
LegᔝhРvkzsc⸠rgDoiIRcgဠ8㊆┠gDoDcȠEz
጑‑጑“VeE጑shio࢐‚)koVoK࢐S₏eLToaoS
Raᄠ᪆VcLcihഛ ᠠoTtaRNᔝhw. n⺆PoLsegh
iᠠiᰠiLcwဠcᬠVLcEzioTRဠ᪆IS䤠hDwcCoao,
CDh hVeE጑shioࠑc gDoD଑ To oࠉ጑Ngshw
VLᄚacᴘcD haccⁿᄗhse4‘eKRDhLᆀ
CRDoDcጛN.₂LhЛ \fhth,‚LᬄᬈThN–ot“D
VLcകDoiacTRဠgDoDbᄠ᪆LcKosmR耠ജ cᬠ
hVeEaRshioTRv‚)ghicDgᴑS₏eᜈoaoS h
GcఠghgDoiavDଠ2–2,5 \thKoⰠ᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠ
Tᠠ5oVoഛ‍cgvDଠac\f \bokoഠhࠠghgDoiavጠh\f
8 ജ 18 wcgv贛i. ᦆTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwv, ᖆeCc
Dhw \fc脈hጜtRCcgshth―hic᝿cTgDihioTRv
RkKoDcabᔝhtᰠVLh贛ggoⰠhࠠwhGcఠEzDଠ
shLhCc⸠9LcKᄠ3㈠GeLToahᨠDhabsᰠhKR\b,
Bioorganicheskaya Khimiya («.ᄜhᜉoTRCc
ᔝoဠSRwRv»)ⰠhDThᔑDgဠᶆToesoРᰠGRkTR.
PhGcఠEzDbⰠVh/DhweⰠsoᴠဠeVhwRToጠ᪆VcL
ihȠCogDᄠwhcȠgDoDbᄬ―ᰎKoTᰠghiwcgDThᬠ
ghicDᔝh-oTtaRNᔝhᬠVLcKVLRvDRᬠKaဠiz
Vegso₏eL࠘ጘ Biomedical Science.
n༎BbDvwB DDlBK༎਋BlEDvwB
)tMࠋꂐ鬠OvSBࠋ ਠw4RCBTwԠ
vtwDbOllMk,₏tАlOKTRЯ₃ЁҘ
Ґw4RCBTwԠDBtKSO
ᤠ/DhРLokഛaᬠဠEeKᘠhEgeGKoDଠRg
gacജioDcabᔝRᬠ(LhTD造᪆wogᔑio脠SCI
ᆆSocial SCI Dhabsᰠkᠠ198㢆t., ᪆shDhLz脠gh
icDᔝRᬠVeEaRsomRᄠghgDoiav4\f \bᬠwcTcᬠ
55 % gc脠mRDRLe4UR脠gDoDcȠkᠠ/Dh\f \thK.
ЭDᄠ(LhTD邆騠TcEhabIoဠCogDଠEok造KoT
Tz脠RggacജioDcabᔝR脠(LhTDhᨠ(igctᰠR脠
8177)⸠MggacജioDcabᔝRᬠ(LhTD造(hLwR
Le4ఠVᰠᔁcmRoabThȠwcDhKRsc⸠ЭDhఠwcDhK,
TokziocwzȠsaogDcLRTthЬ―ᰎKo\b \bᠠhg
Thiᬠsh-mRDRLhioTRဠജsewcTDhi. 9DoDbᄬ
shDhថc ogDh―hᨄcgDࠜ LhmRDRLhioTz
DcseURwᄠgDoDbvwᄬ―ᰎKo4ఠ«vKLh묠ᔁcmR
oabThgDR⸠訑DRLe4URᬠgDoDbᄠgᰎKo4ఠRg
gacജioDcabᔝRȠ(LhTD, \bokioTRᬠshDhLhtᰠ
izER᜘cDgv‑k₭᜘k,‚gDLᬃo4Uᆁgv‚)/Dᆁ
mRDRLe肝RS―ఘDbႁ.
9hicDᔝRᬠgDoDbᄠghgDoiav4\f 4㔠Rggac
ജioDcabᔝR脠(LhTDhi⸠P造VhaotocЬ Dh
ᔁcmRoabThgDRⰠ᪆shDhLz脠5㖆┠Rภigc脠mR
DRLe4UR脠gDoDcȠviav4DgဠghicDᔝRwᄬ h
teఠLogᔄoDLRioDbgဠsoᴠhEaogDᄬ‚)shDhLzS
ghicDgsᄛ‖иT逛“ghEᬈTh‘sDRiTz. h
БࠑLe4UᄄR‐iav而gv‑ggacKhioࠑv h
(Rฑsc (20₭LhTDhi), oDcᜑoጜicKcTR4
(1㎆(LhTDhi), ᖆVLRsaoKThȠSRwRcȠᔚvko
T造1ㆆ(LhTDhi⸠MggacജioTRဠVᰠToesow
ᲆGRkTᄠᆆwcKRmRTᬠVLcകDoiacT造DosGc
hKᄈToKmoD஀₭LhTDoБ, LRCcw cD逗c
Rk \bᆁ h―ᬗKᬃTh-ghgeKᄕDzw‎᠆hጛio
TRvw⸠BLetRᬠRggacജioDcabᔝRᬠ(LhT
D造VLcകDoiavaR: \tchahtR耠(hKRࠠ(LhTD),
VᔑShahtR耠ᆆtcTcDRsᘠKLᰎh(Ra造(hKRT
(LhTD)‑)tcTcDᄝe–RCᄈhs―oጋwhࠑKz
⠜KRT₭LhTD).
ychESᰍRwh hఄc఑ఋ, Dh \fhabsh ᰍRT‑g
gacജioDcabᔝRȠ(LhTఠVᰠRggacജioTR耠
ngcacTThȠ(Lo眠Aying quadropole vibration of
superAuid nuclei and cross section for universe
beta decay) \bᬠRwcጠghicDᔝR脠oiDhLhᨠᔗcKᄠ
vK᜘₍RDRLeᬄ邁―DoDᬂ.
sl਌DwvO₁wbwt༎ਈѿ
yᠠgcthKTvITRȠഛTଠ1㠠ghicDᔝR脠eCcTz脠
KoaR \bow”hwwcTఘᜑR h hihKe―ihRS―o
w邁‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁―DoDᬂ,“VeEaRsh
ioTTz脠᪆LokഛaᬠCitation Classics⸠ЭDᄠshw
wcTDoLRᄠhDThgvDgဠᶆVeEaRsomRvРEhacᬠ
᜘Tࠛth ᬗRhKo‚LᬄᬈR, ᬄ \fhD,”hDhLzN
w造hEgeGKoaᄠ᪆/DhȠgDoDbc⸠Mᔝa4CcTRᬠ
ghgDoiav4ఠosoഛwRᴠn⺆M⺆%habKoTᔝRȠ
(MTgDRDeఠSRwRCcᔝhȠ(RkRsᄠu褠999f)
ᆆosoKcwRᴠu⺆9⺆9VRLR\b (MTgDRDeఠRggacKh
ioTRȠEcasᠠu褠999f)⸠9LcKᄠoiDhLhᨠshw
ЛTDoLᄛi‚hgᬄb‐iav4Dgv ጛTowR„y.
PTᬠShDcahᔋ 造ekToDଠwTcTRᬠghicDᔝR脠
eCcTz脠ᰠDc脠eCcTzSⰠshtᰠToРE造gacജioaᰠ
ThБࠑLhioDb”os‘iDhLhi‚zghshmRDᄗec
wz脠gDoDcN⸠ТhabshⰠVh輘aeNgDo, \bᬠkoEeKbDᬠ
esokoDଠR脠oKLcg, \fhtKᠠw造ᔄhGcРhELo
DRDbgဠTcVhᔗcകDicTTᰠᶆoiDhLoРᆆVLR
taogRDb \boVRᔘDb”hwwcTఘᜑN.
ulRCyOଠlРGBtBDଉM(vਠҐNlODTMDଆ
ఏkBbDvRЯ ਑vR?
yoIᬠRggacജioTRᬠVhsokoah, CDᰠ(RkR
sᠠviavcDgဠ«shLhacihN묠᪆ghicDᔝhȠToesc.
yoesᄠᰠGRkTᄠVᰠᔗoiTcTR耠ᖆTcȠkoTRwo4D
iDhLhc cgDh”os h”h጑CcgDie eE጑ᴘmᄂ,
ఘs‑)Vh‑wVosDe.’cLhvDࠜN ᜑCRࠜN₌Dhth
viavcDgv hDLᆍoDcጋThc i጑vࠑc oᴘKcБᴘ
Т⺆B⺆ЛzgcTsᰠ(1898–1976)ⰠshDhLhtᰠVhKഛL
GRioaᄠ9DoaRࠠᆆХLe鴛i⸠dgciKhToesᠠЛz
gcTsᰠshTDLhaRLhioaᠠᖆshTmᠠ30-脠KᰠshTmo
60-膆tt⸠otLoLTe耠ToesᘠᆆToesᄠᰠGRkTR.
dᰠwTcTR耠RgDhLRsᠠghicDᔝhȠToesᄠ
ᆆERhahtᠠЖ⺆PcKicഛio, \roGᬠDcVcLbⰠsht
Ko‚጑vࠑc₫᎐gcࠝhiUᄈz»‗oggcvahgb,
VLhKhaGRDcጋ࢐N₌((csD h጑DRkomᄑ
c鴛―e鴛gDiecఠ᪆ghicDᔝhȠToesc.
9csLcDThgDஆ騠/Dᰠc鴛“KTᠠVLRCRTo,
shDhLoဠiaRvc\f \bᠠLokiRDRᬠghicDᔝhȠToe
sᄠᆆTᬠKocఠghicDᔝRРeCcTzРihᔁhabkh
ioDbgဠizthKowᄠh\f \boeCTz脠ᆆDcSThahtR
иgsᆁ \rhgDᆏᬈRN.’)ࠛKoiࠛw‑TDᬗib4
osoഛwRᴠn⺆riKeciᔝRȬ LcകcKoDcaଠgh
icDᔝhtᰠshwRDcDᠠVᰠVLhKiRGcTR耠VcLc
thihLhᨬ hDwcDRጬ CDᰠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTToဠ
oDМg(cLo―cᴗcDࠜgDR \bc \rocD‚hคhGࠜ
gDᄠa4KvЬ‗oEhDo4URР᪆hKThРToVLoiac
ࠑR VLhҐIacࠈhgDR, ekToDb h LckeጋDoDoS
RggacജioTRȠ᪆KLethЬ‎owcKavv, \fosRР
hE᜘khw,‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTᄛ‑)iࠛKLᬈᄛ
RTࠜiomᄜTTzS \fc脈hጜtRN.ₛc脈hጜtRR,
᜘k᜘EhDoTT逛 \rav‚hᬈT邁₍cጛN,”hDhL逛
whtaᄠE造VLRTcgDᄠVhabkᘠtLoGKoTᔝhwᘠ
gcsDhLe, \bᬠLoᔝLzio4DgဠRk-kᠠghhELoGc
TRN―cᴗcDࠜgDR.ₛoᴑc \fc脈hጜtRR‚sa考o
4ఠhELoEhDsᘠഛDoacNⰠᔚoLseⰠesLcVacTRᬠ
VhicL脈hgDcN,‚zLoURioTRc”ᜑgఘaጜi,
o)ఘsGc‑gVhabkhioTRc \tREᴑS‘iDhwoDRฑ
LhioࠈzS LhRkihKgDicࠈzS–ᄈᄂ.„ᴘKc
wRᴠf⺆9otഛcᨬ ziIRȠKRLcsDhᜠM2༠u褠
999f,“DЛC᠛D, Dh \rh ᬗcgDLhNsR‖иT逛,
᜘EhDo4Uᄛ \bo‚hᬈTe4 LhwzIጛTThgDb,
EzaᄠRkEoahioT逬‚)DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠeCcTzc,
᜘EhDo4Uᄛ‚)t᜘GKoࠕsᆁ“Ea᠕DvS,‑Л
aᄠegDoLciIcᬠhEhLeജioTRc, \bRkse耠koL
VaoDe‑)ࠛi逕hsRNⁿoࠕ LhKiᆏᬈRv h
gaeGcEThȠacgDTR贛‑aᄠwcGKeToLhKThtᰠ
VLRkToTRv⸠yᰠLcgDLesDeLRkomRဠVLRicaᠠ
ᶆSeKIcweⰠVᰠwTcTR耠9otഛcio. nwcgDᰠDhtᰠ
CDhE造VhKTvDଠigc脠eCcTz脠ജ‖LhiTဠihcT
Tz脠gDoTKoᜌhᨬ‚gᬠeCcTzᬠEzaᄠVhTRGcT造
ജ‖LhiTဠtLoGKoTᔝR脠gDoTKoᜌhi.
n hVzDsc haeCRDb―hmRoabTzc‑)谝hࠜ
wRCcᔝRᬠizthK造h\f \boeCTz脠RggacജioTRȠ
ghicDᔝRᬠToeCTzᬠRTgDRDeD造VhhULv4Dgဠ
Kav‖sLᬁጛTRv―ivkᬂ―)VLhwzIጛTTh
gDb4⸠ТosRРVLRwcLhРwhGcఠgaeGRDଠgh
iЛgDThc LcKVLRvDᄛ‘ЛLRsoࠕshth hk
thihtᰠ贛TDLᠠ(think tank⦆阠Arthur D. Little
(Cambridge, MA⤠ᆆu褠999f⸠9hiwcgDThᬠ
VLcKVLRvDRᬠkoNwcDgဠVhRᔝhРghicDᔝR脠
᜘k᜘EhDhs‚)(eTKoЛTDoabT邁 \boesoS,
VLRiጛиD‎oVoKT邁 oLDࠛLhi \rav‑S‗ok
iRDRဠᆆVcLcKogఠaR贛TkR耠shwVoTRvЬ
shDhLzᬠgഛao4ఠshTcCTzȠVLhKesD⸠yoREh
ጛc“Eᮝo4Uᄛ“Ea᠕DR‗ok᜘EhDhs)— o
DcLRoahicഛTRᬠᆆRggacജioTRဠaokcLhi.
BLetRw \boV᜘iጛTᄛw‚)hgeUcgDiጛTRR
Lc(hLРviavcDgဠiicഛTRᬠshTseLᔈhtᰠ
(ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑv.’wcgDh₭ᄈoTgᄗhioࠑv
иLck‘soKᬄRиgsᄛ‑ࠕDRDeDz ᠕Db₭R
ToTᔑLhioTRဠLoᔁLcഛavcDgဠshwRDcDowᄠ
VᰠToesᬠᆆDcSTRsc⸠ᦆVLhIahРthKᘠEzaᰠ
VhKoT 620〠kovihᴠTᠠizVhaTcTRᬠVLh
csDhᨬ‑)380〠RภTR脠EzaᄠeജiacDihLcTz.
dᰠwTcTR耠f⺆9otഛcioⰠCogDଠഛTcठigᬠc鴛
isaoKziocDgဠ᪆eEzDhCTzᬠVLcKVLRvDRv.
ЭDᠠgDoDbဠVLcകDoiavcఠghEhȠh؎hᜠgh
icDᔝhȠToesᄬ‑)ᨠTcȠhEgeGKo4DgဠDhabsᰠ
eиT逛‑)gDoDbR,‑Л4Uᄛ‚逕hsRN‑wVosD.
n)ࠛN“DЛиTz \fhabsh ᬝhDhL逛₭osDhLz,
VLcVvDgDie4URᬠghicDᔝhȠToesᬠᨠKhgDR
GcTRᄠcᬠVhaThtᰠVhDcTmRoao⸠આghicDᔝhȠ
ToesᄠwThtᰠVLhEacЬ ᰠLc(hLw造%hLEo
Cciᠠigcav4ఠ᪆koVoKTe耠ᆆghicDᔝe耠To
esᘠEhabIRᬠToഛGKz⸠PhGTᰠToഛvDbgv,
CDᰠ᪆EaR輘NIcРEeKe鴛РVLhRkhNഛఠsoᴠ
Lhg\f \boeCTz脠hEwcThᨠwcGKᘠghicDᔝRwᄠ
ᆆkoVoKTzwᄠeCcTzwᄬ‌oᴠᆆLoᔁLhgDLoTc
TRᬠ/acsDLhTThtᰠhEhLeജioTRv, \foshtᰠsoᴠ
(osgz‑)VcLghToጋ࢐c”hЁ஀DcLz.
PusuhcinoL‖grḓdoag‑rḗvga᨝ᬜag‏gsLkvᬜg.
PusuhcᨠaᔠskvvLo\r \fbOᜠhOtcrauጠဠrTlubacEᬠsgbsuBuaoఠghdcsg.
b⸠Mࠇ؅Ѓ
�v
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IENCE
ON
DEX
Пьтэпыт ыьуошхчыпнон п8 Cseclc E_p�cjb Rfc ctmjsrgml md rfc Sagclac Cgr_rgml Ilbcx --
COLRPIBSRIOLS rm SCICLCC* 3 (C)8 n, 41–5. (0..7)
Ilsrgrsr b’Csrsbgs C_r_j_ls* B_pacjml_
DOI: 10.2436/20.7010.01.60
ckBഅTwB
ěLi逛”hTmᬁmRv‑gVhab
khiTRဠScience Citation
Index (SCI⤠soᴠRTDcaacs
DeoጋThth ᄈgDLewcTDo, hE
actCo4鴛tᰠVLh贛gᔠLoᔁLh
gDLoTcTRဠᄠVhRᔝᠠToeCThN
aRDcLoDeL逬 EzaᠠhEToLhജio
Tᠠ᪆195㖆t⸠9DoLIcᬠVhshacTRc
eCc࢐S \boicLTvᴘ‚gVhЈRD‖Gc
ge鴛gDihioiIRȠᶆDhwᘠiLcwc
ࠑ‑T(hLwomRhࠈ适 LhKesD
VhK \bokioTRcw Current Contents,
Ez᩿RN c᜚hN‗ciha肍ᄜTࠜN
«RഛcN»ⰠshDhLoဠgKcaoaᠠiᰎ
whGThȠVLosDRCcᔝe耠LᬘaR
komᆀ SCI.‒LᄄcCoDcጋTh, Dh
Current Content猠igᬠc鴛‛GcTc
KcጋTh VeE጑secDgv i VcCoDThN
(hLЛ,₁hDv‛th₌ጛsDLhTT᠐
icLᔑဠge鴛gDiecఠEhacᬠഛgv
DR–cD. oGc‐ថc hsጜTTRᴑ
Current Contents iLvK aR VhwTvD,
ᴘse4‗hጋ―选Loa”hЁ஀DcL‚
ctᰠ(Current Contents⤠gᰎKoTRᄬ
Vᰎihavဠhge鴛gDiavDଠcGcTc
ഛabTzȠizVeᔝ, \tഛ“KThiLc
wcTTᰠᖆTokioTRvwᄠgDoDcȠDos
Gc LᄚhKRagv‖ᴘkoDcጋ―ahi
ᆆesokoDcaଠoKLcghᨠoiDhLhi.
ᦆDᬠKTᄠhEzCTzᬠesokoDcaᄠVh
viavaRᔋ cLcภIcgDଠwcgv贛ᨬ
ᠠRThtKᠠKoGᬠᆆCcLcภDLᄠthKo
Vhgac“VeEaRshioTRv \boeCࠜN
aRDcLoDeLz. P造Gᬠᨠ/DᰠiLcwv
VhaeCoaᄠcGcthKTᰠEhacᬠഛgvDR
wRaaᄜࠜi‎oVLhghi \bo‗cVᜑT
D造RภLokTz脠gDLoࠠwRLᠠVhgac
VLhCDcTRv Current Contents.
ТcРTᬠwcTcᬠeᔁc脠SC䤠ᔚvko\b
TᬠᔠctᰠVcLihToCoabThȠ(eTs
mᄛN)—‑ࠕDLeЛTDo‑T(hLwomR
hTThtᰠVhRᔝoⰠᠠᔠctᰠVhgacKe4
URРRᔁhabkhioTRcРᨠsoCcgDiᬠ
RࠕDLeЛTDo \rav‑kЛLᬈRv \bo
eCThN Lᰍes఑iThg఑, aotᰍoLv
VhEhCThwᘠVLhKesDᚆ騠EokᬠKoT
Tz脠Journal Citation Reports (JCR)
R)LoTGᄗhioࠑ4 \boeC࢐S₏eLTo
ahᨠVᰠRwVosD-(osDhLᘠIF.
PcGKRgmᄁ጑ToLTav oko \roT-
Tz脠SC䤠Rwcc\f \riᬠ贛aR㨠VcL
ioႆ騠hVLcഛaRDbⰠCDᰠsoGKzN
eCcTzȠhVeEaRshioaⰠᄠiDhLoႆ—
VLcഛaRDb, tഛ ᄠsoᴠCogDᰠgDoDbR
谌hज
eCcࠜth zaR LhmRDRLhioTz.₄acKhio
DcabTh, SC䤠igctKᠠഛaRDgဠTᠠKiᬠCogDR
Vh₭oБ጑vw‘iDhLhi―DoDcN: \nᴘkoDcጋ
oiDhLhᨠgDoDcN-RgDhCTRshᨠ騠Source
Author Index‑ \nᴘkoDcጋ₍RDᄗecҐS
oiDhLhᨠ騠Citation Index⸠9e鴛gDiecఠജ
VhገRDcጋTov‚hkwhGThgDb“VLcKc጑Db,
᪆soshȠhLtoTRkomRᄠᄠgDLoTᬠEzaᄠVe
E጑shio࢐ gDoD଑‘iDhLo R ᴘs ogDh hࠑ
Ez጑ LhmRDᄗhio࢐.ₗDh“ghEcࠈh‚oG
ThⰠVhDhwᘠCDᰠDLeKTᰠToNDᄠVhaTzȠᔁR
ghs eE጑ᴘmᄂ”hࠝLcDThth‘iDhLo.
The Web of Science (WoS)Ⱐviavvᔋ₌acs
DLhTThȠicLᔑcȠSCIⰠᔚvkziocఠ/DᄠKiᬠ
(eࠝmᄑ: eE጑ᴘmᄑ‘iDhLhi hteD zDb
LogVhጜGcTz‚₁LhࠜጜtRCcgshw hLvKsc,
VᰠTokioTR耠GeLToaᠠRaᄠVᰠCogDhDᬠmRDR
LhioTRv⸠ТosGᬠwhGTᰠVLhihKRDଠVhRᔝ ᰠ
(oБ጑vw‖Cc࢐S,“VeE጑shioi缑S―DoD଑
i \fᬃᬈᄛ“VLcKcጛTThth ᬗRhKo.’ \f᠆aR
贛‱ LRicഛࠠᔁRghsⰠVhaeCcTTzȠᨠLckeab
DoDc hᄕso‖иT邁, eEaRshioiIᆁ‗᠆hDz
i \fᬃᬈᄛ 7ゖ85–cD.₉oVLRЛL,‎o―DLhshN
Izaak M. Kolthof映gacKecఠwhacseavLTzȠERh
aht Michael Heidelberger, bv hgacഈvv Lo
EhDᠠVhviRaoᔋ‚′004 \t., \bckoജatᰠജ‛tᰠ
ᔄcᜌᄠᨠiᰎLogDᬠ10㐠acD.
2htKᠠSC䤠EzጠhVeEaRshio\b  1964 \t.ⰠML
iRTठШcᜠ(Irving Sher⤠ᄠဠeGᬠToCoaᄠRg-
VhabkhioDଠEREaRhtLo(RCcᔝRᬠgᖐasᄠKaဠ
gᰎKoTRဠDhVhahtRCcᔝR脠soᜌ, \bokziocwz脠
RgDhLRhtLowwowᄬ DhE造RggacജioDଠiᰎ
whGThgDଠRᔁhabkhioDଠRTഛsᖐ mRDRLh
ioࠑv‚―hkKoࠑR ᄈR-RgDhLᄂ \boeC࢐S
ToV᜘iጛTRN.₄higᬄ cKoiTh aothKoLv
ngᬠGeLToazⰠRTKcsgRLecwzᬠKaဠVhKthDhisR, \bo
k通o4Dgv₏eLToaoБ-RgDḧᄝoБ,‘―hKcLGoURcgv
i)ࠑS―DoDbR \bok通o4Dgv―DoDbငR-RgDḧᄝoБ.
Citing autho爠騠mRDRLe4URȠoiDhL, \f⸠c⸠oiDhᜠgDo
DbR-RgDḧᄝo.
Cited autho爠騠mRDRLecwzȠoiDhL, \f⸠c⸠oiDhLⰠLoEhDᠠ
shDhLhth zao LhmRDᄗhioTo‚―DoDbc-RgDḧᄝc.
whU࢐w ghiLcwcࠈ逄 shЁ஀DcLow g tR
toEoNDowᄠVowvDᄠEzaᠠgᰎKoTᠠVLhtLowwᠠ
Vh\r \bokioTRc HistCite⸠ЭDᠠkoVoDcTDhioT
ToဠVLhtLowwᠠToShKRaoᔋ‚‗okLoEhDsᬠ
hshaᰠVvDᄠacఠᄠEeഛఠജgDeVTᠠKaဠVLh
KoGᄠToCRToဠᔠ(ciLoaဠ2009 \t⸠.aothKo
Lဠ/DhȠVLhtLowwcⰠizVhaTRᨠVhRᔝ‚⁗oS
ᄠkotLekRᨠᨠTcᬠVhaeCcTTzȠ(oNጬ whGTᰠ
oiDhwoDRCcgᴑ hgDLhRDb‑gDhᜑhtLowwe.
9hER᜘v‚gc―hhDicDgDie4Uᄛ‗cጛioTD
TzᬠmRDRLecwzᬠജsewcTD造VᰠVLcKwcDᘠ
VhRᔝᠠᨠWoS, HistCite VLcകDoiavc\f ghEhȠ
shaacsDRiTe耠VowvDଠmRDRLe4UR脠oiDhLhᨠ
R LhRบhKRD‚Rkeoabࠜc“VRᔘTRc‑gDh
ᜑR h \roTࠜN \fcwoDRsc.₂a考cihN‚hVLhg,
shDhLzȠCogDᰠiᰎTRsocD, ᔚvko\b gᰠᔁhghE
Thgఋ4 cDᰍo₍R఑LhioTRv“DhGKcgచaဌb
(RkiacᴘDb) igc‗cacioTD࢐c eE጑ᴘmᄑ Vh
KoTThȠDcwc.
ᤠVLcKihcTTzᬠiLcwcTᠠᄠkoജatᰠജ h
viacTRv hacseavᜈhN ᄜጜtRR LosDRso
mRDRLhioTRဠEzaᠠTᬠDoᴠgDoTKoᜌRkRLhio
ToⰠsoᴠgcthKTv,  \bcviThᬠRᔁhabkhioTRᬠ
gᖐahᴠEzaᰠജihabTᰠLoᔁLhgDLoTcTTzР
viጛTᄛw.’‗ckeabDoDc‐iThc₍RDRLhioTᄛ
᜘TࠛN‗cጛioTDThN‗᠆hDz c‚gᬉKo h
GcఠEzDଠToNഛTh.
%cNഛabEcL\t (Heidelberger⤠EzጠhKTRРRภ
ěLi邁 whጛseavLT邁 ERhahthi. rT ᮝc
ജ’DhLhȠwRLhihȠihNT逬‗oEhDoဠiwc
gDᬠᔠrᔚoabജРТ⸠uicLᄠ(Oswald T. Avery)
R)KLetᄄR‖Cc࢐Б‚‏TgDRDeDc₠hs(caac
Lᠠ(ᨠDhРCRgaᬠᔠColin M. Macleod   Maclyn
McCarthy)ⰠhVeEaRshioጠVRhTcLᔝe耠LoEhDᘠ
VᰠRgDhLRᄠBy2⸠ФosDRCcᔝᄠ/DᠠLoEhDᠠvi
aရDgv”a4иizw‎iᬈhw‚ \tᬈcoahtRиgshN
RgDhLRᄠgDoDbᄠOhDghTᠠ騠2LRsᠠ(J⺆Watson
⚆Crick⤠VᰠgDLesDeLᬠKihNThȠᔁRLoaᄠ
By2
⸠P造Rᔁhabkhioa HistCiteⰠCDhE造VLh
gacKRDଠTcviTe耠ᔚvkଠwcGKᘠ/DhȠgDoDbcȠ
ᤠ1955 \t. \nhDghࠠᄠ2LRᴠEzaᄠeKhgDhcT造yhEcaci
gshȠVLcwRᄠkᠠLogsLzDRᬠgDLesDeL造By2.
229
2ᬋጒI 1
u̅ࢠԬ‏GRU܄v༎਎褄Ԡఋ਋؄‎​ԃԈЅ‶㤠Р鴏܅Ԡ܅b
Scientist
Birth/Death
Pub YearsYears Pub
Izaak Maurits (Piet) Kolthoff (analytical chemist)
1894–1993
1917–2002
Michael Heidelberger
(organic chemist–immunologist)
1888–19911909–1993
Melvin Guy Mellon (chemist)
1893–1993
1920–2003
Ernst Mayr (geneticist)
1904防0051923防005
Michel Eugene Chevreul (chemist)
1786–1889
1808–1889
Carl S. Marvel (polymer chemist)
1894–1988
1917–1996
80
Joel H. Hildebrand (chemist)
1881–1983
1907–1983
Linus Pauling (chemist)
1901–19941923–1998
John Carew Eccles (neurophysiologist)
1903–1997
1929–1992
Donald Coxeter (mathematician)
190㞖2003
19㌰–2001
Charles Scott Sherrington (physiologist)
1857–19521882–1952
Hans Albrecht Bethe (physicist)
1906–2005
1934防004
Alexander Kossiakoff (engineer; guided missile expert)
1914–2005
193㖖2005
Norman Hackerman (chemist)
1912
1936防006
Michael DeBakey (cardiac surgeon)
1908
193㞖2006
Gerhard Herzberg (chemist)
1904–1999
1924–1992
Herman Mark (polymer chemist)
189㖖1992
1922–1990
OhDghTᠠ騠2LRsᠠᄠLoEhDhȠuicLᄠᄠKLetR脠
ghoiDhLhi h TcᨄhshᴝhihN y2,“VeEaR
shioTThȠᨠ1944 \t.
ТcⰠsDᰠkToshРᔠRgDhLRcȬ‎To4DⰠCDh
BGRРOhDgh\b \bcᔝhabsᰠac\f \boko\r \boshTcm
VLRkToጬ CDᰠgh輘accD, CDᰠhTᄠTᬠVLh
mRDRLhioaᄠLoEhDᘠuicLᄠ194㒆t⸠ᨠᔚh
cN‎TowcTRDᰂ―ఘDbc,“VeEaRshioTࠜN
ᨠ195㎆t⸠rࠠᄠ2LRᴠhCcTଠDhLhVRaRᔋ“D
VLoiRDଠgDoDb耠ᨠVcCoDଠᆆTᬠizVhaTRaR
hEzCࠜN Lhic᜝R―VRgso₍RDRLecМN–R
DcLoDeLz⸠BaဠDhtᰠCDhE造VLhഛwhTgDLR
LhioDଠkToCRwhgDଠLoEhD造uicLᄬ‚‍cN
gDiRDcጋThgDR‑kicgDTe4―hiLcwcࠈ逄
RggacജioDcavЬ 造gᰎKoaᄠTcᔝhabsh
(oNጜi g VhМUb4 HistCite, ᪐VhaTRi Vh
Rᔝ‚⁓CIⰠLokwc鴛TTzȠᨠWoS⸠BaဠDhth
CDhE造RggacജioDଠRgDhLRCcᔝe耠ᔚvkb
ЛGഖ‗᠆hDhN₅ᬂKcabEᬗto‑)ᬉh―hoi
DhLᠠr⺆uicLᄬ chEShKRwᰠEzaᰠhDLcKos
DRLhioDb \f逕vCR \fosᆁ cviT邁―gzahᴮ
yᠠLRg. 1 LcകDoiacTᠠRgDhLRhtLowwo,
gᰎKoTToဠTᠠhᔈhiᬠᔚvkcȠwcGKᘠLoEh
DhȠ%cNKcabEcLtoⰠuicLᄬ hDghTᠠᄠ2LRso.
dLhഛwhTgDLRLhioᨬ”oᴠVhRᔝhioဠᔑ
gDcwᠠWo匠whGcఠEzDଠRᔁhabkhioTᠠKaဠ
hDgጛ輑ioTRv‑gDhLRR‗okiRDRv \boeCThth
ToV᜘iጛTRv, z \fᬁᬗb hGᬄ“E᜘DRDb
gဠᴠihVLhgᘠᰠCogDᰠeVhwRTocwhРRwVosD-
(osDhLc GeLToao. lGcthK࢐N OᴘkoDcጋ
mRDRLecМgDR \boeCTzS₏eᜈoጜi (Journal
Citation Reports (JCR)⤠h(RmRoabTᰠEzጠ
ꀑᔮ‱⸠༕Dᰗᄜग᠄ИⰠgᰎഘࠈ᠐ ᠠᰕࠜᨛ―ᨐ-
ปȠЛ輍ᘠ᜘؜Dᰂ₅ᬂKcጋ؛ᜉ (Heidelberger),
Ḛᬗᄠ(Avery), \nhDgᰈᠠᄠ舗ᄝo
izVe鴛ࠠᨠᔚc\f  1975 \t.ⰠShDဠw造VLhRkihKR
aᄠ/DᄠKoTTzᬠeGᬠEhacᬠഛgvDᄠacD.
JC删iᰎTRᴠsoᴠgDoDRgDRCcᔝoဠshaacsmRဠ
KoTTz脠MTഛsgᠠmRDRLhioTRဠGeLToahᨠ
(Journal Citation Index)ⰠshDhLzN,  ᔚh耠hCc
LcKbⰠviRagဠLckeabDoDhРVcLcghᜌRLhi
sᄠMTഛsgᠠmRDRLhioTRဠoiDhLhᨠ(Author
Citation Index), \f⸠c⸠iwcgDᰠghᜌRLhisᄠᨠoa
(oiRDThРVhLvKsᬠ(owRaRȠoiDhLhᨬ₭oNጠ
EzጠhDghᜌRLhioࠠVᰠTokioTRvРGeLToahᨬ
ᨠshDhLz脠EzaᄠhVeEaRshioT造LoEhD造oi
DhLhi⸠2htKᠠᨠToCoaᬠ1960-脠tt⸠/Dh\f \fcg\f
Eza‚ěLi逛‚zVhaࠛT, z“EToLe輑aR,
CDᰠGeLToa逬‖GᬠRTഛsᔑLecwzᬠᨠCurrent
ContentsⰠisa4CoaᄠaREᰠDcⰠshDhLzᬠVe
EaRshioaᄠEhabIhᬠCRgaᰠgDoDcȬ–REᰠDc,
shDhLzc z጑ LhmRDᄗhio࢐ hጋIc‚gcS.
rKTosᰠTchEShKRРEzጠVLhgDhȠwcDhKⰠVh
kihavi缑N―LoiࠑioDb \fhagDzc (Ehጋ缑c)
GeLToaz, \fosRᬠsoᴠNature, Science  JAMA,
g)TcEhጋ缑Б₏eLToaoБ,”os, \boVLR
wcL, Annual Reviews⸠ᤠVcLizᬠKTᄠCurrent
Contents w造eഛavaᄠhghEhᬠiTRwoTRᬠwhac
seavᜈhN ᄜጜtRR‑ ᄜ脑wRR.‟z‎owcDR
aᄬ CDᰠ2㖆% igc脠gᖐahᴠᨠaRDcLoDeLc, hVe
EaRshioTThȠᨠDcse鴛РthKeⰠEzaᄠTᠠgDo
D଑,“VeE጑shioࠈzc \fhጋsh 2–3 \thKo \bokoK.
MЛTTh h/Dhwe zah LRTvDh‗᭿ᬈᄛ‑g
VhabkhioDଠmRDRLhioTRᬠkᠠKiᠠthKo, VLcK
IcgDie4UR脠Dcse鴛weⰠᨠsoCcgDiᬠhᔈhi造
KaဠLogCcDᠠRwVosD-(osDhLᠠkᠠDcseURȠ
thK⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ‑wVosD-(osDhឆ騠/Dᰠ
ᔗcKTcᬠCRgaᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠhVeEaRshioTTe耠
gDoDb4⸠ТcРTᬠwcTcᬠw造DosGᬠhgᰎToioaᄬ
CDh“DThgRDcጋTh \bcEhጋ缑c, \bh‚oG࢐c,
hEkhL࢐c R gVcmRo጑kᄗhioࠈzc GeLTo᎐
whte\f TᬠVhVogDଠᨠizEhLse, cgaᄠw造ghᔗc
ജDhCRwgဠRᔝa4CRDcabTᰠTᠠhE鴛РCRgaᬠ
VeE጑ᴘmᄂ‑጑ \bo“EUcw”h጑CcgDic₍RDR
LhioTRȠ[1]⸠«MwVosD-(osDhL묠GeLToaᠠEzጠ
gᰎKoࠠᨠsoCcgDiᬠwcDhKᠠᔗoiTcTRဠGeLTo
ahi ckoiᄕRwh“D‑S‗okЛ᜘‑aR ᠕DhDz
mRDRLecwhgDR⸠yᠠLRgeTsᬠ㈠ghVhgDoiacT造
DLᄠDoEaRm逬―hഛL輘URᬠᔚcഛTRဠVᰠDLcР
GeLToaoРᨠhEaogDᄠToeᴠᰠGRihȠVLRLhഛ,
hDghLDᄗhioࠈzS h:
阠(u) \boREhacᬠmRDRLecwzРGeLToaoР
᪆2008 \t.;
阠(B⤠shaRCcgDiᘠgDoDcȬ“VeEaRshioTTz脠
᪆2008 \t.;
阠(C⤠kToCcTRvРRwVosD-(osDhLhᨠkᠠ
200㢆t.
ТcLБT₫ᄄVosD-(osDhL» hgDcVcࠈh
谚ha肍ᄜTRLhioa,“ghEcTࠜ‚ ᨗhVc,”os
脘LosDcLRgDᄝo‚጑vࠑv”os₏eLToao, \fos
ᆆoiDhLo. ЭDᠠTchKTᰎToCThgDଠCogDᰠiz
kzioc\f VLhEacw逬 DoᴠsoᴠRᔁhabkhioDଠRw
VosD-(osDhL造KaဠᔗoiTcTRဠGeLToah᪆—
/DᰠhKTᰠഛahⰠᄠghigcРKLethᬠഛaᲆ騠Rg
231
ꀑᔮ′⸠Жᘗ࠘᎐‚“Eጘᔌᄠ࠘ᘝ“₏ᄚᰂ ᜑ᜜Kᬬ“Dgᰗ఑᜜ᨘࠈ逛―ጛഖ肝ᄄ“ؗ᠎ᰄ㨠
(A⤠阠࠘ᄆhጛᬠ贑఑᜖ᬄ逛‚′008 \t⸻
䈩ₖ ᰠ̑ᔓᘠᔌ᠌ᬂⰠᰁeE጑sᰚ᠈࢐脠ᨠ2008 \t.;
(C⤠阠Ĝ‚c጑̑ࠛ‑Ё᠝D-괘ᴌᰗᠠᨠ2008 \t.
VhabkhioDଠIF \raဠᔗoiTcTRဠoiDhLhi.  \fh
iLcwv”os‑TKᄚRKeoጋ࢐N‘iDhL“EzCTh
VeE጑secD‚)gLcKTcw \bcEhጋIhc sh጑CcgDih
gDoDᬂ (ShDv‛gDb ᬝhDhL逛₭ᬈhЛToabTh
VLhRkihKRDcጋ࢐c‘iDhLz),‑ЁosD-(osDh
ថ₏eᜈoጜi“EzCࠜ‚sa考o4D“DࠜgRDcab
TᰠEhabIRᬠVhVeavmRᄠgDoDcȠᄠgᖐahs⸠Mw
VosD-(osDhᜠGeLToaᠠhᔈhio\b \bᠠKie脠/ac
wcTDoS: CRgaRDcab, shDhLzȠVLcകDoiavcD
ghEhȠshaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahsⰠgഛaoTTz脠ᨠDcse
鴛РthKᘠTᠠa4EzᬠgDoDbᄠRภ/DhtᰠGeLToao,
hVeEaRshioTT逛‚ \fᬃᬈᄛ \rieS–cD, LcK
缛gDie4Uᆁ \thഖ“EgጛKhioTRv;‑‎ToЛTo
Dcaஆ騠/DᰠhE鴛ᬠCRgaᰠgDoDcȠ(gDoDbR-RgDhC
ࠑsR),“VeE጑shioࠈzS‎o \fc₏c \rio \thKo.
MwVosD-(osDhᜠwhGcఠEzDଠactsᰠLog
gCRDo\b \fhabsᰠTᠠhᔈhiᬠgDoDcȠVLcKzKe
鴛tᰠthKo, CDᰠKoioaᰠE造aeCIcᬠVLcകDoi
ጛTᄛ“)E逕DLh‑kЛTv4Uᆁgv“Ea᠕DvS
ggacജioTRv㬠RaᄠGᬠTᠠhᔈhiᬠEhacᬠKaR
Dcabࠜth cᜑhKo₍RDRLhioTRv―ఘDcN-Rg
DhCTRshᨬ ᰠDoshȠVhsokoDcaଠTᬠEzጠE造
KhgDoDhCTh“ě᜘DRiTzw.
noGTᰠhDwcDRDbⰠCDᰠshLLcᔁhTഛTmRv,
VRᔋwᠠᨠLcKosmR4, \bhihgDR, \bcsLhahtᄬ‗c
KosmRhࠈzc‑TDcLi஀ \bc‚sᎀCo而gv LR
VhകCcDᬠCRgaᠠgDoDcN-RgDhCTRshᨠ᪆JCR.
Тᬄ c ᬈcc, hgshabse ᄕaRDcab‚sa4Co
cఠgᖐasᄠTᠠVhജETzᬠ«Ehacᬠ/(cwcLTzc묠
iRK造VeEaRsomRȬ₌DᰠVLRihKRఠᶆTcshDh
L逄‑gᴘGcࠑvw.—EzCTh \fhጋsh \bcEhጋIhc
shaRCcgDih Geᜈoጜi VhKicLGcࠜ ఘᴑw
RᔝoGcTRvЬ‑“TᰠshacEacDgဠ᪆VLcഛao脠
5–10 % [2]. 2LhwᬠDhth, ᨠTogDhv鴛ᬠiLcwဠ
JCR ghKcLGR\f gᖐasᄠRภEhacᬠCcР5000
GeLToahi㬠Vh/DhwᘠhEgeGഛTRᬠTogDhabsᰠ
TckToCRDcጋ࢐S“DsahTcࠑN‚)JCR \bc LcK
gDoiavcDgဠ贛acghhELokTzw.
eORv༁Bbtѿ ₅RtTO܏܏Nѿ
(Journalology)
uToaRภmRDRLhioTRဠLoᖍicጠkᠠVhgacK
TRᬠDLᄠഛgvDRacDRဠᄠVLciLoDRagဠᨠTo
eCTe耠hEaogDଠ騠ToeshwcDLR4ⰠshDhLoဠ
DcVcLଠRwccఠᔚhᬠghEgDicTThᬠhE鴛gDiᲆ騠
International Society for Scientometrics and
Informetrics (ISSI, http://www.issi-society.info)
R ࠘eCTzN₏eL࠘a Scientometrics, VeEaRse
4URNgဠᔠ1978 \t⸠.hacᬠ1㔠ac\f \bokoഠ9DRᨠ
Лhsᴠ(Steve Lock) \bokioጠVLRwcTcTRᬠToesh
wcDᜑR”“mcTsc₏eᜈoጜi₏eᜈoጜጜtRcN
(«Journalolog») [3].
ngᬠRggacജioTRဠmRDRLhioTRဠജaGTz
EzDଠThLwoaRkhioT逬 CDhE造VLRTvDଠiᰠiTR-
woTᄛ \fosᄛ ᬗᬄᬈT逛,”os LcKЛDT᠐
hEaogDb‎ToTRv, cᜑhK haeGRจR \boeCࠜN
aRDcLoDeL造ᨠ/DhȠhEaogDᄠᄠVahDThgDଠmR
DRLhioTRv [4].‒cᜑhK haeGRจR (shaRCc
gDiᰠLcDLhᔁcsDRiTz脠acDⰠkᠠshDhLzᬠEzah
VLhmRDRLhioࠜ 50 % \boeCࠜN–RDcLoDeថ)
จoCRDcabࠜ habIc \rav₏eᜈoao h₭Rฑh
ahtRᄬ cРKaဠ(RkRCcᔝhtᰠGeLToao⸠Bav
ࠛshDhL邁“Ea᠕Dᬂ‎ToTRv‑wVosD-(osDhLz
JC删kᠠKieSacDTRȠVcLRhഠwhte\f \roDଠ⼠RaR
TᬠKoDଠDhȠVhaThȠsoᜌRTzⰠshDhLe耠Ko4D
VဌRacఈRc‑aR \rcgဌRacఈRc‑wVosD-괘s
DhLz⸠ТcРTᬠwcTccⰠshtKᠠGeLToa造RkeCo
而gv‚‗oНoS \rRgmᄁ጑ToL࢐S”oDcthLᄂ,
LoTGᄗhioࠑc \bo“gThic‎ToCcࠑN‑ЁosD-
(osDhLhᨠkᠠhKR\b, 7 aᄠ1㔠acఠge鴛gDicTTh
TᬠhDaRCocDgဠ[5]⸠BLetRwᄠgahiowᄬ”htKo
GeLTo᎐ z጑‑keCc࢐ h LcKwcD࢐w”oDc
thLRvЬ‌ᰠhEToLeGRahᔋⰠCDᰠLoTtᄠGeLTo
ጜi h₭RฑhጜtRR‎ToCRDcabࠜ‖aeCIRaRgb
ᔠDcCcTRcРacD, \bᰠLcNDRTtᄠᨠVLcഛao脠soDc
thᜑR₭RฑhጜtRR―eUcgDicTࠜ \bc‑คcTR
aRᔋ⸠dahDThgDଠmRDRLhioTRႆ騠/DᰠᔗcKTcc
shaRCcgDiᰠgᖐahs, VLhmRDRLhioTTz脠ᨠgDo
Dbc-RgDhCࠑsc.‒ahDThgDb₍RDᄗhioࠑv (R/S)
kToCRDcabTᰠTRGᬠKaဠwoDcwoDRCcᔝR脠GeL
Toጜi, cw \rav₏eᜈoጜi h hacseavᜈhN
ERhahtRR⸠9e鴛gDiecఠIRLhsᰠLoᔁLhgDLo
ࠛTThc, \bh“IREhCThc ࠛTᄛ, Dh‗okЛL
ToeCThtᰠghhE鴛gDioⰠkToCRDcabTᰠiaRvc\f \bo
RwVosD-(osDhL₏eL࠘ጘ.ₗDh LcKVhahGc
TRᬠRtThLRLec\f \fhఠ(osDⰠCDᰠEhabIhᬠToeC
ThᬠghhE鴛gDiᰠ(D⸠c⸠EhabIhᬠCRgaᰠoiDhLhi)
VLhRบhKRD hab缜c”haRCcgDih―gzጜs,
o)/DR―gzጝR‑gVhጋke而gv hጋ缑w Rg
ahw₍RDᄗecҐS―DoDcN.₃hጋ缑TgDih―DoDcN
i)EhabIRࠕDic“Ea᠕Dᬂ c“иTb₁hLhIh
mRDRLe4Dgv,  \fᰠiLcwဠsoᴠTcshDhLzᬠgDoDbR
i \bcEhጋ缑S \boeC࢐S“EaogDvS hteD‑wcDb
kToCRDcጋThc‚጑vࠑc,“ghEcࠈh”htKo“ࠑ
RЛ4D cGKᄕmRVaRToLThc‎ToиTᄛ.
ХhLhIᰠRkicgDThⰠCDᰠge鴛gDiec\f \bcLoi
ThwcLThᬠLoᔁLcഛacTRᬠgᖐahᴠ᪆Ehab
IRࠕDic“Ea᠕Dᬂ‚―hhDicDgDiRR―)V᜘iR
ahР80/20, \f⸠c. 2ゆ┠gDoDcȠKo4ఠhshaᰠ8ゆ%
gᖐahs. 9acKec\f VhiDhLRDb, CDᰠᔗcKTcᬠ
CRgaᰠgᖐahᴠTᠠgDoDb耠ᄠVhsokoDcaଠhVc
LoDRiThgDᄠ(immediacy⤠mRDRLhioTRv,  \bᬠ
shaRCcgDiᰠoiDhLhᨠRaᄠgDoDcȠᨠhEaogDᄠ
2ᬋጒI 2
ᴉ਋င괠ಏЌ༐‎ꀌ༐ཱྀЋЉRԁꂃ‌b਋֭‎‏U܊ఋРࠊᄐ‏₅Ҁࠄ
Authors
Title
Source
Year
Volume
Page
Hits
Lowry O. N.,
Rosebroug梆N⺆J.,
Farr A. L.,
Randall R. J.
Protein Measurement with
the Folin Phenol Reagent
Journal of
Biological
Chemistry
1951
193
265
293,328
Laemmli U. K.
Cleavage of Structural
Proteins During Assembly of
Head of Bacteriophage T4
Nature
1970
227
680
192,022
Bradford M. M.
Rapid and Sensitive
Method for Quantitation of
Microgram Quantities of
Protein Utilizing Principle
of Protein-Dye Binding
Analytical
Biochemistry
1976
72
248
120,179
Sanger F., Nicklen
S., Coulson A. R.
DNA Sequencing with
ChainTerminating Inhibitors
Proceedings
of the Na-
tional Acad-
emy of Sci-
ence USA
1977
74
5463
63,909
Chomczynsk榆O.,
Sacchi N.
Single-Step Method of
RNA Isolation by Acid
Guanidinium Thiocyanate
Phenol Chloroform Extraction
Analytical
Biochemistry
1987
162
156
55,987
Towbin H.,
Staehelin T.,
Gordon J.
Electrophoretic Transfer of
Proteins from Polyacramide
Gels to Nitrocellulose
Sheets – Procedure and
Some Applications
Proceedings
of the Na-
tional Acad-
emy of Sci-
ence USA
1979
76
4350
48,671
Folch J., Lees M.,
Stanley G. H. S.
A Simple Method for the
Isolation and Puri8cation
of Total Lipides from
Animal Tissues
Journal of
Biological
Chemistry
1957
226
497
35,646
Southern E. M.
Detection of Speci8c
Sequences among DNA
Fragments Separated by
Gel Electrophoresis
Journal of
Molecular
Biology
1975
98
503
31,273
viav而gv‚oG࢐Б [6].₠okwcL hEaogDR‎To
ࠑာ”os LoiRah, eic጑CᄚocD”h጑CcgDih
«i逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁» («super-cited») gDoDᬂ.
྆᪆DᰠiLcwဠsoᴠTcᔝhabsᰠsaogᔑCcᔝR脠
ЛDhKhahtRиgsᆁ―DoDᬂ LᬚzIo4D‚z
ghᴑN hLht₍RDRLhioTRv,₌Dhth \bc Lh
RgShKRఠᔠDzgvCowᄠKLetR脠wcDhKRCcᔝR脠
ᆆh؎hLTz脠gDoDcN⸠r؎hLTzᬠgDoDbRⰠsoᴠ
234
VLoiRahⰠmRDRLe4DgဠVLRwcLTᰠᨠKiᠠLokᠠ
Co鴛ⰠCcРKLetRᬠgDoDbᄬ ᰠhVeEaRshioTRᬠ
h؎hLTz脠gDoDcȠTᬠhEvkoDcabTᰠVhizᔑ\f
i጑vࠑc‑ЁosDo‚oIcth₏eLToao. g጑
VhᔄhDLcDଠTᠠDoEaRmᘠ㈬‚”hDhLhȠVLcK
gDoiጛT”᜘DsRN―Vᄕhs‚逕hshmRDRLeᬄ邁
gDoDcȠᨠhEaogDᄠToeᴠᰠGRkTᄬ‌ᰠwhGTᰠ
eiRഛDbⰠCDᰠaRKRLecఠgDoDbဠЛheLR⸠9DoDbဠ
r⺆ЛheLᄠ(O⺆N⺆Lowry)
 cKoiTh“EgeGKo
aoᔋ‚)GeLToaᬠBiological Chemistry [7], \bᰠ
oiDhថ \bc‖VhwvTeaR”hwwcTఘᜑNₜheᜑ
VᰠVhihKᘠDhthⰠCDᰠctᰠgowoဠmRDRLecwoဠ
gDoDbဠ᪆RgDhLRᄠToesᄬ ᰠctᰠwTcTR4, \bᬠ
viaရDgv \boREhጛc‚o輈hN‗᠆hDhN [8].
yᬗoiThЛLThgDb‗᠕VLcKcጛTRv―gzahs
VhiDhLvcDgv”os‎os጑Toࠑc”LRDᄝoБ‑w-
VosD-(osజLo.₉csᰌhLzc‗cKosజLz₁ᰌcaR
Ez‚RKcDb‑ЁosD,‗oggCRDoࠈ适‑gsᎀCR
DcabTᰠTᠠhᔈhiᬠgowz脠mRDRLecwz脠LoEhD,
ఘᴑw“ELokhw, oጜmRDRLecwzc‗oEhDz
gacKhioጜ z LhRtࠜᜑLhioDb.—KTosh \bc
᜘iThЛLThgDb‗᠕VLcKcጛTRv―gzahs₁o
LosDcLTᠠKaဠEhabIRTgDiᠠGeLToahᨬ‘)Vh
/Dhwᘠ/DᰠTᬠജaGTᰠge鴛gDicTTᰠVhiaRvDb
TᠠLcNDRTtᄠGeLToahi⸠2Dh-DᰠShDcጠE造iR
ഛDଠLoTGRLhioTRᬠVᰠtchtLo(RCcᔝRРhE
aogDvЬ hᔝhabsᘠSC䤠hEiRTv4ఠ᪆ജwRTR
LhioTRR‘TtጜvຐCTzS₏eᜈoጜi. ᨗh(R
a造ShDcaᄠE造RwcDଠiᰎwhGThgDଠᔗoiTRDb
ᔚhᄠGeLToa造VᰠvkzsoРRaᄠVᰠtchtLo(R
CcᔝRРtLeVVoЬ“ghEcTTᰠᨠhE鴛gDicTTzS
R)tewoࠑDoL࢐S \boeᴘS.’Lcwာ \bchEShKᄄhc
KaဠLc贛TkRLhioTRဠLeshVRgcȬ hGc\f \fos
GᬠhsokzioDଠiaRvTRᬺ‛gaᄠVLh贛gᔠLoEhDz
ToഠLeshVRᔋ耠koഛLGRiocDgv, \fᰠgᖐasR
i)gDoDbvS c hvivDgv‚)Dᬃᬈᄛ \rieSጛDࠛth
hᴈo₍RDRLhioTRv, \bchEShKRМth \rav JCR
[9, 10]. „ \rLethȠgDhLhTzⰠVhviacTRᬠgDoDcN
PcDhKRCcgsoဠgDoDbဠЛheLᄠ(O. N. Lowry) Protein
measurement with the Folin Phenol reagent // J. Biol.
Chem. 1951. 193–265 EzaᠠVLRkToTᠠgowhȠmRDRLecwhȠ
LoEhDhȠ(300 \fzg⸠ggzahs).
TᠠDᘠGᬠDcwᘠᨠDhРGᬠThwcLᬠGeLToaᠠwh
GcD“ᴘkoDb hahGRDcጋThc‚጑vࠑc.
BaဠEhabIcȠDhCThgDᄠEzaᰠE造GcaoDcab
TᰠVLhicgDᄠoToaRภsoGജȠgDoDbᄠ᪆GeL
ToacⰠCDhE造h贛TRDଠLokTRmᘠᨠicaRCRTᬠ
RwVosఘ‗oจzS \fRVhi‗cKoᶍᄜTTzS \rhse
wcTDhᨠᄠeCcgDଠ/Dᰠ[11].
BLetRᬠiᰎLoGcTRဠᨠhDThIcTRᄠRw
VosD-(osDhLhᨠᔚvkoT造ᄠᔠᔑgDcwhȠsaog
ᔑ(RsomRᄠGeLToahᨬ‑ᔁhabkecwhȠᨠJCR.
ᦆRഛoabThȠᔑgDcwᬠgacജioaᰠE造RwcDଠ
iᰎwhGThgDଠᔗoiTRioDଠGeLToa造ᔠRഛT
DRCTzwᄠVLh(RavwR⸠yᰠTᠠgowhРഛaᬠ
LcKsᰠwhGTᰠToNDᄠKiᠠGeLToaᠠᔠRKcT
DRC࢐Б―cwoTDRCcgsᄄR‑጑ RE጑htLo
(RCcᔝRwᄠVLh(RavwR⸠ЭiLRgDRCcᔝRc,
i)soshN-Dh―DᬁᬈR cgshabsh―eEъᬝDRiT逛
wcDhK造hDTcgcTRဠGeLToahᨠᴠVLcKwcDTzР
soDcthLRvЬ‑ᔁhabkecwzᬠᨠISIⰠhDT4KଠTᬠ
viav而gv ghicLIcࠈ逄R, i KcNgDiRDcጋTh
gDᄠKoGᬠᔁcmRoaRgD造Rᔁhabke4ఠoToaRภ
mRDRLecwhgDᄠKaဠhEhᔈhioTRဠᔚhctᰠLc
缛TRv.₉cKoiTh zaR‚zVhaࠛTz hVzDsR
ᔉLeVVRLhioDଠGeLToa造EhacᬠhEъcsDRiTh,
hVᄗovgb \bo \riegDhLhࠈᄂ‘To጑k“DThIc
TRȠmRDRLecwhgDᄠwcGKᘠGeLToaowᄬ DhE造
ewcࠋ缑Db‚጑vࠑc \bokioࠑN₏eLToahi \bo
R脠saogᔑ(RsomR耠[12]⸠yoVLRwcLⰠoToaRภ
mRDRLecwhgDᄠVhsokoaⰠCDᰠGeLToጠJournal
of Experimental Medicin攠EzጠicKeURРGeL
ToahРVᰠRwweThahtRᄠᄠKoGᬠᨠToIᄠKTᄠ
Vh-VLcGTcwᘠ᪁hKRఠᨠVvDcLsᘠaRKRLe4UR脠
Geᜈoጜi Vh RwweࠜጜtRR Vh VhsokoDca4
R脠RwVosD-(osDhLhi.  JCR \bcKoiTᰠജ
EoiRaᄠThie耠(eTsmR4ⰠshDhLoဠVᰎihav
cD habkhioDcavw hacc \fhCࠜ‖gఘࠜᨑDb
VLcKwcDTe耠soDcthLR耠GeLToaᠠTᠠhᔈh
iᬠikoRwhᔚvkcȠmRDRLecwhgDR⸠fRgeThᶆ3
VhsokziocఠhEUe耠(hLweaᘠKaဠLogCcDᠠ
ikoRwhᔚvkcȠmRDRLecwhgDᄠwcGKᘠKiewဠ
GeLToaowᄠᄠsh/((RmRcTDᠠikoRwhᔚvkᄬ
izLo輘4鴛tᰠctᰠᔗcKTRȠwosᔑweРᄠwR
ꀑᔮ″⸠rڝ᠐₭ᰗweጘ‍ጐ‗᠕иDᠠ
ᨎ᠑Мᔚဎᬂ₍ᄌᄗeᬄᰕ఑ c輍ᘠചᘄဠ
Gᘗ࠘ጘБ‑”᲌궭ᆍᄛࠌ‚ธᄄᰕᨐฑⰠ
hగᢏᢀ鴑Ƞᔗcഈᄂ ᠝ᔑwᘄ‑ ᄈᄄᘄ
TRwew⸠ЭDhఠsh/((RmRcTఠhDLo輘cDⰠsoᴠCo
gDᰠGeLToጠmRDRLec\f ᄠmRDRLecDgဠsoGKzР
RภGeLToahᨬ ᔠshDhLzРh\b ᔗoiTRiocDgv,
ᆆeCRDzioc\f LokwcL造GeLToahᨠ(shaRCcgDiᰠ
hVeE጑shioࠈzS―DoDcN),‘ \fosGc―shጋsh
LoภsoGKzȠGeLToጠmRDRLec\f \rLethN⸠ТcР
ࠛ ᬈcc―‑gVhabkhioTᄛw cDhKo―ivkoT
ThgDᄠJCR TcshDhLzᬠGeLToa造whte\f EzDଠ
hDTcgc࢐” \rLetᄄ LcKwcD࢐w”oDcthLRvw
JCR⸠fogᔄhDLRР/DᰠTᠠVLRwcLᬠGeLToaᠠ
Circulation⸠ЭDhఠGeLToጠRwccఠgowzȠizgh
sRȠRwVosD-(osDhᜠᔗcKᄠGeLToahᨠ᪆hE
aogDᄠsoLKRhahtRR. rKTosᰠw造izviRaᄬ
CDᰠGeLToጠNew England Journal of Medicine
(NEJM),‐iav肝Rнv₏eᜈoጜw h“EURw
VLhEacwow cKᆍᄈz,‎oࠑwocD―cK଄hN
LoTठᔗcKᄠToREhacᬠᔚvkoTTz脠ᖆsoLKR
hጜtRcN₏eᜈoጜi. h―RS hL hGࠜ z
aᰠDhabsᰠജtoKzioDbgဠᰠEaRkhgDᄠNEJM
ᶆ/DhȠRaᄠKLethȠDcwoDRsc.
䌠阠sh጑иᔌ᨜―ᖐጜᴻ
Ref
ₖ”h጑иᔌ᨜ eE጑sᢍᄂⰠė᲍ᄌᄗᰚ᠈࢐脠
᪆Gᘗ࠘ጛ‱;
Ref
ₖ”h጑иᔌ᨜ eE጑sᢍᄂⰠė᲍ᄌᄗᰚ᠈࢐脠
᪆Gᘗ࠘ጛ′;
Pap
ₖ”h጑иᔌ᨜ eE጑sᢍᄂⰠghKᬗGᢝᆁᔐ
᪆Gᘗ࠘ጛ‱;
Pap
ₖ”h጑иᔌ᨜ eE጑sᢍᄂⰠghKᬗGᢝᆁᔐ
᪆Gᘗ࠘ጛ′.
PࠜtRc \bcKhgఘDᴑ‑wVosD-(osDhLhi
GeLToahᨠEzaᄠegDLoTcT造ᨠKLethȠEokᬠ
KoTTz脠ISI, \bokziocwhȠJournal Performance
Indicators (JPI, http://scienti衣.thomson.com/
products/jpi)⸠ЭDᠠcGcthKToဠshwVRavmRဠhS
ioDziocఠVcLRh\r  1981-tᰠVᰠDcseURȠthK.
ᤠhDaRCRᬠh\f JCRⰠ/DᠠEokᠠKoTTz脠ᔚvkzio
cD”oGKe4―DoD஀-RgDhCࠑs―‖ࠑᴘጋ࢐Б
gᖐasowᄠTᠠTccⰠVᰎihavဠLoggCRDoDଠRw
VosఠEhacᬠDhCTh⸠ᦆkTowcToDcaଠisa4Co4D
gv \fhጋsh―gzጝR \bo“Lᄉᄈoጋ࢐c―DoD଑,
ᆆ/DᰠKocఠiᰎwhGThgDଠVhaeCRDଠseweav
Dᄚ࢐N ᄄVosD, hSioD通o4Uᄂ Ehacc K጑
Dcጋ࢐N cLRhK. av‘To጑kᄗecwhth c
LRhKᠠᔠ199㤠Vᰠ200㒆t.Ⱐ᪆DoEaR贛″)esokoTh,
CDᰠkToCcTRᬠseweavDRiThtᰠRwVosDᠠKaဠ
gDoDcNⰠhVeEaRshioTTz脠ᨠJAM䄠᪆199㦆t.,
Ezah‗oiTh 84,5. oTThc‎ToиTᄛ hae
CcTᰠVeDcРഛacTRဠ31
5㜠gᖐahᴠᨠVcLRh\r
ᖆ199㤠Vᰠ200㒆t. \bᠠ37〠gDoDcȬ“VeEaRsh
ioTTz脠᪆1999 \t⸠ᤠ/DhРthKᘠ᪆JAM䄠igctᰠ
izIaᰠ190㔠VeEaRsomRȬ‚‌hРCRgaᬠ630
VRgcРᆆ25㌠LcKosmRhTTz脠DcsgDoⰠmRDRLh
ioTRv”hDhL邁 c‚sa4иTz‚‗᠕иD‑w
VosDᠠVᰠJPI⸠ycge鴛gDicTThgDଠiᰎwhGTz脠
RgᴘGcࠑN‑Dhthihth‎ToCcࠑv‑ЁosDo,
iThᔑwz脠TceCcDhРgᖐahᴠTᠠigᬠLcKosmR
hTTzᬠwoDcLRoa造ᨠSCIⰠVhsokoTᠠ᪆ജsaoKᬠ
Gon竡lez  CampanarioⰠRggacജioDcacȠRภ
OࠑicLgRDcDo„ጝoao (Alcalб) [13].
2LhЛ REaRhDᬝoLᬂ,‑gVhabke4Uᆁ
RwVosD-(osDᰗ₏eLToao \rጐ VLRࠐDᄐ
LcIcTRဠᰠDhЬ”osRᬠToeCTzᬠGeLToaz
TchEShKRwᰠVLRhELcgDᄬ“\b \fosGᬠRᔁhab
kecDgဠoiDhLowᄠKaဠizEhLᠠGeLToaoⰠᨠsh
DhLzȠhTᄠVLcകDoiav4ఠᔚhᄠgDoDbᄠKav
hVeE጑shioࠑv.₂os LoiRah,₏eLTo᎐
g)izghsᄄ‑ЁosD-(osDhLhw‐iav而gv \fos
GᬠᄠgowzwᄠVLcgDRGTzwᄬ₁hDဠihᔁLRv
DRᬠVLcgDR輘‐iavcDgဠജihabTᰠDewoT
Tzw hTvDᄛw.₄ěmRoaᄕDz h REaRh
DcC࢐w \boeᴘw
DicLGKo而, Dh Rg጑Dcጋ
1�2
1�2
⃗ 10
Ref
⃗ Pap
12
12
⃗ 10
Ref
⃗ Pap
coeff
1�2
1�2
2ᬋጒI 3
ᨊࠈꀅ⁊偉₏༠Ё輊ဋᄠ脄଄एชࠄ缠%ᄉࠊ܊⁊AMA (\fԠఋ਋؄ⴄఋ༃ࠄင⤬
t਌載Bഅ܅ࠄԠ輏 M\r\n \f 1981  2004 .
⢇ ISI, Journal Performance Indicators, \n\fఄภ㈰〴 .)
31,257
Citacions received 1999–2004
= 84.5
370
Articles published in JAMA in 1999
Rank
Year
Impact
Citations
Papers
1981
29.57
16,291
551
1982
35.53
20,358
573
1983
40.11
22,219
554
1984
35.26
21,791
618
1985
35.05
18,436
526
1986
48.76
24,576
504
1987
44.70
26,688
597
1988
48.40
30,009
620
1989
55.79
34,979
1990
54.83
35,968
656
1991
47.19
30,389
644
1992
58.48
34,389
588
1993
65.55
38,349
585
1994
70.54
39,148
555
1995
81.99
45,094
550
1996
60.16
32,908
547
1997
58.19
32,821
564
1998
75.20
37,372
497
1999
84.48
31,257
370
2000
56.71
21,040
371
2001
49.98
18,842
377
22
2002
42.84
16,921
395
2003
19.09
7311
383
24
2004
3.34
1174
351
237
VLᄠLogCcDᬠRwVosD-(osDhLᠠgoРVᰠgcEc
viaရDgv hጛc LcጛioTDTzw. Bensman
eDicLGKoጬ DᰠgowᰠVᰠgcEᬠshaRCcgDih
gᖐahsⰠVhgCRDoTTz脠kᠠKieSacDTRȠVc
ᜑhK, — aeCIRN VhsokoDcab จoCRМgDR
R)谝hࠜwRCcgshN₌((csDRᨈhgDR₏eᜈoao,
Ccw‑wV᠝D-(᠝DhL)[14].‏wV᠝D-(᠝DhL
Geᜈoao‌osGc hGcD zDb hacจzw ᜑ
g᜘iࠛTRR h輑K᠛whN R)LcoabThN C᠕DhDz
mRDRLhioTRv⸠ТosRРhELokhЬ”htKᠠISI \th
DhiRD cLghToጋ࢐N \rhsaoK“)mRDᄗecwh
gDᄬ‌ᰠVLcKhgDoiav4DgဠKoTTzᬠhؠhGRKo
cwhw‑ЁosDc₍RDᄗecwhgDR \bc \fhጋsh \rav
shTᴗcDࠜth₏eᜈoao, h‑)Kav”hTᴗcDࠜ
ज hKo, ᰌhwe జ‑wVosD-(osజLz hteD
wcTဌbgv‑k \tᰍo‚ \tᰍ.
MgVhጋkhioࠑc‑ЁosD-(osDhLo₏eLToao
iwcgDh‘sDeoጋThth Rgao₍RDᄗhioࠑN―o-
whȠgDoDbᄠviavcDgဠജihabTᰠᔁhLTzРih
VLhghw.‒hgshጋse―DoD଑,“VeE጑shioࠈzc
TcKoiThⰠiᰎwhGTh, \bᬠRwcaᄠജgDoDhCTh
iLcwcࠑ, DhEz zDb LhmRDᄗhioࠈ逄R
ᨠLoEhDc, DᰠVhviavcDgဠghEaok\b Rᔁhab
khioDଠRwVosD-(osDhᜠGeLToaᠠᨠsoCcgDic
geLLᰉoDࠜth RTgDLewcTఘ hmcTᴑ. dLcKVh
ጜGRDcabࠜ―oМ ᜑTvDRc \rhsewcTఘ \rav
VeE጑ᴘmᄑ‚₏eLToa―‚zghsᄄ‑ЁosDhw
LoᖍcTRiocDgဠsoᴠVhsokoDcaଠVLcgDR輘.
舘ᴠVLoiRahⰠshtKᠠLogᔄoDLRiocDgဠTcKoi
TvဠEREaRhtLo(RဠLoEhఠoiDhLoⰠRwVosD-
(osDhL造GeLToahᨬ‚”hDhLz脠oiDhᜠVeEaR
shioagာ‑gVhጋke而gv‚wcgDh‗coጋThth
VhകCcDᠠmRDRLecwhgDR⸠ЭDᠠVLosDRsᠠTo
Coaoᔋ“shaᰠഛgvDᄠac\f \bokoKⰠshtKᠠoKwR
TRgDLoDhL造LcIRaᄬ DᰠhTᄠwhteఠh贛TRDb
EeKeUᄂ‑ЁosD \bcKoiTh“VeE጑shioࠈhN
gDoDbᄠVᰠRwVosDᘠGeLToaoⰠ᪆shDhLhРEzao
hVeEaRshioTᠠgDoDbv⸠ЭDᰠhghEcTTᰠosDe
oabTᰠKaဠwhahKz脠eCcTzS, \foᴠsoᴠwThtRc
Rk‑S‗᠆hD, ᬗᬃᄕጛTT邁‚)C.V.,“VeEaR
shioTz‚ \fᬃᬈᄛ ᬗRhKo‚LᬄᬈR,‑g
VhabkecwhtᰠKaဠLogCcDᠠRwVosDoⰠᄠEhab
IRTgDiᰠRภTR脠TᬠEeKe\f VLhmRDRLhioT造i
Dᬃᬈᄛ cgshabsᆁ aᆏoNIᆁ–cD‑aR
EhaccⰠᨠkoiRᔑwhgDᄠh\f \fcwVhᨠLokiRDRv
VLcKwcDThȠhEaogDᄬ‚”hDhLhȠhTᄠVLhih
KvఠRggacജioTRv.
ТosRРhELokhЬ‑wVosD-(osDhᜠRᔁhab
kecDgဠKaဠh贛TsᄠhGRKocwhtᰠiaRvTRဠhD-
Kcጋ࢐S―DoDcN,‑₌Dh \rhihጋTh―hЈRDcጋ
T᠐ ᜘sDRso―‖иDhw‚z缛eVhwvTeD邁“D
sahTcࠑN, \boEᎀKocҐS \rav hጋ缑TgDio
GeLToahi⸠9cthKTဠ«Webometrics묠igᬠCo鴛
RᔁhabkecDgvⰠShDဠge鴛gDiecఠwoaᰠᔚRഛ
DcabgDᨬ Dᰠ/DᰠaeCIcⰠCcРDLoKRmRhTTzȠ
oToaRภmRDRLecwhgDR⸠«ncE-citation묠whGc\f
VLhRkhNDᄠTcwThtᰠLoTbIc, \bᰠ/DᰠTᬠDᰠ
GᬠgowhcⰠCDᰠmRDRLecwhgDb⸠9acKecఠLok
aRCoDଠCDcTRᬠᄠiztLeksᘠgDoDcȬ‘‌osGᬠ
ᄠ(osDRCcᔝhᬠmRDRLhioTRᬠThiz脠ToeC
Th-ᄕgጛKhioDcabgsᆁ‗᠆hD.ₛᬄ c ᬈcc
TcshDhLzᬠRggacജioTRဠVhsokzio4DⰠCDᰠ
icE-ᕩtation‐iavcDgv LcKicgDTRshw eKe
Ucth₍RDᄗhioࠑv.
dLcKVhahGᬈᄛ, Dh‑wVosD cKoiTᆁ
gDoDcȠTᬠwhGcఠEzDଠh贛TcࠠVᰠSCI, \bᬠ
viavcDgv‘EghᎀDTh LoiRጋ࢐w.ₑhDv‎o
ഛLGsᠠᨠTcᔝhabsᰠacఠVᰠTcshDhLhȠDcwo
DRsᬠiᰎwhGToⰠgDoDbᄬ”hDhLzᬠജgDRto4\f
izghshth‑ЁosDo,”os LoiRah,₍RDᄗe而gv
i Dᬃᬈᄛ ࠛgshabsᆁ Лgvmᬚ g hЛTDo
VeEaRsomRᄠᄬ”hTcCTh,  \fcCcTRᬠthKᠠRaᄠ
hshah \fhth.ₗDhD“E᜘kᮍ₫hě᜘DRiThgDR»
Vᰎihavc\f IS䤠RഛTDR(RmRLhioDଠ«thLvCRᬠ
VeEaRsomRR묠(鍨ot papers”⤠LoภᨠKiᠠwc
gvmᠠKaဠVeEaRsomRᄠᨠScience Watch⸠ТcР
ࠛ Лࠛc haThc hKDiᬗGKᬈᄛ‚逕hshth
RwVosDoⰠsoᴠVLoiRahⰠgacKecఠCcLcภKiᠠth
Ko. The Scientis琠Gഛఠജ‍ie脠acDⰠCDhE造iz
E᜘Db₫thLvCᄛ―DoDbR» \rav”hwЛTDoLᄛi
oiDhLhᨬ ᰠEhabIRTgDiᰠRภ/DR脠LoEhఠ᪆sh
TcCThРgCcDᬠVLhജa輘4ఠmRDRLhioDbgv,
CDhE造gDoDଠsaogᔑshȠmRDRLhioTRဠ(http://
www.citationclassics.org).
fck4БLev ThGcgDih LhDᄚhLcCᄚzS
wTcTRȠᰠ(osDhLo脠iᰎഛNgDiRvⰠ2⺆Хh(
(cጠ(Hoeffe沆C.) \foᴠhVRgoጠᔑDeomR4:
«MЁosD-(osDhL \bc‐iavcDgv‑Kcoጋ࢐w
RࠕDLeЛTDhw \rav‑kЛLᬈRv”oиgDio
gDoDcȬ TᰠTc\f \bRCctᰠaeCIc⸠M餠Rwcc\f \fh
VLcRwe鴛gDihⰠCDᰠhࠠeGᬠge鴛gDiecఠᄬ
gacKhioDcጋTh,‐iavcDgv₁hLh缑w‑TgDLe
wcTDhРKaဠToeCThȠh贛TsR⸠rVzఠVhsokoa,
CDᰠᨠsoGജȠᔁcmRoabThgDᄠaeCIRᬠGeL
Toa造/DᰠDc, ᨠshDhLz脠DLeKTcᬠigctᰠhVe
E጑shioDbgာ‑₌DR₏eLTo᎐‑wc而 hacc
izghsᄂ‑ЁosD-(osDhL.₃hጋ缑TgDih‑k
/DR脠GeLToahᨠge鴛gDihioaᄠkoജatᰠജ
Dhth,”᠝‑wV᠝D-(᠝DhL za‗okLoEhD᠈.
MgVhጋkhioࠑc‑ЁosD-(osDhLo”os hᴘ
koDcav”oиgDioⁿRLhsh‗᠕VLhgD᜘ࠛTh,
VhDhwᘠCDᰠ/DᰠShLhIᰠghiVoKocఠᔠwTcTR
cЬ shDhLhᬠcgDଠᘠToᔠᰠaeCIR脠GeLToaoS
᪆ToIcȠᔁcmRoabThgDR묠[15].
rCciRKThⰠCDᰠEzaᰠE造aeCIcⰠcgaᄠE造
ᔑgDcwᠠh贛TsᄠsoCcgDiᠠhᔈhizioaoᔋ ᠠ
VLhCDcTRᄠsoGജȠgDoDbᄬ ᰠKoGᬠDhtKᠠ
ᚆ/sᔁcᜌhᨠiᰎTRsaᄠE造DLeKThgDᄠ掆VLR
TvDRcРhE鴛tᰠLcIcTRဠVᰠcᬠh贛Tsc. 2htKᠠ
LcCଠRഛఠᰠDoshȠg(cLᬠsoᴠh贛TRioTRc,
Ehጋ缑TgDih–4KcN \bc‑wccD \rhgDoDhC
TᰠiLcwcTᄠRaᄠTᬠShCcఠctᰠDLoDRDଠTᠠ
/Dh⸠BoGᬠcgaᄠhTᄠVLhicaᄠh贛Tse, \bᠠR脠
geGKᬈRv,”hࠛCTh, eഖD‚aRvDb”hwЛT
DoLRᄠDcSⰠsDᰠmRDRLhioጠLoEhDeⰠᠠ/DhⰠsoᴠ
RkicgDTh, \bok通ocDgv”hTDcsgD࢐N‘To጑k
mRDRLhioTRv⸠舠gCogDb4ⰠᨠEaR輘NIcРEeKe
鴛Ь‚ᰎwhGThgDᄠVhaThDcsgDhihtᰠജgDeVᠠ
᪆9cDᄠgഛao4ఠ/DᘠVLosDRCcᔝe耠koKoCᘠEh
acc‚送hገᄄhN.
1.
Bpmbm_l C,
Choosing physiology journals // Bull. Med.
Library Association. 1944. Vol. 32. P⺆479–483.
2.
E_p�cjb C,
Citation analysis as a tool in journal
evaluation // Science. 1972. Vol. 178. P⺆471–479. [Reprinted
in: Current Contents. 1973. ¤ 6⸠f. 5–6; Essays of an
Information Scientist. 1977. Vol⺆1. P⺆527–544.]
3.
Lmai S, P,
Journalology: Are quotes needed? // CBE
Views.
1989. Vol. 12. P. 57–59.
4.
Psbmtigl ?, I,* E_p�cjb C,
Rank-normalized Impact
Factor: A way to compare journal performance across
subject categories. Annual Meeting, Providence, RI.
November 17, 2004 // Proceedings of the 67
Annual
Meeting of the American Society for Information Science
& Technology. 2004. Vol. 41. P. 507–515.
5.
E_p�cjb C,
Long-term vs. short-term journal impact:
Does it matter? (part II) // The Scientist. 1998. Vol. 12.
P⺆12–13.
6.
E_p�cjb C,
Is the ration between number of†citations
and publications cited a true constant? // Current
Contents. 1976. ¤ 6⸠f. 5–7. [Reprinted in: Essays of†an
Information Scientist. 1977. Vol⺆2. P. 419–421.]
7.
Ipcsec L,* Sgmmlg P, B,* Fgjj P, L,
The most highly cited
paper in publishing history: Protein determination by
Oliver H. Lowry // J. Biol. Chem. 2005. Vol. 280. P⺆e25.
8.
Lmupw O, F,
Protein measurement with folin phenol re
agent // Current Contents / Life Sciences. 1977. Vol. 1. P⺆5–7.
9.
Ws E,* W_le X,+W,* Ws B,+P,
The inAuence of†publication
delays on impact factors // Scientometrics. 2005. Vol⺆64
P⺆235–246.
10.
E_p�cjb C,
Long-term vs. short-term journal impact:
Does it matter? // The Scientist. 1998. Vol. 12. P⺆10–12.
11.
E_p�cjb C,
Which medical journals have the greatest
impact? // Annals of Internal Medicine. 1986. Vol. 105.
ꒆ2. P. 313–320 [Available in: http://gar8eld.library.
upenn.edu/essasys/ v10p007y1987.pdf.]
12.
Psbmtigl ?, I,* E_p�cjb C,
Algorithmic procedure for
8nding semantically related journals // Journal of the
American Society for Information Science &†Technology
(JAS-IST). 2002. Vol. 53. P. 1113–1119.
13.
Emlzájcz L,* C_mn_l_pgm M,
Structure of the Impact
Factor of journals included in the Social Sciences Citation
Index: Citations from documents labele搠“Editorial
Material鐠// J. Am. Soc. Infor. Sci Technol. 2006. Vol⺆58.
P. 252–262.
14.
Bclsm_l S, J,* Wgjbcp S, J,
Scienti8c and technical
serials holdings optimization in an inef8cient market:
憆LSU serials redesign project exercise // Library
Resources & Technical Services. 1998. Vol. 42. P⺆147–242.
15.
Fmcddcj C,
Journal Impact Factors (letter) // Allergy.
Vol⺆53. P⺆1225.
DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0008
kKPknh
knhocХduP
nMyMТ༠阠ngcgh4kTzȠRTgDRDe\f \boeCThȠ
ᆆDcSTRCcᔝhȠRT(hLwomRᄠfuy.
%ꂉТMₖ₅hgeKoLgDicࠈ适‗eELᄝoDhL \bo
eCࠜ-Dc脈RCcgshN‑T(hᜄomRR.
MMl鬠u褠999ꀠ阠MTgDRDe\f RgDhLRᄠcgDc
gDiᰎToTRဠᄠDcSTRsᄠu褠999f.
Md2Mfₖ‏TgDRDeD hi避cࠑv”io጑(ᄝo
mᄑ‑T(hLwomRhࠈzS‗oEhDࠑshi₅hgshБ
DcDᠠ999ꀠVᰠToesᬠᄠDcSTRsc.
螉l92ᐠ阠PcGKeToLhKToဠhLtoTRkomRဠrL-
toࠑkomᄑ rEъcKᄈcࠈzS yomᄂ Vh‚hVLh
goРhELokhioTRv, \boesᄠᄠseabDeLz.
yMr2ꀠ阠
oeCTh-RggacജioDcabᔝRᬠᆆhVzD-
ࠜ-shTgDLesDhLgᴑc‗oทoEhDᴑ.
yТ༠阠ToeCTh-DcSTRCcᔝoဠRT(hLwomRv.
fЖₖ‗c(ᬗoDRiT逛₏eLToaz.
fMy訠阠fhgᔑNᔝRȠRTഛsᔠToeCThtᰠmRDR-
LhioTRီ
O1Лₖ‖ᴘkoDcጋ₍RDᄗhioࠈhN–RDcLoDeLz.
1lf褠阠liLhVcNᔝoဠhLtoTRkomRဠVᰠvഛL
TzРRggacKhioTRvР(Conseil Europйen pour
la Recherche NuclйaireⰠghsLo鴛TRᬠTokio
TRဠTᠠ(LoTmekᔝhРvkzsc).
A&HCI – Arts & Humanities Citation Index (eso
koDcጋ₍RDᄗecwhN–RDcLoDeLz h \tewoࠑ
DoLTzРToesoРᄠRᔝeggDie).
ASCA – Automatic Subject Citation Alert (oiDh
woDRฑLhioTTov―aeGEo―RtToabࠜth“Vhic
UᬈRv‘EhࠛTDhi h‑TDᬗcge4Uᬂ‑S \fᬄo
Dᄝc,₍RDᄗecҐw‑጑₍RDᄗe4Uᄄ‘iDhLow).
BKCI-S – Book Citation Index Science.
BKCI-SSH – Book Citation Index Social Sciences
& Humanities.
CA – Chemical Abstract猠⠗c(cLoDRiTzȠ
GeLToaⰠhSioDzio4URȠigᬠToVLoiacTRဠ
Sᄄᄑ, RhSᄄᄑ‑₁ᄄRCcgshN \fcSThahtᄑ).
CAS – Chemical Abstracts Service (SRwRCc
gs᠐‗c(ᬗoDRiT᠐―aeGEo, hK᜘kKcጛTᄛ
uwcLRsoTᔝhtᰠSRwRCcᔝhtᰠhE鴛gDio).
CC – Current Contents (cGcTcKcabTzᬠE4a
acDcTᄠᔑtToabThȠRT(hLwomRᄬ―hഛL輘
URᬠhtaoiacTRဠToeCTz脠GeLToahᨠVᰠLok
጑C࢐w \boVLoiacࠑvw \boesR).
CPCI-S – Conference Proceedings Citation
Index Science.
CPCI-SSH – Conference Proceedings Citation
Index Social Science & Humanities.
CWTS – Centre for Science and Technology
Studies (1cTDᜠRggacജioTRဠToesᄠᄠDcSTh
ahtRᄠЛcNഛTᔝhtᰠeTRicLᔑDcDoⰠghsLo鴛
TRᬠTokioTRဠTᠠthaaoTകshРvkzsc).
ESIₖ Essential Science Indicators.
FTE – Full-Time Equivalent (ᔗcKTcᔁRghCToဠ
CᄕጛTThgDb ᬗghToao).
GCI – Genetic Citation Index (esokoDcaଠmRDR
LeᬄhN–RDᬗoDeLz h \tᬈcDRsc).
IF – Impact Factor (RwVosD-(osDhᜠGeLToao).
ISI – Institute for Scienti8c Information (MTgDR
DeD \boeCࠜN‑T(hᜄomRR).
�EVIATIONS
ISSI – International Society for Scientometrics
and Informetrics (PcGKeToLhKThᬠhE鴛gDiᰠ
Vh \boeshwcDᜑR‑‑T(hᜄcDᜑR).
JCR – Journal Citation Reports.
JNCI – Journal Normalized Citation Impact.
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (yomRh࠘abThc‖VLoiacTRc
VᰠiᰎKeShVaoioTR耠ᄠRggacKhioTR耠shg
wRCcᔝhtᰠVLhgDLoTgDiᠠ9Шu).
NCI – Normalized Citation Impact.
NIH – National Institutes of Health (yomRh
Toጋ࢐N‑TgDRDeD‎KLoihhSLoTcࠑv₄Шu).
NSF – National Science Foundation (yomRh
Toጋ࢐N \boeC࢐N₭hTK₄Шu).
OECDₖ Organization for Economic
o-operation
and Development (rᜉoTRkomRv h₌shࠜwR
CcᔝhwᘠghDLeKTRCcgDiᘠᄠLokiRDR4).
PNAS 阠Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences.
PPP$ 阠Purchasing power parity US dollars
(VoᜑDcD hseVoDcabࠜN―VhghEࠜgDR‚ \rha
aoLoS₄Шu).
S&EI – Science & Engineering Indicators (rD
Cc\f NSF, VeEaRsecwzȠsoGKzᬠKiᠠthKo,
ghഛLGR\f EREaRhwcDLRCcᔝe耠gDoDRgDRsᘠ
Web of Science CC).
SCI – Science Citation Index (esokoDcaଠmRDR
LecМN–RDcLoDeថ).
SCIE – Science Citation Index Expanded (eso
koDcaଠmRDRLecwhȠaRDcLoDeL造VᰠcgDc
gDicࠈ逄 \boeᴘw‑ \fcSࠑsc).
SDI – Selective Dissemination of Information
(9ae輆ᠠRkERLoDcabThtᰠLoᔁLcഛacTRဠ
ᄈ(hLwomᄑ).
SJR – SCImago Journal Rank.
SNA – Social Network Analysis.
SNIP 阠Source Normalized Impact per Paper
(mRDRLecМgDb, hᜄoaRkhioTTov h‑gDhC
ࠑᴘw―gzahs).
SSCI – Social Sciences Citation Index (esoko
DcaଠmRDRLecwhȠaRDcLoDeL造VᰠhE鴛gDicT
࢐w \boeᴘw).
TRL 阠Technology readiness level (eLhiTᄠth
DhᨈhgDR \fc脈hጜtRR”‑gVhabkhioTR4 \bo
VLosDRsc).
Web of Science CC – Web of Science Core
Collection.
WoS – Web of Science (RT(hLwomRhTToဠ
VaoD(hLwᠠshwVoTRᄠThomson Reuters, \bᠠ
shDhLhȠLokwc鴛T造cᬠhᔈhiTzᬠRT(hLwo
mRhࠈzc LhKesDz).
UCSD – University of California, San Diego.
241
DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0009
-RTKcsg
128
-RTKcsg
104
λ-kToTRv
ΩⴎToTRv
otLctᄗhioࠈ适‑ЁosD-(osDhL)–
aggregate impact factor
uЛLRsoࠕs᠐‘gghmRomRv h‗okiRDR4
Toesᆆ阠American Association for the
Advancement of Science (AAAS)
204
uwcLRsoTgshᬠhEUcgDiᰠtcTcDRsh᪆阠
American Society on Human Genetics
(ASHG)
uwcLRsoTgshᬠSRwRCcgshᬠhEUcgDiᲆ阠
American Chemical Society (ACS)
16, 122, 175
oTThDo贑v―DoDbR (Lc(cLoD)
uDaoᔠToesᆆ阠Atlas of Science
᢭광aRomRv
18, 77, 117,
168
EREaRht᜘(Rиgsᄛ―icKᬈRv
nྉMТM
17, 27, 33,
174, 205
iLcwဠVhaeGRkTᄠVhaeCcTTz脠ggzahᶆ阠
cited half-life
107
iLcwဠVhaeGRkTᄠgKcaoTTz脠ggzahᶆ阠
citing half-life
107
छhᄈ(hLwomRhࠈzc―RgఛҐ (%M9)
169
छhshKᄗhioࠑc
168
tᄁhఛko‒eoࠝoLc
thLv̑c eE጑ᴘmᄑₖ hot papers
37, 237
thgeKoLgDicࠈ适‗eELᄝoDhL \boëh-
ఛSࠑCcgshN‑T(hLwomᄑ (%ꂉТM)
131
thDᰚࠜgDb \fc脈hጜtRR”‑gĜabkᰚoTR4
TᠠVLosDRsᮆ阠Technology readiness level
(TRL)
64
KLhETzȠgCcಆ阠fractional counting
liLhěNgs᠐‘gghmRomRv \boeshЛDLRи
gsR脠RTgDRDeDh᪆阠European Network of
Indicators Designers
lGcTcKcጋ࢐N LcKwcD࢐N‑TKcsg)–
Weekly Subject Index
201
GeᜈoጜጜtRv)– Journalology
232
koᴜT‒oLcDh
112, 125
kowcDsᠠLcKosDhLᠠ(DRĠKhsewcTDo⦆阠
Editorial
koDLoDz‚oጜiᰉh \bomᄜToabࠜth
VLhKesDᠠTᠠhKThtᰠCcahicsᢆ阠wealth
intensity
RkEᄗoఛጋThc‗ogėcKcacࠑc‑T
(hLwomRᆆ阠Selective Dissemination
of†Information (SDI)
RwVosD-(osDhᜠGeLToaᢆ阠journal impact
factor (saoggRCcgsᄂ, \rieSacDࠑN)
ᄄVosD-(osDhL₏eLToao, vDRacDࠑN
ᄈKcsgₑᄗIo
43, 50,
102, 127,
144, 151
MTKcsᔠmRDRLecwhgDᄠVᰠtcTcDRsᮆ阠
Genetic Citation Index (GCI)
MTgDRDeఠRgDhLRᄠcgDcgDihkToTRဠᆆDcS-
TRsᄠ(MMlТ⤠u褠999f
MTgDRDe\f \boeCThȠRT(hLwomRᄠ9ШẆ阠
Institute for Scienti8c Information (ISI)
15, 201,
205
Kods踒iuL

ahcecidvD
NDE
242
MTgDRDeD hi避cࠑv”io጑(ᄝomᄑ
ᄈ(hLwomRhࠈzS‗oEhDࠑshi (Md2Mf)
%hgshwRDcDᠠ999ꀠVᰠToesᬠᄠDcSTRsᬠ
MࠕDRDeD LhEጛw‗okiRDRv \boesR₠uy
2oko脕DoT
173
soRࠜiov”Rgጜఘ
soLDRLhioTRᮆ阠mapping
164
saoggR(RsomRဠUniversity of California,
San Diego (UCSD)
177
sa4иi逛―ahio
77, 172
sTᆏT᠐‗ᮍᬈkRv (DRV \rhseЛTDo))–
Book Review
shࢍcƍRv \toTKᄝoVo
119
2hLVeᔠ/sgVcLDhᨠVᰠcgDcgDicTTzР
T᠖sow
sh-mRDᄗhioࠑc
29, 37, 71,
108, 121,
171, 176,
205, 225
sh缛ጛs‟Raጛ᜘
165
sh/((RmᄛTD ᮍRDRLeᬄhgDR
2DᰠcgDଠsDᰠᨠLhggRNgshȠToesc
127
2DᰠVeEaRsecDgဠᨠToesᮆ阠Who is
Publishing in Science (WIPIS)
203
Poࢁ/DDᬈgsRN LhᬝD
PoD(cာ‑TKcsg
94, 120
PoD괛v,₌궭csD
73, 119
ЛGഖToLhKT᠐”a᠕gR(RsomRv hጛk
Tcʆ阠International Statistical Classi8cation
of Diseases and Related Health Problems
175
PcGKeToLhKThᬠhEUcgDiᰠVᰠToesh-
wcDLRᄠᄠRT(hLwcDLRᄠ阠International
Society on Scientometrics and Informetrics
(ISSI)
25, 38,
232
PcGKeToLhKTzȠwoDcwoDRCcgsRȠgh4ຆ阠
International Mathematical Union
wcDhഠEREaRhtLo(RCcgshtᰠghCcDoTRႆ阠
Bibliographic coupling
121, 176
PྙM
153
whKcaଠicsDhLThtᰠVLhgDLoTgDiᢆ阠
Vector space model (VSM)
173
ToeCToဠgDoDbဠ(DRĠKhsewcTDo⦆阠Article
79, 92, 98,
122, 156,
160
yoëov₌acsDLhࠈov RE጑hఛᴘ
eLIBRARY.RU
117
ToeCTzȠhEkhᜠ(DRĠKhsewcTDo⦆阠Review
79, 92, 98,
122, 160
yomRhToጋ࢐N‑TgDRDeD‎KLoihhSLoTc
TRႆ阠National Institutes of Health (NIH)
yomRhToabTzȠToeCTzȠ(hTഠ9ШẆ阠
National Science Foundation (NSF)
15, 19, 38,
165
ࠛtoDRiThc₍RDRLhioTᄛ
26, 120
ࠜwcTsaoDeLo’Ẃ
132
ThLwoDᄚTov‌chLRv₍RDᄗhioࠑv
118
hsTᰠmRDRLhioTRႆ阠citation window
rᜉoTRkomRv₌sᰈhwRCcgshth―hDLeK
TRCcgDiᠠᄠLokiRDRႆ阠Organization of
Economic, Cooperation and Development
(OECD)
41, 55, 62,
113
hDࠜgRDcabTov₍RDRLecМgDb‗oจhLhK
ThtᰠVhDhsᠠVeEaRsomRʆ阠normalized
citation impact, crown indicator
hDThgRఛጋ࢐N‑ЁosD-(osDhL
r(RᔠVᰠToesᬠᄠDcSTRsᮆ阠Of8ce Science
and Technology (OST)
VoᜑDcD hseVoDcabࠜN―ĜghEࠜgDR‚
KhaaoLo脠9ШẆ阠Purchasing power parity
US dollars (PPP$)
ĘDcTDTzN–oTK缘(D
71, 173
VRgbwᰠ(DRĠKhsewcTDo⦆阠letter
VጜDࠜgDb₍RDRLᰚoTRv
232
VhaTzȠgCcಆ阠total counting, whole
counting
VeEaRsomᄜTࠜc“ᴈh)– publication
window
Loࠉhizc‑TKᄝoDhLz
Lc(ᬗoDRiT逛₏eLToaz
16, 113, 116,
129, 175
243
Lc(acsgᄚTov‌chLRv₍RDᄗhioࠑv
119
LcIcTRဠVLᄠVhaThȠRT(hLwomRᆆ阠
informed decision
108
fhggᄂgsᄂ‑TKcsg \boëhth₍RDᄗhio
TRv (fM覊)
124, 146
ᔘМmRDRLᰚoTRc
26, 87, 101,
121, 157,
167
萛icLh-5oĘKTzN oeCTh-wcDhKᄃcgsRN
mcTDL (95褟1)
ghihseĈ适‑ЁosD-(osDhL
86
ghmRoabT᠐”hࠕDLesDRiᄕDgs᠐ \fchLRv
mRDᄗhioࠑv
119
gVRghᴠ.caao
115
gLcKTcikicIcࠈ适‑ЁosD-(osDhL
86
9LcKTcᬠ₍RDRLhioTRᬠgDoDcȠVᰠhEao-
gDvРkToTRʆ阠Average Citation Rates for
papers published b礠8eld
125
gLcKࠛgVᄕhCT᠐ ᄕጛTThgDb ᬗghTo
ጘ Full-Time Equivalent (FTE)
66, 115
gLcKTvဠCogDhDᠠmRDRLhioTRv, \fosGᬠ
gw⺆mRDRLecwhgDଠᨠLogCcDᬠTᠠhKTᘠ
gDoDb耠
125
9DoDᄕDRиgsRN‑ࠕDRDeD₇yl92r
ఛwoDᄝo (LeELᄝo)
77, 94, 129,
DcVahioဠsoLDᢆ阠heatmap
171
Dᄁ eE጑ᴘmᄑ
eᴘkoఛ጑₍RDᄗecwhN–RఛLoDeLz (O1Л)
OsokoDcaଠggzahᴠШcVoLKᢆ阠Shepard’s
Citations
16, 20, 116
eTRicLgoab࠘v \rcgvDᄃ࠘v”ጘggR(R
ᴘmRv
130
괘gcఈov”aoggᆭRsomRv
130
1cTDᜠVᰠRkeCcTR耠ToesᄠᄠDcSTR-
sᆆ阠Observatoire des Sciences et des
Techniques (餗oTmRv)
1ޠy
148, 153
mRDRLecwhgDଠᨠLogCcDᬠTᠠhKTᘠgDoDb肆阠
cites per document
27, 31, 85,
152, 154,
206, 216,
223, 230
mRDRLecwzᬠoiDhL邆阠cited authors21, 205
mRDRLecwzᬠgDoDbᆆ阠cited articles
21, 205
Academic Ranking of World Universities
(ARWU,₞oT脘Ngsᄂ‗cNDᄈt)
43, 156, 161
ACM Transactions on Database Systems
150, 168
AGRIS
142
Altmetrics (oabDwcDᜑᴑ)
149, 155
Altmetrics for Institutions
151
Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI)
28, 38, 80,
112
article inAuence score
(ᄈKcsg‚጑ဈRv―DoDbR)
44, 100
ar
115, 151
Automatic Subject Citation Alert (ASCA)
Baselines (expected citation rateⰠhGRKoc-
Мc Rgጜ―gzጜs)
81, 93, 126
biases
Book Citation Inde碆阠Science
Book Citation Inde碆阠Social Sciences &
Humanities
Centre for Science and Technology Studies
(CWTS)
39, 43
Chemical Abstracts
175
Chinese Science Citation Database
43, 117
Citation Classics
36, 215,
218, 225
CitNetExplorer
170
COLLNET
Conference proceedings (DRĠKhsewcTDo)
124
Conference Proceedings Citation Inde碆阠
Science
43, 81
Conference Proceedings Citation Inde碆阠
Social Science & Humanities
43, 81
Current Contents
17, 21, 27,
35, 37, 134,
202, 227
Cyberinfrastructure for Network Science
Center
165
244
Cybermetrics
Derwent Innovations Index
117, 134,
144
Derwent World Patents Index
173
DIALOG
DORA
Eigenfactor
44, 100
Essays of an Information Scientist
23, 30
Essential Science Indicators (ESI)
38, 42, 81,
85, 98,
134, 152
Eugene Gar8eld Associates, Information
Engineers
17
Frascati Fields of Science
132
Geocoding API Google
168
GIS-Lab
169
Google Scholar
141, 144,
155
g-RTKcsg
105, 129
HEEACT
161
Highly Cited Papers
98
HistCite
169, 229
HITS
immediacy index (RTKᬝg“ě᜘DRiThgDR,
RaR‑TKᬝg ᬄcKጛTThth₍RDRLhioTRv)
85, 232
Impact Factor Without Journal Self Cites
InCites
44, 81, 122,
152,
Index Medicus
Individual h-index (original)
129
Individual h-index (PoP variation)
129
I-RTKcsg
129
Journal Citation Reports (JCR)
28, 35, 43,
81, 90, 101,
135, 227
Journal Normalized Citation Impact (JNCI)
KeyWords Plus
173
Korean Citation Index (KCI)
43, 117
Leiden Ranking
43, 160
MERIL
Microsoft Academic Search
141, 144
NASA
ORCID
143
Organization Enhanced
PageRank
45, 100,123
Pajek
171
Percentiles for papers published b礠8eld
152
Permuterm Subject Index
17
PLoS ONE
135, 141,
150
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
114
PubMed
115
QS World University Ranking
157, 161
Quacquarelli Symonds (QS)
157
R&D 100 Awards
180
references
reprint author
154
Research Excellence Framework
Research Front
37, 71, 81,
122, 224
ResearcherID
18, 143
Royal Society Publishing
Russian Science Citation Index
117, 144
Sci
Tool
165, 170
SciELO Citation Index
43, 117
Science and Engineering Indicators
Science Citation Index (SCI)
15, 30, 38,
43, 80,
201, 227
Science Index
142
Science Indicators (ᨠTogDhvUcᬠiLcwဠ
Science & Engineering Indicators)
ScienceWatch
136
SCImago
44, 159
SCImago Institutional Ranking
159
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR)
44, 123,
155, 160
Scopus
44, 124,
157, 177
Snowball Metrics
154
Social Network Analysis (SNA)
170
Social Sciences Citation Inde碆騠SSCI28, 38, 43,
80, 100,
148
source article
21, 205
Source Normalized Impact per Paper
(SNIP)
123, 155
super-cited
233
Thomson Reuters
28, 35, 40,
45, 76, 80,
84, 117, 157,
173
Times Higher Education World University
Ranking (THE WUR)
43, 154,
156, 161
U.S. News
161
VOSviewer
175
Web of Science (WoS)
18, 26, 44,
76, 117, 120,
132, 152,
157, 228
Webometrics
44, 237
Welsh Machine Project
17, 29
Wordle
173
246
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DOI 10.15826/B978-5-7996-1352-5.0010
�RSONS
uELRshghiⰠu⸠u.
uKeNL, \n. (William Adair)
uKowgⰠ2.
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uaacT,₅hLKhT (Gordon Allen)
ua(RwhiⰠP⸠n.
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.oLoEoIRⰠuabEcLD-Лogaᰠ(A.-L. Barabasi)171, 190
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noaDwoTⰠЛ. (L. Waltman)
104
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nogRabciⰠf⸠Ф.
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15, 19, 23,
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170, 181
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247
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2haaRTkⰠf/TKoaጠ(Randall Collins)
58, 172
2hLcTThNⰠu⸠u.
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31
ЛoDeLⰠ.LeTᰠ(Bruno Latour)
ЛᬠdcRLⰠ2cNᔠ(C. Le Pair)
ЛcKcLEcLt, G. (Joshua Lederberg)
15, 20, 26,
ЛcNKcgKhL(,ₜ. (L. Leidesdorff)
ЛREsRTKⰠu⸠y.
36, 40
ЛhDsoⰠuab(LcഠBGcNwᔠ(Alfred James
Lotka)
170
ЛheLRⰠraRicᜠХ. (Oliver H. Lowry)
ЛzgcTshⰠТ⸠B.
PoLseghioⰠn⸠u.
40, 199
PoLDRTⰠ.. (B. Martin)
PoLIoshioⰠM⸠n.
38, 40
PcKicKci, БDLᄂ„ToDhጋciRC
PcLDhTⰠf⸠2. (Robert K. Merton)
25, 30, 118
PcSDᄛi,„.
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PRTKcaRⰠЛ⸠Э.
Pᄈᄈ,’.„.
PRSoNahiⰠu⸠M.
PhsRLⰠBGh/aଠ(Joel Mokyr)
PhgsoacioⰠr⸠n.
40, 96
PeKⰠХ/Tᴠ(Henk Moed)
149
PeabCcTshⰠ5⸠P.
33, 125
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yo጑whi,’ogR጑N’ogRጋciRC
31, 34, 125,
198
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dcLLR, G. (J. Perry)
dRgavshi,’.’.
40, 120
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Price)
22, 24, 29,
40, 55, 58,
111, 118,124
deKhisRTⰠu⸠M.
fooTⰠu⸠no\b (Antony (Ton) Van Raan)
39, 45
fosRDhiⰠu⸠M.
foTtoToDoT,₞.₠.
131
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fhKGcL, \nRabvР.oLDhT
182
fhegⰠd. (Peyton Rous)
fegghⰠf. (R. Rousseau)
9aoiRTgsRNⰠ.⸠n.
9whaaⰠ%. (Henry Small)
25, 29,
38, 41
9ᰝhጜi,‟.‟.
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170
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ХRLIⰠХhLSᬠ(J. Hirsch)
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127
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ЧcLihTⰠХ⸠3.
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ШeEcLDⰠu. (A. Schubert)
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ЭNsⰠy⸠no\b (N. J. Van Eck)
104, 170
ЯLh缛igsRN,‟ᆁoRa₅LRthLbᬚRC
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odऒoci
he Russian Scientometric Handbook
is designed to provide an overview of
the field of scientometrics. The Hand
book describes the history of creation of the
breakthrough concept of citation indexing
by Dr. Eugene Garfield, and development of
the first multidisciplinary scholarly citation
index, the Science Citation Index. Applica
tion of scientometric tools and methods in
research management and resource alloca
tion is discussed. Authors survey various sci
entometric indicators relevant to individual
researchers, journals, research institutions
and whole countries. Authors explore new
types of indicators, such as altmetrics, rela
tionship between scientometric indicators
and the nature of scientific communication,
and various methods of visualizing sciento
metric information. Possibilities and limita
tions of various scientometric techniques are
examined. Authors highlight the need for an
informed and reasonable approach to the
use of quantitative indicators for research
assessment. The Handbook includes the
first Russian translations of three articles by
Dr⺆Eugene Garfield.
The Handbook is intended for use by re
searchers, science analysts, universities and
research institutions administrators, libraries
and information centers staff, graduate stu
dents, and the general public interested in
scientometrics and research evaluation.
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dhKVRgoTᰠᨠVcCoD 26.01.2015.
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5osoภꐠ1756⸠ТRLo 260〠/sk.
MkKoDcጋgDih \nLoጋgshth‖ࠑicLgRDcDo
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620000, \t⸠lsoDcLRTEeLtⰠea⸠ТeLtcTcio, 4
Тca./(osg: +7 (343) 358-93-06, 358-93-22
e-mail: [email protected]
http://print.urfu.ru
Научное издание
Ἦ„⸠ḝᰛᨬ’⸠u⸠Ἐ᜝egᰚᠬ—⸠n⸠Ἔᔝ᠓ᬚᠬ’⸠n⸠ሑᔓဝᰚ
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id
nမ
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2hwVb4DcL࠘ဠicLgDsᠠn⸠n⸠Тogsoci

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